Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests

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Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests ecoregion
Bhawal National Park 1.jpg
Ecoregion IM0120.jpg
BiomeTropical moist deciduous forests
Bird species380+
Mammal species126
Area254,100 km2 (98,100 sq mi)
CountriesBangladesh and India
Coordinates24°02′N 89°53′E / 24.033°N 89.883°E / 24.033; 89.883Coordinates: 24°02′N 89°53′E / 24.033°N 89.883°E / 24.033; 89.883
Conservation statusCritical/Endangered

The Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests, or ecoregion IM0120, is a tropical moist deciduous forest ecoregion of Bangladesh and India. The ecoregion covers an area of 254,100 square kilometres (98,100 sq mi), comprising most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar and Tripura, and extending into adjacent states of Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and a tiny part of Assam.


The Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests extends across the alluvial plain of the lower Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which form the world's largest river delta. The ecoregion is currently one of the most densely populated regions on earth, and the forests have largely been replaced with intensive agriculture.

The ecoregion is bounded on the east and northeast by montane tropical rain forests; the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests covers the Chin Hills and Chittagong Hills to the east, extending into Myanmar and other states of Northeast India, while the Meghalaya subtropical forests covers the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya and southern Assam, and almost defines the Bangladesh border with Northeast India. To the north, the ecoregion extends to the base of the Himalayas, where it is bounded by the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands. The upper portion of the Brahmaputra valley in Assam is home to the humid lowland Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. To the northwest, the forests are bounded by the Upper Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests. The dry Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests lie on the Chota Nagpur Plateau to the southwest. The Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests and Sundarbans mangroves ecoregions lie in the swampy, semi-brackish and brackish southern reaches of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta bordering the Bay of Bengal.





The ecoregion has been densely settled for many centuries, yet much forest remained until the early 20th century. Forest clearance accelerated during the 20th century, and by the end of the century, only 3% of the ecoregion remained in natural forest. Remaining forest areas are mostly small patches, except for one large block of forest south of Varanasi.[1]

In 1997, the World Wildlife Fund identified over 40 protected areas in the ecoregion, with a combined area of about 7010 km², or approximately 3% of the ecoregion's area. Over half of these protected areas were smaller than 100 km²[2]

Elephants used to roam these vast forests, but are now confined to a few protected areas.
Large numbers of Indian tigers used to roam in this ecoregion. Small populations now survive in a few protected areas.


  1. ^ Wikramanayake, E.; Dinerstein, E.; Loucks, C. J.; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. pp. 303
  2. ^ Wikramanayake, E.; Dinerstein, E.; Loucks, C. J.; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. pp. 302–304

External links[edit]

  • "Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
  • "Ecoregions 2017". Resolve.
    Geographical ecoregion maps and basic info.