The function of calsarcin-1 in cardiac and slow-skeletal muscle has been illuminated through studies in transgenic animals. Mice lacking the MYOZ2 gene (MYOZ2-/-) are generally sensitized to calcineurin signaling in both muscle types. In slow-skeletal muscle, MYOZ2-/- show increased slow-twitch muscle fibers. In cardiac, MYOZ2-/- show induction of the fetal gene program typical of pathologic hypertrophy, however there was no evidence of hypertrophied morphometry at baseline. However, upon calcineurin activation or pressure overload-induced pathologic hypertrophy, MYOZ2-/- exhibited exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy, demonstrating that calsarcin-1 negatively modulates the function of calcineurin during pathologic hypertrophic remodeling. Additional studies supported these findings in demonstrating that adenoviral overexpression of calsarcin-1 attenuated Gq alpha subunit-stimuated hypertrophy and ANP induction, by Angiotensin II, phenylephrine and endothelin-1 agonists in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of calsarcin-1 in mice (CS1Tg) was protective against Angiotensin II-induced pathologic cardiac hypertrophy, evidenced by preserved fractional shortening and contractility, as well as a blunted induction of the fetal hypertrophic gene program and significantly reduced expression of calcineurin-stimulated MCIP1.4 gene expression. Taken together, these studies strongly support a role for calsarcin-1 in suppressing pathologic cardiac hypertrophy.
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^ abFrey N, Barrientos T, Shelton JM, Frank D, Rütten H, Gehring D, Kuhn C, Lutz M, Rothermel B, Bassel-Duby R, Richardson JA, Katus HA, Hill JA, Olson EN (December 2004). "Mice lacking calsarcin-1 are sensitized to calcineurin signaling and show accelerated cardiomyopathy in response to pathological biomechanical stress". Nature Medicine. 10 (12): 1336–43. doi:10.1038/nm1132. PMID15543153.
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