List of JVM languages

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This list of JVM Languages comprises notable computer programming languages that are used to produce computer software that runs on the Java virtual machine (JVM). Some of these languages are interpreted by a Java program, and some are compiled to Java bytecode and just-in-time (JIT) compiled during execution as regular Java programs to improve performance.

The JVM was initially designed to support only the language Java. However, over time, ever more languages were adapted or designed to run on the Java platform.

JVM languages[edit]

High-profile languages[edit]

As of 2024, according to the TIOBE index[1] of the top 100 programming languages, and PyPL,[2] the top JVM languages are:

Python is TIOBE's top language; Jython, its JVM implementation, doesn't make the list (of 100 languages) under that name (is syntax compatible with Python 2.7, now an outdated Python version). JavaScript (6th), PHP, R and others, also make top 20 and have JVM implementations; Ruby is ranked 18th, while JRuby, its JVM implementation is not listed separately.

JVM implementations of existing languages[edit]

Language JVM implementations
Go jgo
Arden Syntax Arden2ByteCode
COBOL NTT Data Enterprise COBOL[5]

Micro Focus Visual COBOL[6]
Heirloom Elastic COBOL
Veryant isCOBOL Evolve[7]

ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) Adobe ColdFusion
Open BlueDragon
Common Lisp Armed Bear Common Lisp[8]
Cypher Neo4j[9]
Haskell Eta (programming language)
JavaScript Rhino


LLVM Bitcode Sulong[11]
Mercury Mercury (Java grade)
OCaml OCaml-Java
Component Pascal Gardens Point Component Pascal
Pascal MIDletPascal
Raku Rakudo
PHP Quercus[12][13] JPHP
Prolog JIProlog
Python Jython

ZipPy[14] Graal.Python[10]

R Renjin


Rexx NetRexx
Ruby JRuby
Scheme Bigloo
Simula Open Source Simula
Smalltalk Redline[17]
Standard ML MLj
Tcl Jacl
Visual Basic Jabaco[note 1]

New languages with JVM implementations[edit]

  • Ateji PX, an extension of Java for easy parallel programming on multicore, GPU, Grid and Cloud[22]
  • Ballerina, a language for cloud applications with structural typing; network client objects, services, resource functions, and listeners; parallel concurrency with workers; image building; configuration management; and taint checking.[23]
  • BeanShell, a scripting language whose syntax is close to Java
  • EPL (Event Processing Language), a domain-specific, data manipulation language for analyzing and detecting patterns in timed event streams, which extends SQL 92 with event-oriented features. It is implemented by Esper: up to version 6 EPL was mostly a language interpreted by a Java library; since version 7 it is compiled to JVM bytecode.
  • Concurnas, an open source JVM language designed for building reliable, scalable, high performance concurrent, distributed and parallel systems.
  • Ceylon, a Java competitor from Red Hat[3]
  • CFML, ColdFusion Markup Language, more commonly known as CFML, is a scripting language for web development that runs on the JVM, the .NET framework, and Google App Engine.[24]
  • Quark Framework (CAL), a Haskell-inspired functional language
  • E-on-Java, object-oriented language for secure distributed computing
  • Eta, pure, lazy, strongly typed functional language in the spirit of Haskell[25]
  • Fantom, a language built from the base to be portable across the JVM, .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR), and JavaScript[26][3]
  • Flix, a functional, imperative, and logic language with first-class Datalog constraints and a polymorphic effect system.
  • Flow Java
  • Fortress, a language designed by Sun as a successor to Fortran, mainly for parallel scientific computing. Product development was taken over by Oracle when Sun was purchased. Oracle then stopped development in 2012 according to Dr. Dobb's.
  • Frege, a non-strict, pure functional language in the spirit of Haskell[27]
  • Golo, a simple, dynamic, weakly-typed language for the JVM developed at Institut national des sciences appliquées de Lyon, France, now an incubating project at the Eclipse Software Foundation.[28][29][30]
  • Gosu, an extensible type-system language compiled to Java bytecode
  • Haxe, a cross-platform statically typed language that targets Java and the JVM.
  • Ioke, a prototype-based language somewhat reminiscent of Io, with similarities to Ruby, Lisp, and Smalltalk
  • Jelly
  • Join Java, a language that extends Java with join-calculus semantics
  • Joy
  • Judoscript
  • Mirah, a customizable language featuring type inference and a highly Ruby-inspired syntax[31][32]
  • NetLogo, a multi-agent language
  • Noop, a language built with testability as a major focus
  • Pizza, a superset of Java with function pointers and algebraic data types
  • Pnuts
  • Processing, a visualization and animation language and framework based on Java with a Java-like syntax
  • Prompto, a language "designed to create business applications in the cloud". It is part of the namesake platform to design business applications directly in the cloud. The Prompto language includes three "dialects": Engly, Monty, and Objy. Engly "mimics English as much as possible", Monty "tries to follow as much as possible the syntax of the Python 3 language", and Objy "tries to follow as much as possible the syntax of OOP languages such as C++, Java or C#". All three dialects seamlessly translate to one another.[33]
  • RascalMPL, a source and target language independent (parameterized) meta language
  • Whiley
  • X10, a language designed by IBM, featuring constrained types and a focus on concurrency and distribution[3]
  • Xtend, an object-oriented, functional, and imperative programming language built by the Eclipse foundation, featuring tight Java interoperability, with a focus on extension methods and lambdas, and rich tooling
  • Yeti, an ML style functional language[34]
  • Yirgacheffe, a language that aims to simplify and extend the object oriented paradigm.[35]
  • Yoix, general purpose, non-object-oriented, interpreted dynamic language

Comparison of these languages[edit]

Language First release Stable release Last release
Ballerina 2018 2019 2020
BeanShell 1999 2013 2016
Eclipse Ceylon 2011 2017 2017
CFML 1995 2018 2018
Quark Framework 2011 2018
E 1997
Fantom 2011 2017
Fortress 2006 2011 2017
Mirah 2016
Xtend 2011 2021

See also[edit]


  1. ^ [18][19][20] is a freeware IDE in beta-testing since 2009, with a partly open source [21] Jabaco framework runtime. Jabaco compiles VB 6 syntax source to Java bytecode.


  1. ^ "TIOBE Index". TIOBE. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  2. ^ "PYPL PopularitY of Programming Language index". Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Urma, Raoul-Gabriel (1 July 2014). "Alternative Languages for the JVM. A look at eight features from eight JVM languages". Oracle. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  4. ^ Wampler, Dean (15 January 2009). "Adopting New JVM Languages in the Enterprise (Updated)". Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
  5. ^ "NTT Data Enterprise COBOL Brochure" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Visual COBOL Brochure" (PDF). Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  7. ^ "isCOBOL Evolve Datasheet" (PDF). Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  8. ^ Armed Bear Common Lisp
  9. ^ "New on Neo4j: The Neo4j 2.3.0 Milestone 2 Release Is Here". 12 June 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Oracle Labs GraalVM: Programming Languages and Runtimes Overview". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  11. ^ "graalvm/sulong". GitHub. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  12. ^ "Introducing Quercus, a Java based PHP". IBM. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  13. ^ "Running PHP With Quercus in Sun Java System Web Server". Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  14. ^ "ssllab / ZipPy — Bitbucket". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  15. ^ "oracle/fastr". GitHub. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  16. ^ "oracle/truffleruby". GitHub. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Redline Smalltalk". Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  18. ^ "Jabaco entry at Basics section". Retrieved 2 July 2015.]
  19. ^ "Article about Jabaco at German Pro-Linux publication". Retrieved 2 July 2015.]
  20. ^ "Basic meet Java". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  21. ^ "Framework". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Ateji PX: Java Parallel Programming Made Simple". Ateji. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  23. ^ "Announcing Ballerina 1.0". Ballerina. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  24. ^ CFML, a scripting language compiled to Java, used on the ColdFusion or Railo application servers
  25. ^ "The Eta Programming Language". Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  26. ^ "Fantom Programming Language". Fantom. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  27. ^ "Frege". Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  28. ^ " - Golo – A Lightweight Dynamic Language for the JVM". Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.]
  29. ^ "Golo nominated for JAX Awards 2014". Retrieved 2 July 2015.]
  30. ^ "Golo entry at JAX Awards 2014". Retrieved 2 July 2015.]
  31. ^ "The Mirah Programming Language". GitHub. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  32. ^ "Mirah". Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  33. ^ "The Prompto Platform". Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  34. ^ "Yeti programming language". Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  35. ^ "Yirgacheffe". Retrieved 9 January 2020.