List of inorganic pigments

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The following list includes commercially or artistically important inorganic pigments of natural and synthetic origin.[1]

Purple pigments[edit]

Aluminum pigments

Copper pigments:

Cobalt pigments:

Manganese pigments:

Blue pigments[edit]

Aluminum pigments:

  • Persian blue: made by grinding up the mineral Lapis lazuli. The most important mineral component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1-2

Cobalt pigments:

Copper pigments:

  • Egyptian Blue: a synthetic pigment of calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10). Thought to be the first synthetically produced pigment.
  • Han Blue: BaCuSi4O10
  • Azurite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)

Iron pigments:

  • Prussian Blue (PB27): a synthetic pigment of ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe7(CN)18). The dye Marking blue is made by mixing Prussian Blue and alcohol.

Manganese pigments:

Green pigments[edit]

Cadmium pigments:

  • Cadmium Green: a light green pigment consisting of a mixture of Cadmium Yellow (CdS) and Viridian (Cr2O3)

Chromium pigments:

  • Chrome green (PG17): chromic oxide (Cr2O3)
  • Viridian (PG18): a dark green pigment of hydrated chromic oxide (Cr2O3•H2O)

Cobalt pigments:

  • Cobalt green: also known as Rinman's green or Zinc green (CoZnO2)

Copper pigments:

Other pigments:

  • Green earth: also known as terre verte and Verona green (K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2)

Yellow pigments[edit]

Arsenic pigments:

  • Orpiment: natural monoclinic arsenic sulfide (As2S3),

Cadmium pigments:

Chromium pigments:

Cobalt pigments:

  • Aureolin(also called Cobalt Yellow) (PY40): Potassium cobaltinitrite (K3Co(NO2)6).

Iron Pigments:

  • Yellow Ochre (PY43): a naturally occurring clay of monohydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3.H2O)

Lead pigments:

Titanium pigments:

Tin Pigments:

Orange pigments[edit]

Cadmium pigments:

Chromium pigments:

Red pigments[edit]

Arsenic pigments:

  • Realgar: an arsenic sulfide mineral (As4S4)

Cadmium pigments:

Iron oxide pigments:

Lead pigments:

Mercury pigments:

  • Vermilion (PR106): Synthetic and natural pigment: Occurs naturally in mineral cinnabar. Mercuric sulfide (HgS)

Brown pigments[edit]

Clay earth pigments (naturally formed iron oxides)

  • Raw Umber (PBr7): a natural clay pigment consisting of iron oxide, manganese oxide and aluminum oxide: Fe2O3 + MnO2 + nH2O + Si + AlO3. When calcined (heated) it is referred to as Burnt Umber and has more intense colors.
  • Raw Sienna (PBr7): a naturally occurring yellow-brown pigment from limonite clay. Used in art since prehistoric times.

Black pigments[edit]

Carbon pigments:

Iron Pigments:

  • Mars Black (Iron black) (PBk11) (C.I. No.77499) : Fe3O4

Manganese pigments:

Titanium pigments:

White pigments[edit]

Antimony pigments:

Barium pigments:

Lead pigments:

Titanium pigments:

Zinc pigments:

Safety[edit]

A number of pigments, especially traditional ones, contain heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium that are highly toxic. Some of these pigments have often been banned.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Völz, Hans G. et al. "Pigments, Inorganic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a20_243.pub2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ullmann" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  2. ^ Mn3+ in Trigonal Bipyramidal Coordination: A New Blue Chromophore. Andrew E. Smith, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Kris Delaney, Nicola A. Spaldin, Arthur W. Sleight, and M. A. Subramanian J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, volume 131, pages 17084–17086, doi:10.1021/ja9080666

External links[edit]