List of inorganic pigments

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The following list includes commercially or artistically important inorganic pigments of natural and synthetic origin.[1]

Purple pigments[edit]

Aluminum pigments

Copper pigments

Cobalt pigments

Manganese pigments

Gold pigments

Blue pigments[edit]

Aluminum pigments

  • Ultramarine (PB29): a synthetic or naturally occurring sulfur containing silicate mineral - Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4 (generalized formula)
  • Persian blue: made by grinding up the mineral Lapis lazuli. The most important mineral component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1–2.

Cobalt pigments

Copper pigments

  • Egyptian Blue: a synthetic pigment of calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10). Thought to be the first synthetically produced pigment.
  • Han Blue: BaCuSi4O10
  • Azurite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)

Iron pigments

Manganese pigments

  • YInMn Blue: a synthetic pigment discovered in 2009 (YIn1−xMnxO3).[3]
  • Manganese Blue: Barium manganate(VI) sulfate

Green pigments[edit]

Cadmium pigments

Chromium pigments

Cobalt pigments

  • Cobalt green: also known as Rinman's green or Zinc green (CoZnO2)

Copper pigments

Other pigments

  • Green earth: also known as terre verte and Verona green (K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg)](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2)

Yellow pigments[edit]

Arsenic pigments

  • Orpiment: natural monoclinic arsenic sulfide (As2S3),

Bismuth pigments

Cadmium pigments

Chromium pigments

Cobalt pigments

  • Aureolin or Cobalt Yellow (PY40): Potassium cobaltinitrite (K3Co(NO2)6).

Iron Pigments

  • Yellow Ochre (PY43): a naturally occurring clay of monohydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3.H2O)

Lead pigments

Titanium pigments

Tin Pigments

Zinc Pigments

  • Zinc Yellow (PY36): Zinc chromate (ZnCrO4), a highly toxic substance with anti-corrosive properties which was historically most often used to paint over metals.

Orange pigments[edit]

Bismuth pigments

Cadmium pigments

Chromium pigments

Red pigments[edit]

Arsenic pigments

  • Realgar: As4S4 - a highly toxic natural pigment

Cadmium pigments

Cerium pigments

Iron oxide pigments

Lead pigments

Mercury pigments

Brown pigments[edit]

Clay earth pigments (naturally formed iron oxides)

  • Raw Umber (PBr7): a natural clay pigment consisting of iron oxide, manganese oxide and aluminum oxide: Fe2O3 + MnO2 + nH2O + Si + Al2O3. When calcined (heated) it is referred to as Burnt Umber and has more intense colors.
  • Raw Sienna (PBr7): a naturally occurring yellow-brown pigment from limonite clay. Used in art since prehistoric times.

Black pigments[edit]

Carbonaceous pigments

Iron pigments

Manganese pigments

Titanium pigments

White pigments[edit]

Antimony pigment

Barium pigments

Lead pigment

Titanium pigment

Zinc pigments

Fluorescent pigments[edit]

Safety[edit]

A number of pigments, especially traditional ones, contain heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium that are highly toxic. The use of these pigments is now highly restricted in many countries.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Völz, Hans G.; et al. "Pigments, Inorganic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a20_243.pub2..
  2. ^ Müller, Hugo; Müller, Wolfgang; Wehner, Manfred; Liewald, Heike. "Artists' Colors". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_143.pub2.
  3. ^ Smith, Andrew E.; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Delaney, Kris; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Sleight, Arthur W.; Subramanian, M. A. (2009). "Mn3+ in Trigonal Bipyramidal Coordination: A New Blue Chromophore". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131: 17084–17086. doi:10.1021/ja9080666. PMID 19899792.

External links[edit]