Telethonin

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TCAP
Protein TCAP PDB 1ya5.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases TCAP, CMD1N, LGMD2G, T-cap, TELE, telethonin, CMH25, titin-cap
External IDs MGI: 1330233 HomoloGene: 2724 GeneCards: TCAP
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TCAP 205766 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_003673

NM_011540

RefSeq (protein)

NP_003664
NP_003664.1

NP_035670.2
NP_035670

Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 39.66 – 39.67 Mb Chr 11: 98.38 – 98.38 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Telethonin, also known as Tcap, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCAP gene.[3][4][5] Telethonin is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle at Z-discs and functions to regulate sarcomere assembly, T-tubule function and apoptosis. Telethonin has been implicated in several diseases, including limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and idiopathic cardiomyopathy.

Structure[edit]

Telethonin is a 19.0 kDa protein composed of 167 amino acids.[6] Telethonin has a unique β-sheet structure, which enables antiparallel association with the Titin Z1-Z2 domains in cardiac and skeletal muscle.[7] Structural analysis of full-length Telethonin with the N-terminal region of Titin indicate that the C-terminus of Telethonin is critical for the dimerization of two Telethonin/Titin complexes into a higher oligomeric structure.[8]

Function[edit]

Telethonin expression is developmentally regulated in both cardiac and skeletal muscle and is thought to be critical to sarcomere assembly.[9] Telethonin was found to be a late assembling protein only present in mature myofibrils at Z-discs.[10]

Telethonin forms a complex with MLP at Z-discs, which constitutes part of the cardiomyocyte stretch sensory mechanism.[11] It has also been shown that Telethonin binds to the beta-subunit of the slow activating component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel, MinK, in areas localized to T-tubule membranes surrounding Z-lines in the inner myocardium.[12] In addition, Telethonin interacts with the sodium channel Na(v)1.5, and alters the activation kinetics via doubling the window current.[13] These data suggest that Telethonin may constitute a mechano-electrical links between Z-lines and T-tubules. Further functional evidence for this has come from studies utilizing a Telethonin-knockout mouse (KO), which have shown that Telethonin is involved in T-tubule structure and function, as well as apoptosis in the heart. Telethonin KO animals showed preserved Titin anchoring at baseline, and instead showed a profound deficit during nuclear biomechanical stress in modulating the turnover of the proapoptotic p53 protein.[14] Telethonin KO animals also displayed calcium transient dysynchrony, T-tubule loss and depressed L-type calcium channel function.[15]

Telethonin is a substrate of titin kinase,[16] protein kinase D (PKD) and CaM Kinase II.[17] Telethonin, as well as TNNI3, MYBPC3 and MYOM2 are phosphorylated by PKD in cardiomyocytes, and this leads to a reduction in calcium sensitivity of myofilaments, as well as accelerated crossbridge kinetics.[18] Bis-phosphorylation of Telethonin specifically at sites Serine-157 and Serine-161 has been shown to be essential for normal T-tubule organization and intracellular calcium transient kinetics.[17]

The intracellular degradation of Telethonin is regulated by MDM2 in a proteasomal-dependent yet ubiquitin-independent manner.[19] Telethonin specifically interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Siva, suggesting that Telethonin may be involved in the mechanism underlying Coxsackievirus B3 infection in acute and chronic myocarditis[20]

Telethonin was also identified to be targeted and regulated by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1, thus demonstrating that TCAP is a circadian regulated gene.[21]

Clinical Significance[edit]

Mutations in this gene are associated with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G,[22] hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,[23][24][25] dilated cardiomyopathy,[26][27] idiopathic cardiomyopathy,[28] and gastrointestinal smooth muscle-related diseases.[13]

Two mutations in Telethonin, Thr137Ile and Arg153His have been associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which enhance the binding of Telethonin with Titin and MYOZ2. The Glu132Gln mutation has been associated with dilated cardiomyopathy, which has the opposite effect in that it impairs the binding of Telethonin with Titin and MYOZ2.[29] Mutations in Titin associated with dilated cardiomyopathy, including Val54Met, have been shown specifically to impair binding of Titin with Telethonin.[30] In a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy, recapitulating the human dilated cardiomyopathy mutation in MLP, Trp4Arg, studies have found that this mutation disrupts normal binding and localization of MLP with Telethonin.[11] In a rat model of hypertension-induced cardiomyopathy, a human variant of BMP10, Thr326Ile, showed decreased binding to Telethonin and increased extracellular secretion.[31]

Interactions[edit]

Telethonin has been shown to interact with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Valle G, Faulkner G, De Antoni A, Pacchioni B, Pallavicini A, Pandolfo D, Tiso N, Toppo S, Trevisan S, Lanfranchi G (Sep 1997). "Telethonin, a novel sarcomeric protein of heart and skeletal muscle". FEBS Letters. 415 (2): 163–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01108-3. PMID 9350988. 
  4. ^ a b Gregorio CC, Trombitás K, Centner T, Kolmerer B, Stier G, Kunke K, Suzuki K, Obermayr F, Herrmann B, Granzier H, Sorimachi H, Labeit S (Nov 1998). "The NH2 terminus of titin spans the Z-disc: its interaction with a novel 19-kD ligand (T-cap) is required for sarcomeric integrity". The Journal of Cell Biology. 143 (4): 1013–27. doi:10.1083/jcb.143.4.1013. PMC 2132961Freely accessible. PMID 9817758. 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: TCAP titin-cap (telethonin)". 
  6. ^ "Protein Information for the human TCAP gene (Uniprot ID: O15273)". COPaKB: Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase. Retrieved 20 June 2015. 
  7. ^ Zou P, Pinotsis N, Lange S, Song YH, Popov A, Mavridis I, Mayans OM, Gautel M, Wilmanns M (Jan 2006). "Palindromic assembly of the giant muscle protein titin in the sarcomeric Z-disk". Nature. 439 (7073): 229–33. doi:10.1038/nature04343. PMID 16407954. 
  8. ^ Pinotsis N, Petoukhov M, Lange S, Svergun D, Zou P, Gautel M, Wilmanns M (Aug 2006). "Evidence for a dimeric assembly of two titin/telethonin complexes induced by the telethonin C-terminus". Journal of Structural Biology. 155 (2): 239–50. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2006.03.028. PMID 16713295. 
  9. ^ Mason P, Bayol S, Loughna PT (Apr 1999). "The novel sarcomeric protein telethonin exhibits developmental and functional regulation". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 257 (3): 699–703. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.0531. PMID 10208846. 
  10. ^ White J, Barro MV, Makarenkova HP, Sanger JW, Sanger JM (Sep 2014). "Localization of sarcomeric proteins during myofibril assembly in cultured mouse primary skeletal myotubes". Anatomical Record. 297 (9): 1571–84. doi:10.1002/ar.22981. PMID 25125171. 
  11. ^ a b c Knöll R, Hoshijima M, Hoffman HM, Person V, Lorenzen-Schmidt I, Bang ML, Hayashi T, Shiga N, Yasukawa H, Schaper W, McKenna W, Yokoyama M, Schork NJ, Omens JH, McCulloch AD, Kimura A, Gregorio CC, Poller W, Schaper J, Schultheiss HP, Chien KR (Dec 2002). "The cardiac mechanical stretch sensor machinery involves a Z disc complex that is defective in a subset of human dilated cardiomyopathy". Cell. 111 (7): 943–55. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(02)01226-6. PMID 12507422. 
  12. ^ a b Furukawa T, Ono Y, Tsuchiya H, Katayama Y, Bang ML, Labeit D, Labeit S, Inagaki N, Gregorio CC (Nov 2001). "Specific interaction of the potassium channel beta-subunit minK with the sarcomeric protein T-cap suggests a T-tubule-myofibril linking system". Journal of Molecular Biology. 313 (4): 775–84. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.5053. PMID 11697903. 
  13. ^ a b c Mazzone A, Strege PR, Tester DJ, Bernard CE, Faulkner G, De Giorgio R, Makielski JC, Stanghellini V, Gibbons SJ, Ackerman MJ, Farrugia G (Jun 2008). "A mutation in telethonin alters Nav1.5 function". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (24): 16537–44. doi:10.1074/jbc.M801744200. PMID 18408010. 
  14. ^ Knöll R, Linke WA, Zou P, Miocic S, Kostin S, Buyandelger B, Ku CH, Neef S, Bug M, Schäfer K, Knöll G, Felkin LE, Wessels J, Toischer K, Hagn F, Kessler H, Didié M, Quentin T, Maier LS, Teucher N, Unsöld B, Schmidt A, Birks EJ, Gunkel S, Lang P, Granzier H, Zimmermann WH, Field LJ, Faulkner G, Dobbelstein M, Barton PJ, Sattler M, Wilmanns M, Chien KR (Sep 2011). "Telethonin deficiency is associated with maladaptation to biomechanical stress in the mammalian heart". Circulation Research. 109 (7): 758–69. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.245787. PMID 21799151. 
  15. ^ Ibrahim M, Siedlecka U, Buyandelger B, Harada M, Rao C, Moshkov A, Bhargava A, Schneider M, Yacoub MH, Gorelik J, Knöll R, Terracciano CM (Jan 2013). "A critical role for Telethonin in regulating t-tubule structure and function in the mammalian heart". Human Molecular Genetics. 22 (2): 372–83. doi:10.1093/hmg/dds434. PMID 23100327. 
  16. ^ a b Mayans O, van der Ven PF, Wilm M, Mues A, Young P, Fürst DO, Wilmanns M, Gautel M (Oct 1998). "Structural basis for activation of the titin kinase domain during myofibrillogenesis". Nature. 395 (6705): 863–9. doi:10.1038/27603. PMID 9804419. 
  17. ^ a b Candasamy AJ, Haworth RS, Cuello F, Ibrahim M, Aravamudhan S, Krüger M, Holt MR, Terracciano CM, Mayr M, Gautel M, Avkiran M (Jan 2014). "Phosphoregulation of the titin-cap protein telethonin in cardiac myocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (3): 1282–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.479030. PMID 24280220. 
  18. ^ Haworth RS, Cuello F, Herron TJ, Franzen G, Kentish JC, Gautel M, Avkiran M (Nov 2004). "Protein kinase D is a novel mediator of cardiac troponin I phosphorylation and regulates myofilament function". Circulation Research. 95 (11): 1091–9. doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000149299.34793.3c. PMID 15514163. 
  19. ^ Tian LF, Li HY, Jin BF, Pan X, Man JH, Zhang PJ, Li WH, Liang B, Liu H, Zhao J, Gong WL, Zhou T, Zhang XM (Jun 2006). "MDM2 interacts with and downregulates a sarcomeric protein, TCAP". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 345 (1): 355–61. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.108. PMID 16678796. .
  20. ^ Mihatsch K, Nestler M, Saluz HP, Henke A, Munder T (Jan 2009). "Proapoptotic protein Siva binds to the muscle protein telethonin in cardiomyocytes during coxsackieviral infection". Cardiovascular Research. 81 (1): 108–15. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvn276. PMID 18849585. 
  21. ^ Podobed PS, Alibhai FJ, Chow CW, Martino TA (2014). "Circadian regulation of myocardial sarcomeric Titin-cap (Tcap, telethonin): identification of cardiac clock-controlled genes using open access bioinformatics data". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e104907. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104907. PMC 4133362Freely accessible. PMID 25121604. 
  22. ^ Vainzof M, Moreira ES, Suzuki OT, Faulkner G, Valle G, Beggs AH, Carpen O, Ribeiro AF, Zanoteli E, Gurgel-Gianneti J, Tsanaclis AM, Silva HC, Passos-Bueno MR, Zatz M (Oct 2002). "Telethonin protein expression in neuromuscular disorders". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1588 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1016/s0925-4439(02)00113-8. PMID 12379311. 
  23. ^ Andersen PS, Havndrup O, Hougs L, Sørensen KM, Jensen M, Larsen LA, Hedley P, Thomsen AR, Moolman-Smook J, Christiansen M, Bundgaard H (Mar 2009). "Diagnostic yield, interpretation, and clinical utility of mutation screening of sarcomere encoding genes in Danish hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and relatives". Human Mutation. 30 (3): 363–70. doi:10.1002/humu.20862. PMID 19035361. 
  24. ^ Bos JM, Poley RN, Ny M, Tester DJ, Xu X, Vatta M, Towbin JA, Gersh BJ, Ommen SR, Ackerman MJ (May 2006). "Genotype-phenotype relationships involving hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated mutations in titin, muscle LIM protein, and telethonin". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 88 (1): 78–85. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2005.10.008. PMID 16352453. 
  25. ^ Theis JL, Bos JM, Bartleson VB, Will ML, Binder J, Vatta M, Towbin JA, Gersh BJ, Ommen SR, Ackerman MJ (Dec 2006). "Echocardiographic-determined septal morphology in Z-disc hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 351 (4): 896–902. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.10.119. PMID 17097056. 
  26. ^ Rampersaud E, Siegfried JD, Norton N, Li D, Martin E, Hershberger RE (Jan 2011). "Rare variant mutations identified in pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy". Progress in Pediatric Cardiology. 31 (1): 39–47. doi:10.1016/j.ppedcard.2010.11.008. PMID 21483645. 
  27. ^ Hirtle-Lewis M, Desbiens K, Ruel I, Rudzicz N, Genest J, Engert JC, Giannetti N (Oct 2013). "The genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy: a prioritized candidate gene study of LMNA, TNNT2, TCAP, and PLN". Clinical Cardiology. 36 (10): 628–33. doi:10.1002/clc.22193. PMID 24037902. 
  28. ^ Hershberger RE, Parks SB, Kushner JD, Li D, Ludwigsen S, Jakobs P, Nauman D, Burgess D, Partain J, Litt M (May 2008). "Coding sequence mutations identified in MYH7, TNNT2, SCN5A, CSRP3, LBD3, and TCAP from 313 patients with familial or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy". Clinical and Translational Science. 1 (1): 21–6. doi:10.1111/j.1752-8062.2008.00017.x. PMID 19412328. 
  29. ^ Hayashi T, Arimura T, Itoh-Satoh M, Ueda K, Hohda S, Inagaki N, Takahashi M, Hori H, Yasunami M, Nishi H, Koga Y, Nakamura H, Matsuzaki M, Choi BY, Bae SW, You CW, Han KH, Park JE, Knöll R, Hoshijima M, Chien KR, Kimura A (Dec 2004). "Tcap gene mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 44 (11): 2192–201. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2004.08.058. PMID 15582318. 
  30. ^ Itoh-Satoh M, Hayashi T, Nishi H, Koga Y, Arimura T, Koyanagi T, Takahashi M, Hohda S, Ueda K, Nouchi T, Hiroe M, Marumo F, Imaizumi T, Yasunami M, Kimura A (Feb 2002). "Titin mutations as the molecular basis for dilated cardiomyopathy". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 291 (2): 385–93. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6448. PMID 11846417. 
  31. ^ Nakano N, Hori H, Abe M, Shibata H, Arimura T, Sasaoka T, Sawabe M, Chida K, Arai T, Nakahara K, Kubo T, Sugimoto K, Katsuya T, Ogihara T, Doi Y, Izumi T, Kimura A (Dec 2007). "Interaction of BMP10 with Tcap may modulate the course of hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 293 (6): H3396–403. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00311.2007. PMID 17921333. 
  32. ^ Kojic S, Medeot E, Guccione E, Krmac H, Zara I, Martinelli V, Valle G, Faulkner G (May 2004). "The Ankrd2 protein, a link between the sarcomere and the nucleus in skeletal muscle". Journal of Molecular Biology. 339 (2): 313–25. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.071. PMID 15136035. 
  33. ^ Nakano N, Hori H, Abe M, Shibata H, Arimura T, Sasaoka T, Sawabe M, Chida K, Arai T, Nakahara K, Kubo T, Sugimoto K, Katsuya T, Ogihara T, Doi Y, Izumi T, Kimura A (Dec 2007). "Interaction of BMP10 with Tcap may modulate the course of hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 293 (6): H3396–403. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00311.2007. PMID 17921333. 
  34. ^ Tian LF, Li HY, Jin BF, Pan X, Man JH, Zhang PJ, Li WH, Liang B, Liu H, Zhao J, Gong WL, Zhou T, Zhang XM (Jun 2006). "MDM2 interacts with and downregulates a sarcomeric protein, TCAP". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 345 (1): 355–61. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.108. PMID 16678796. 
  35. ^ Nicholas G, Thomas M, Langley B, Somers W, Patel K, Kemp CF, Sharma M, Kambadur R (Oct 2002). "Titin-cap associates with, and regulates secretion of, Myostatin". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 193 (1): 120–31. doi:10.1002/jcp.10158. PMID 12209887. 
  36. ^ a b Frey N, Olson EN (Apr 2002). "Calsarcin-3, a novel skeletal muscle-specific member of the calsarcin family, interacts with multiple Z-disc proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (16): 13998–4004. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200712200. PMID 11842093. 
  37. ^ Faulkner G, Pallavicini A, Comelli A, Salamon M, Bortoletto G, Ievolella C, Trevisan S, Kojic' S, Dalla Vecchia F, Laveder P, Valle G, Lanfranchi G (Dec 2000). "FATZ, a filamin-, actinin-, and telethonin-binding protein of the Z-disc of skeletal muscle". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (52): 41234–42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M007493200. PMID 10984498. 
  38. ^ Haworth RS, Cuello F, Herron TJ, Franzen G, Kentish JC, Gautel M, Avkiran M (Nov 2004). "Protein kinase D is a novel mediator of cardiac troponin I phosphorylation and regulates myofilament function". Circulation Research. 95 (11): 1091–9. doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000149299.34793.3c. PMID 15514163. 
  39. ^ Mihatsch K, Nestler M, Saluz HP, Henke A, Munder T (Jan 2009). "Proapoptotic protein Siva binds to the muscle protein telethonin in cardiomyocytes during coxsackieviral infection". Cardiovascular Research. 81 (1): 108–15. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvn276. PMID 18849585. 
  40. ^ Zou P, Gautel M, Geerlof A, Wilmanns M, Koch MH, Svergun DI (Jan 2003). "Solution scattering suggests cross-linking function of telethonin in the complex with titin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (4): 2636–44. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210217200. PMID 12446666. 
  41. ^ Mues A, van der Ven PF, Young P, Fürst DO, Gautel M (May 1998). "Two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Z-disc portion of titin interact in a conformation-dependent way with telethonin". FEBS Letters. 428 (1-2): 111–4. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(98)00501-8. PMID 9645487. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Faulkner G, Lanfranchi G, Valle G (May 2001). "Telethonin and other new proteins of the Z-disc of skeletal muscle". IUBMB Life. 51 (5): 275–82. doi:10.1080/152165401317190761. PMID 11699871. 
  • Moreira ES, Vainzof M, Marie SK, Sertié AL, Zatz M, Passos-Bueno MR (Jul 1997). "The seventh form of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is mapped to 17q11-12". American Journal of Human Genetics. 61 (1): 151–9. doi:10.1086/513889. PMC 1715843Freely accessible. PMID 9245996. 
  • Mues A, van der Ven PF, Young P, Fürst DO, Gautel M (May 1998). "Two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Z-disc portion of titin interact in a conformation-dependent way with telethonin". FEBS Letters. 428 (1-2): 111–4. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00501-8. PMID 9645487. 
  • Mayans O, van der Ven PF, Wilm M, Mues A, Young P, Fürst DO, Wilmanns M, Gautel M (Oct 1998). "Structural basis for activation of the titin kinase domain during myofibrillogenesis". Nature. 395 (6705): 863–9. doi:10.1038/27603. PMID 9804419. 
  • Moreira ES, Wiltshire TJ, Faulkner G, Nilforoushan A, Vainzof M, Suzuki OT, Valle G, Reeves R, Zatz M, Passos-Bueno MR, Jenne DE (Feb 2000). "Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein telethonin". Nature Genetics. 24 (2): 163–6. doi:10.1038/72822. PMID 10655062. 
  • Faulkner G, Pallavicini A, Comelli A, Salamon M, Bortoletto G, Ievolella C, Trevisan S, Kojic' S, Dalla Vecchia F, Laveder P, Valle G, Lanfranchi G (Dec 2000). "FATZ, a filamin-, actinin-, and telethonin-binding protein of the Z-disc of skeletal muscle". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (52): 41234–42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M007493200. PMID 10984498. 
  • Schröder R, Reimann J, Iakovenko A, Mues A, Bönnemann CG, Matten J, Gautel M (2002). "Early and selective disappearance of telethonin protein from the sarcomere in neurogenic atrophy". Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 22 (3): 259–64. doi:10.1023/A:1012242011109. PMID 11763198. 
  • Frey N, Olson EN (Apr 2002). "Calsarcin-3, a novel skeletal muscle-specific member of the calsarcin family, interacts with multiple Z-disc proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (16): 13998–4004. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200712200. PMID 11842093. 
  • Nicholas G, Thomas M, Langley B, Somers W, Patel K, Kemp CF, Sharma M, Kambadur R (Oct 2002). "Titin-cap associates with, and regulates secretion of, Myostatin". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 193 (1): 120–31. doi:10.1002/jcp.10158. PMID 12209887. 
  • Zou P, Gautel M, Geerlof A, Wilmanns M, Koch MH, Svergun DI (Jan 2003). "Solution scattering suggests cross-linking function of telethonin in the complex with titin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (4): 2636–44. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210217200. PMID 12446666. 
  • Knöll R, Hoshijima M, Hoffman HM, Person V, Lorenzen-Schmidt I, Bang ML, Hayashi T, Shiga N, Yasukawa H, Schaper W, McKenna W, Yokoyama M, Schork NJ, Omens JH, McCulloch AD, Kimura A, Gregorio CC, Poller W, Schaper J, Schultheiss HP, Chien KR (Dec 2002). "The cardiac mechanical stretch sensor machinery involves a Z disc complex that is defective in a subset of human dilated cardiomyopathy". Cell. 111 (7): 943–55. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01226-6. PMID 12507422. 
  • Katoh M, Katoh M (Apr 2004). "Evolutionary recombination hotspot around GSDML-GSDM locus is closely linked to the oncogenomic recombination hotspot around the PPP1R1B-ERBB2-GRB7 amplicon". International Journal of Oncology. 24 (4): 757–63. doi:10.3892/ijo.24.4.757. PMID 15010812. 
  • Kojic S, Medeot E, Guccione E, Krmac H, Zara I, Martinelli V, Valle G, Faulkner G (May 2004). "The Ankrd2 protein, a link between the sarcomere and the nucleus in skeletal muscle". Journal of Molecular Biology. 339 (2): 313–25. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.071. PMID 15136035. 
  • Hayashi T, Arimura T, Itoh-Satoh M, Ueda K, Hohda S, Inagaki N, Takahashi M, Hori H, Yasunami M, Nishi H, Koga Y, Nakamura H, Matsuzaki M, Choi BY, Bae SW, You CW, Han KH, Park JE, Knöll R, Hoshijima M, Chien KR, Kimura A (Dec 2004). "Tcap gene mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 44 (11): 2192–201. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2004.08.058. PMID 15582318. 

External links[edit]