Logothetes tou genikou
The logothetēs tou genikou (Greek: λογοθέτης τοῦ γενικοῦ), often called genikos logothetēs or simply ho genikos (Greek: ὁ γενικός), and usually rendered in English as the General Logothete, was in charge of the "general financial ministry", the genikon logothesion of the middle Byzantine Empire.
History and functions
The genikon was responsible for general taxation and revenue, and also served as a court for financial cases. As such, it broadly fulfilled the tasks of the earlier sacrae largitiones, although it was mostly derived from the "general department" of the praetorian prefecture. The first attested logothetēs tou genikou, the monk Theodotos, is mentioned in 692, but the post may have been instituted as early as 626. The bureau of the genikon and its logothete remained one of the chief ministries for the entire middle Byzantine period (7th–12th centuries). During the Komnenian period, its importance declined, but recovered under the Angeloi. Following the sack of Constantinople in 1204 and the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire, the office of the logothetēs tou genikou was retained as a purely honorary title by the successor state of Nicaea and the restored Palaiologan Empire after 1261. The mid-14th century writer Pseudo-Kodinos records him in the 20th place in the imperial hierarchy, between the parakoimōmenos of the imperial bedchamber and the prōtovestiaritēs. His distinctive court dress and insignia during this time were a brimmed hat called skiadion of white silk, a silk long kaftan-like kabbadion, and for ceremonies and festivities, a domed skaranikon hat of white and gold silk, with gold-wire embroidery and decorated with images of the emperor in the front and back. Unlike other officials, he bore no staff of office (dikanikion). Amongst the Palaiologan-era holders were significant intellectuals and statesmen, such as George Akropolites and Theodore Metochites. The last recorded logothetēs tou genikou was a certain John Androuses in 1380. By that time, however, its original functions had long been forgotten; as the Pseudo-Kodinos records, "the function of the General Logothete is unknown".
The subordinates of the logothetēs tou genikou were:
- The chartoularioi megaloi tou sekretou (χαρτουλάριοι μεγάλοι τοῦ σεκρέτου, "great chartularies of the department"), the heads of the various departments.
- The chartoularioi tōn arklōn (χαρτουλάριοι τῶν ἀρκλῶν) or exō chartoularioi (ἔξω χαρτουλάριοι, "outer chartularies"). As their name signifies, they were the senior treasury officials posted in the provinces ("outer", i.e. outside Constantinople).
- The epoptai of the themata (ἐπόπται τῶν θεμάτων), who were the officials charged with control of taxation in the provinces.
- The komētes hydatōn ( κόμητες ὑδάτων, "counts of the waters"), officials probably in charge of aqueducts and water supply in the provinces.
- The chartoularios tou oikistikou (χαρτουλάριος τοῦ οἰκιστικοῦ) or simply ho oikistikos, whose precise functions are unknown. It is attested that he was in charge of tax exemptions, and had various juridical duties in some themata in the 11th century; the office may have been associated with the imperial domains (oikoi). By the 11th century, the office had become an independent bureau, but vanishes after that.
- The kommerkiarioi (κομμερκιάριοι), who were customs officials. Attested since the early 6th century, they are likely the successors of the comes commerciorum mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum. Initially stationed at the frontier, after the 7th century they were placed at ports or in charge over entire themata or islands.
- The epi tēs kouratōrias of the basilikoi oikoi (ἐπί τῆς κουρατωρίας [τῶν βασιλικῶν οἴκων], "in charge of the curatorship [of the imperial domains]"), who supervised the imperial estates.
- The komēs tēs lamias (κόμης τῆς λαμίας), an official probably in charge of the mines and gold bullion (cf. Latin: lamina/lamna, "gold, precious metals"). It is therefore usually assumed that he is the successor of the old comes metallorum per Illyricum. From sigillographic evidence through the 11th century, this office was sometimes combined with the positions of epi tōn oikeiakōn ("in charge of the oikeiakoi", a class of senior courtiers) and of one of the chartoularioi megaloi of the genikon.
- The dioikētai (διοικηταὶ) where officials who supervised the collection of taxes, assisted by a number of praktores ("agents").
- The kom[v]entianos (κομ[β]εντιανός), an official of unknown function.
- A number of kankellarioi (καγκελλάριοι, from Latin: cancellarius) under a prōtokankellarios. Originally senior officials in the praetorian prefecture, in the middle Byzantine period they were mid-level secretaries in the various ministries.
- Kazhdan 1991, p. 829.
- Fouracre 2005, Andrew Louth, "The Byzantine Empire in the Seventh Century", p. 305
- Bury 1911, pp. 86–87.
- Kazhdan 1991, p. 830.
- Verpeaux 1966, p. 137.
- Verpeaux 1966, pp. 156–157.
- Verpeaux 1966, p. 176.
- Bury 1911, p. 87.
- Kazhdan 1991, p. 174: ἀρκλα means "[money] box", i.e. "treasury".
- Kazhdan 1991, p. 174.
- Kazhdan 1991, p. 1139.
- Bury 1911, p. 88.
- Kazhdan 1991, p. 1516.
- Kazhdan 1991, p. 1141.
- Bury 1911, pp. 88–89.
- Bury 1911, p. 89.
- Bury 1911, pp. 89–90.
- Bury 1911, p. 90.
- Kazhdan 1991, p. 1101.
- Bury, John Bagnell (1911). The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. London: Oxford University Press.
- Fouracre, Paul, ed. (2005). The New Cambridge Medieval History: c.500–c.700. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36291-7.
- Kazhdan, Alexander P., ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
- Verpeaux, Jean, ed. (1966). Pseudo-Kodinos, Traité des Offices. Paris, France: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
- Guilland, Rodolphe (1971). "Les Logothètes: Etudes sur l'Histoire Administrative de l'Empire Byzantin". Revue des Études Byzantines (in French) 29 (29): 5–115. doi:10.3406/rebyz.1971.1441.