List of inorganic pigments
- Ultramarine violet: (PV15) Silicate of sodium and aluminum containing sulfur.
- Han Purple: BaCuSi2O6.
- Cobalt Violet: (PV14) cobaltous orthophosphate.
- Ultramarine (PB29): a complex naturally occurring pigment of sulfur-containing sodio-silicate (Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4)
- Persian blue: made by grinding up the mineral Lapis lazuli. The most important mineral component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula
- Egyptian Blue: a synthetic pigment of calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10). Thought to be the first synthetically produced pigment.
- Han Blue: BaCuSi4O10
- Azurite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)
- Prussian Blue (PB27): a synthetic pigment of ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe7(CN)18). The dye Marking blue is made by mixing Prussian Blue and alcohol.
- YInMn Blue: a synthetic pigment discovered by Dr. Mas Subramanian's lab at Oregon State University (YIn1−xMnxO3).
- Cadmium Green: a light green pigment consisting of a mixture of Cadmium Yellow (CdS) and Viridian (Cr2O3)
- Chrome green (PG17): chromic oxide (Cr2O3)
- Viridian (PG18): a dark green pigment of hydrated chromic oxide (Cr2O3•H2O)
- Cobalt green: also known as Rinman's green or Zinc green (CoZnO2)
- Malachite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
- Paris Green: cupric acetoarsenite (Cu(C2H3O2)2·3Cu(AsO2)2)
- Scheele’s Green (also called Schloss Green): cupric arsenite (CuHAsO3)
- Verdigris: various poorly soluble copper salts, notably cupric acetate (Cu(CH3CO2)2) and malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
- Green earth: also known as terre verte and Verona green (K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2)
- Orpiment: natural monoclinic arsenic sulfide (As2S3),
- Aureolin(also called Cobalt Yellow) (PY40): Potassium cobaltinitrite (K3Co(NO2)6).
- Yellow Ochre (PY43): a naturally occurring clay of monohydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3.H2O)
- Titanium Yellow (PY53)
- Cadmium Orange (PO20): an intermediate between cadmium red and cadmium yellow: cadmium sulfoselenide.
- Chrome Orange: a now obscure pigment composed of a mixture of lead chromate and lead(II) oxide. (PbCrO4 + PbO)
- Realgar: an arsenic sulfide mineral (As4S4)
- Cadmium Red (PR108): cadmium selenide (CdSe)
Iron oxide pigments:
- Sanguine, Caput Mortuum, Indian Red, Venetian Red, Oxide Red (PR102)
- Red Ochre (PR102): anhydrous Fe2O3
- Burnt Sienna (PBr7): a pigment produced by heating Raw Sienna.
- Vermilion (PR106): Synthetic and natural pigment: Occurs naturally in mineral cinnabar. Mercuric sulfide (HgS)
Clay earth pigments (naturally formed iron oxides)
- Raw Umber (PBr7): a natural clay pigment consisting of iron oxide, manganese oxide and aluminum oxide: Fe2O3 + MnO2 + nH2O + Si + AlO3. When calcined (heated) it is referred to as Burnt Umber and has more intense colors.
- Raw Sienna (PBr7): a naturally occurring yellow-brown pigment from limonite clay. Used in art since prehistoric times.
- Mars Black (Iron black) (PBk11) (C.I. No.77499) : Fe3O4
- Manganese dioxide: blackish or brown in color, used since prehistoric times (MnO2)
- Titanium Black () : Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3)
- Antimony White: Stibous Oxide (Sb2O3)
- Cremnitz White (PW1): basic Plumbous Carbonate ((PbCO3)2·Pb(OH)2)
- Titanium White (PW6): Titanic Dioxide (TiO2)
- Zinc White (PW4): Zinc Oxide (ZnO)
A number of pigments, especially traditional ones, contain heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium that are highly toxic. Some of these pigments have often been banned.
- Völz, Hans G. et al. "Pigments, Inorganic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a20_243.pub2. Cite error: Invalid
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- Mn3+ in Trigonal Bipyramidal Coordination: A New Blue Chromophore. Andrew E. Smith, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Kris Delaney, Nicola A. Spaldin, Arthur W. Sleight, and M. A. Subramanian J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, volume 131, pages 17084–17086, doi:10.1021/ja9080666