MYOZ2

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MYOZ2
Identifiers
AliasesMYOZ2, C4orf5, CMH16, CS-1, myozenin 2, FATZ-2
External IDsMGI: 1913063 HomoloGene: 9583 GeneCards: MYOZ2
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 4 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 4 (human)[1]
Chromosome 4 (human)
Genomic location for MYOZ2
Genomic location for MYOZ2
Band4q26Start119,135,784 bp[1]
End119,187,789 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE MYOZ2 207148 x at fs.png

PBB GE MYOZ2 213782 s at fs.png

PBB GE MYOZ2 211476 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_016599

NM_021503
NM_001355462

RefSeq (protein)

NP_057683

NP_067478
NP_001342391

Location (UCSC)Chr 4: 119.14 – 119.19 MbChr 3: 123.01 – 123.04 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Myozenin-2, also referred to as Calsarcin-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOZ2 gene.[5][6][7] The Calsarcin-1 isoform is a muscle protein expressed in cardiac muscle and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, which functions to tether calcineurin to alpha-actinin at Z-discs, and inhibit the pathological cardiac hypertrophic response. This differs from the fast-skeletal muscle isoform, calsarcin-2.

Structure[edit]

Calsarcin-1 is a 29.9 kDa protein composed of 264 amino acids.[8][9] Calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2 are only 31% homologous (94 identical amino acids), exhibiting the highest homology at N- and C-termini. Calsarcin-1 binds to alpha-actinin,[10] gamma-filamin,[11] telethonin,[11] ZASP/Cypher[11] and calcineurin.[10] The binding region of calsarcin-1 to alpha-actinin is localized to amino acids 153-200, and that of calsarcin-1 to calcineurin is amino acids 217-240.[10]

Function[edit]

The function of calsarcin-1 in cardiac and slow-skeletal muscle has been illuminated through studies in transgenic animals. Mice lacking the MYOZ2 gene (MYOZ2-/-) are generally sensitized to calcineurin signaling in both muscle types.[12] In slow-skeletal muscle, MYOZ2-/- show increased slow-twitch muscle fibers. In cardiac, MYOZ2-/- show induction of the fetal gene program typical of pathologic hypertrophy, however there was no evidence of hypertrophied morphometry at baseline. However, upon calcineurin activation or pressure overload-induced pathologic hypertrophy, MYOZ2-/- exhibited exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy, demonstrating that calsarcin-1 negatively modulates the function of calcineurin during pathologic hypertrophic remodeling.[12] Additional studies supported these findings in demonstrating that adenoviral overexpression of calsarcin-1 attenuated Gq alpha subunit-stimuated hypertrophy and ANP induction, by Angiotensin II, phenylephrine and endothelin-1 agonists in neonatal cardiomyocytes.[13] Overexpression of calsarcin-1 in mice (CS1Tg) was protective against Angiotensin II-induced pathologic cardiac hypertrophy, evidenced by preserved fractional shortening and contractility, as well as a blunted induction of the fetal hypertrophic gene program and significantly reduced expression of calcineurin-stimulated MCIP1.4 gene expression.[13] Taken together, these studies strongly support a role for calsarcin-1 in suppressing pathologic cardiac hypertrophy.

Clinical Significance[edit]

Two missense mutations in MYOZ2, Ser48Pro and Ile246Met, have been shown to be causal for rare forms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172399 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028116 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:".
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  5. ^ Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (April 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Analytical Biochemistry. 236 (1): 107–13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474.
  6. ^ Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G, Gibbs RA (April 1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing". Genome Research. 7 (4): 353–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146. PMID 9110174.
  7. ^ "Entrez Gene: MYOZ2 myozenin 2".
  8. ^ http://www.heartproteome.org/copa/ProteinInfo.aspx?QType=Protein%20ID&QValue=Q9NPC6}
  9. ^ Zong NC, Li H, Li H, Lam MP, Jimenez RC, Kim CS, Deng N, Kim AK, Choi JH, Zelaya I, Liem D, Meyer D, Odeberg J, Fang C, Lu HJ, Xu T, Weiss J, Duan H, Uhlen M, Yates JR, Apweiler R, Ge J, Hermjakob H, Ping P (October 2013). "Integration of cardiac proteome biology and medicine by a specialized knowledgebase". Circulation Research. 113 (9): 1043–53. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301151. PMC 4076475. PMID 23965338.
  10. ^ a b c Frey N, Richardson JA, Olson EN (December 2000). "Calsarcins, a novel family of sarcomeric calcineurin-binding proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (26): 14632–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.260501097. PMC 18970. PMID 11114196.
  11. ^ a b c Frey N, Barrientos T, Shelton JM, Frank D, Rütten H, Gehring D, Kuhn C, Lutz M, Rothermel B, Bassel-Duby R, Richardson JA, Katus HA, Hill JA, Olson EN (December 2004). "Mice lacking calsarcin-1 are sensitized to calcineurin signaling and show accelerated cardiomyopathy in response to pathological biomechanical stress". Nature Medicine. 10 (12): 1336–43. doi:10.1038/nm1132. PMID 15543153.
  12. ^ a b Frey N, Barrientos T, Shelton JM, Frank D, Rütten H, Gehring D, Kuhn C, Lutz M, Rothermel B, Bassel-Duby R, Richardson JA, Katus HA, Hill JA, Olson EN (December 2004). "Mice lacking calsarcin-1 are sensitized to calcineurin signaling and show accelerated cardiomyopathy in response to pathological biomechanical stress". Nature Medicine. 10 (12): 1336–43. doi:10.1038/nm1132. PMID 15543153.
  13. ^ a b Frank D, Kuhn C, van Eickels M, Gehring D, Hanselmann C, Lippl S, Will R, Katus HA, Frey N (November 2007). "Calsarcin-1 protects against angiotensin-II induced cardiac hypertrophy". Circulation. 116 (22): 2587–96. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.711317. PMID 18025526.
  14. ^ Osio A, Tan L, Chen SN, Lombardi R, Nagueh SF, Shete S, Roberts R, Willerson JT, Marian AJ (March 2007). "Myozenin 2 is a novel gene for human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". Circulation Research. 100 (6): 766–8. doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000263008.66799.aa. PMC 2775141. PMID 17347475.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]