List of Bishops, Prince-Bishops and Administrators of Lübeck

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Coat-of-arms of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck as of 1605 in Siebmacher's Wappenbuch

The following persons were Bishops of the Diocese of Oldenburg or Lübeck (until 1180), Prince-Bishops of the diocese of Lübeck and the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck (1180–1535), Lutheran Administrators of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck without pastoral function, and pastoral chairmen of the Evangelical Lutheran State Church in the Region of Lübeck.

Titles of the incumbents of the Lübeck See[edit]

Not all incumbents of the Lübeck See were imperially invested princely power as Prince-Bishops and not all were papally confirmed as bishops. In 1180 part of the Lübeck diocesan territory were disentangled from the Duchy of Saxony and became an own territory of imperial immediacy called Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck, a vassal of the Holy Roman Empire. The prince-bishopric was an elective monarchy, with the monarch being the respective bishop usually elected by the Lübeck cathedral chapter, and confirmed by the Holy See, or exceptionally only appointed by the Holy See. Papally confirmed bishops were then invested by the emperor with the princely regalia, thus the title prince-bishop. However, sometimes the respective incumbent of the see never gained a papal confirmation, but was still invested the princely regalia. Also the opposite occurred with a papally confirmed bishop, never invested as prince. A number of incumbents, elected by the chapter, neither achieved papal confirmation nor imperial investiture, but as a matter of fact nevertheless de facto held the princely power. The respective incumbents of the see bore the following titles:

  • Bishop of Oldenburg (Aldinborg/Starigard) until 1160
  • Bishop of Lübeck 1160–1180
  • Prince-Bishop of Lübeck from 1180 to 1586, which the incumbents in 1535 and between 1561 and 1586 being de facto Lutherans
  • Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck 1586 to 1803. Either simply de facto replacing the Prince-Bishop or lacking canon-law prerequisites the incumbent of the see would officially only hold the title administrator (but nevertheless colloquially referred to as Prince-Bishop). After 1648 (Peace of Westphalia) the Lutheran administrators were generally imperially accepted as holding the princely regalia.

Catholic Bishops of Oldenburg (Aldinborg/Starigard) till 1160[edit]

Bishops Life Reign Notes Image Coat-of-arms
Bishops of Oldenburg (Aldinborg/Starigard)
Mareus 952–968  also Marcus, Marko
Ekward 968–974  
Wago 974–983  
Egizo 983–988  
Volkward 989–990  
Reginbert 992–1013  
Bernard 1013–1023  German: Bernhard
Reynald 1023–1030  German: Reinhold
Meinher 1030–1038  
Abelin 1038–1048  
Ehrenfried 1051–1066  
sede vacante 1066–1149  
Vicelinus ca. 1090–1154 1149–1154  After Oldenburg's destruction by the Danes in 1149 the see provisionally moved to St. Peter's Church in Bosau, built in 1151
Bischof Vicelin Kupferstich 1590.jpg
Gerald of Oldenburg (Lübeck) 1155–1163  In 1156 Gerald started the construction of St. John's Cathedral in Oldenburg. In 1160 the see moved to Lübeck

Catholic Bishops of Lübeck (1160–1180)[edit]

Bishops Life Reign Notes Image Coat-of-arms
Bishops of Lübeck
Gerald of Oldenburg (Lübeck) 1155–1163  In 1156 Gerald started the construction of St. John's Cathedral in Oldenburg. In 1160 the see moved to Lübeck
Conrad of Riddagshausen
as Conrad I
1164–1172  under his reign Lübeck's St. Peter's Church, the city's second main church, was established
Henry of Brussels
as Henry I
1172–1182  on his Holy Orders Duke Henry the Lion laid the cornerstone for the Lübeck Cathedral

Catholic Prince-Bishops of Lübeck (1180–1535)[edit]

Catholic Prince-Bishops of Lübeck (1180–1535)
Prince-Bishops Life Reign Notes Image Coat-of-arms
Henry of Brussels
as Henry I
1172–1182  on his Holy Orders Duke Henry the Lion laid the cornerstone for the Lübeck Cathedral
Conrad II 1183–1184  
Theodoric I 1186–1210  German: Dietrich I.
Bertold 1210–1230  German: Berthold
John I 1230/1231–1247  German: Johannes I.
Albert Suerbeer
as Albert I
b. ca. 1200 1247–1253   before Archbishop of Armagh (1240–1246), Administrator of the Diocese of Chiemsee (1246–1247), later Prince-Archbishop of Riga (1253–1273)
John of Diest
as John II
1254–1259  German: Johannes II., also Dyst or Deest, d. 21 September 1259
John of Tralau
as John III
1260–1276  German: Johannes III., also Tralowe, d. 4 January 1276; Rudolph I, King of the Germans invested him with the princely regalia for the prince-bishopric, founder of the prince-episcopal castle in Eutin
Burkhard of Serkem b. ca. 1236 1276–1317  double tomb with Johannes Mul (1341–50)
Serken Mul 1.JPG
Heinrich Bochholt
as Henry II
1317–1341  
Bishop Heinrich Bochholt.jpg
Johannes Mul
as John IV
b. ca. 1291 1341–1350  German: Johannes IV., also Muel or Muhl; double tomb with Burkhard of Serkem (1341–1350)
Serken Mul 1.JPG
Bertram Cremon 1350–1377  d. 5 January 1377
CremonB.JPG
Nicolaus Vollkrathen
as Nicholas I
?–1392 1377–1379  German: Nikolaus I., also named Ziegenbock, since 1379 Bishop of Meissen
Conrad of Geisenheim
as Conrad III
1379–1386  also Gysenheim, Giesenheim, Beymondi; b. in Geisenheim, d. 30 May 1386 in Lübeck.
John of Klenedenst
as John V
1386–1387  German: Johannes V., also Clendenst, Kleendienst, or Kleindienst, b. in Lübeck, d. 3 August 1387 ibidem.
Eberhard Attendorn
as Eberhard I
1387–1399  also Everhardus de Atendorn, Evert von Attenderen, Athendorn; b. in Lübeck, d. on 21 March 1399.
Johann Hundebeke
as John VI
1399–1420  German: Johannes VI., also Dülmen, Johann Dulmen, b. in Dülmen, d. 1 January 1420 in Lübeck
Johannes Schele
as John VII
b. ca. 1385/1390 1420–1439  German: Johannes VII.
Nicolaus Sachau
as Nicholas II
b. ca. 1385 1439–1449  German: Nikolaus II., also Czachow
Arnold Westphal b. 1399 1450–1466  
Albert Krummendiek
as Albert II
b. 1417/1418 1466–1489  also Krummediek; donated the triumphal cross created by Bernt Notke in the Lübeck Cathedral in 1477
AlbertIIKrummendiek.jpg
Thomas Grote b. ca. 1425 1489–1492  
Dietrich Arndes
as Theodoric II
b. 1442 1492–1506  also Diderich Arnd, Theodorich Arndes, Arends
Wilhem Westphal b. 1443 1506–1509  
Johannes Grimholt
as John VIII
ca. 1450 1510–1523  German: Johannes VIII., also Grymmolt or Grymmelt
Grimholt.JPG
Heinrich Bockholt
as Henry III
b. 1463 1523–1535   also Bokholt, Buchholtz; since 1531 the Free City of Lübeck adopted Lutheranism and inhibited Catholic pastoring in its part of the Lübeck diocese

Catholic and Lutheran Prince-Bishops of Lübeck (1535–1586)[edit]

Catholic and Lutheran Prince-Bishops of Lübeck (1535–1586)
Prince-Bishops Life Reign Notes Image Coat-of-arms
Detlev von Reventlow b. ca. 1485 1535–1535  also Ditlev; first Lutheran prince-bishop, started the Protestant Reformation in the diocese of Lübeck
Balthasar Rantzau ca. 1497 1536–1547   papally confirmed
Jodokus Hodfilter b. 1500 1547–1551   also Hodefilter, papally confirmed
Theodor von Rheden
as Theodoric III
b. 1492–1556 1551–1554   also Theodorich, Dietrich von Reden, papally confirmed, resigned
sede vacante 1554–1556  
Andreas von Barby b. 1508 1556–1559   not papally confirmed
Johannes Tiedemann
as John IX
1559–1561  German: Johannes IX, papally confirmed, double epitaph with his brothers and capitular canon in Lübeck and Ratzeburg Christopher Tiedemann (d. 1561)
Tiedemannbrass.JPG
Eberhard von Holle
as Eberhard II
b. 1531/1532 1561–1586  papally confirmed; completed the Protestant Reformation in the prince-bishopric proper
Eberhard von Holle.jpg

Lutheran Administrators of the Prince-Bishopric (1586–1803)[edit]

Administrators of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck
Administrators Life Reign Notes Image Coat-of-arms
John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp 1575–1616 1586–1607   also Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (1589–1596) and co-ruling Duke of Holstein and of Schleswig (1590–1616)
Johann Adolf von Holstein Gottorp.jpg
John Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp b. 1579 1607–1634   also administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (1596–1634) and the Prince-Bishopric of Verden (1631–1634)
Fürstbischof Johann Friedrich.jpg
John X of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp b. 1606 1634–1655   German: Hans
Fürstbischof Johann genannt Hans.jpg
Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp 1641–1695 1655–1666   also co-ruling Duke of Holstein and Schleswig (1659–1695)
Christian Albrecht.jpg
August Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp b. 1646 1666–1705   CoAAugustFriedrich.JPG
Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp b. 1673 1705–1726  
Fürstbischof Christian August.jpg
Charles August of Holstein-Gottorp b. 1706 1726–1727  
Karl von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf.jpg
Adolf Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp 1710–1771 1727–1750  King of Sweden since 1751
Adolf Fredrik of Sweden.jpg
Frederick August I, Duke of Oldenburg b. 1711 1750–1785   by the Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo in 1773 also ruling the Duchy of Oldenburg
Friedrich August von Oldenburg.jpg
Peter Frederick Louis, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp 1755–1829 1785–1803   in 1803 secularised to Principality of Lübeck within the Duchy of Oldenburg; also Duke of Oldenburg (1823–1829)
Peter I Oldenburg.jpg

Chairperson of the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Lübeck (Eutin) (1921–77)[edit]

Duke Frederick August and his successors served as summus episcopus of the Lutheran church of the Duchy of Oldenburg, including the Principality of Lübeck. After the abdication of the Duke in 1918 the Lutheran church in the principality seceded as Evangelical Lutheran State Church of the Region of Lübeck within the Free State of Oldenburg with effect of 19 May 1921.
Pastoral chairperson of the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of the Region of Lübeck (Eutin)[1]
Land Provosts/Bishops Life Term Notes Image Coat-of-arms
Paul Rahtgens 1867–1929 1921–1929   titled Superintendent and later Land Provost, the new office was established after summepiscopacy (monarchic governorate of the Lutheran church) ended with the abdication of Oldenburg's monarchs
Wilhelm Kieckbusch 1891–1987 1930–1978   titled Land Provost (1930–61), thereafter Bishop
On 1 January 1978 the Evangelical Lutheran State Church merged with other neighbouring Landeskirchen in the new North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, which also staffed a position titled Bishop of Lübeck and Holstein between 1978 and 2008.

Sources[edit]

  • Friedrich Wilhelm Ebeling, Die deutschen Bischöfe bis zum Ende des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts - Biographisch, literarisch, historisch und kirchenstatistisch dargestellt, vol. 1, Leipzig 1858, S. 562-589.
  • Ernst Friedrich Mooyer, Verzeichnisse der deutschen Bischöfe seit dem Jahre 800 nach Chr. Geb., Minden 1854, S. 56-57.
  • Hermann Grote, Stammtafeln, Leipzig 1877

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Seceded from the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg first as Evangelical Lutheran State Church of the Region of Lübeck within the Free State of Oldenburg (as of 1921), after 1937 renamed to Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Eutin.