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Malankara Metropolitan was a legal title given to the head of the Malankara Syrian Church, by the Government of Travancore and Cochin in South India. This title was awarded by a proclamation from the King of Travancore & the King of Cochin.
It was when Col. Munroe the resident of Travancore, Pulikkottil Joseph Ittoop Ramban was ordained as a bishop by Geevarghese Mar Philexenos (Kidangan) (1811–29) of Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhyoor Church) on 22 March 1815. He was given the episcopal title Dionysius, the second bishop in the Malankara Church to get this title. After the death of Mar Thoma VIII, he was made the head of the Malankara Church by a Royal proclamation issued by the King of Travancore and later by the King of Cochin. The proclamation insisted every Syrian Christian of Travancore-Cochin obey the Malankara Metropolitan. From then onwards the head of the Malankara Syrian Church legally came to be known as Malankara Metropolitan. The position of the Malankara Metropolitan in the 19th century is an upgrowth from the position of the previous Mar Thomas and Archdeacons. The power and authority of the Malankara Metropolitan got more recognition than the power and authority of the previous Archdeacons' and Marthomas' because of some political changes in the country through the establishment of British rule.
From 1816, Dionysius II, Dionysius III, Dionysius IV, Mathews Mar Athanasius, Thomas Mar Athanasius and Dionysius V were the Malankara Metropolitans in the 19th century. Among these Mathews Mar Athanasius of Palakkunnathu exercised enormous spiritual as well as temporal powers inside and outside the community. He was the Malankara Metropolitan at the time of Mulanthuruthy Padiyola in (1876).However inspired by the western missionaries cooperated in the old seminary at Kottayam, he wanted to inculcate reformist ideas in the traditional Syrian church. A parallel group under Dionysius V was working against the ruling Malankara Metropolitan's reformist ideas. During the latter half of the 19th century there occurred two factions in the community; the minority faction that favored reformation and supported the Malankara metropolitan(Reformists)and the majority faction who were against the introduction of new changes which was against the Syrian tradition of the church got stood with the Pulikootil Joseph Mar Dionysius 2 (Syrian traditionalists). This also invited a closer interference of the Patriarch of Antioch in Malankara Church. Mar Dionysius V stood with the Patriarch of Antioch against the ruling metropolitan, Mathews Mar Athanasius of Palakkunnathu. A series of court cases followed thereafter. The Travancore Royal court on 14 July 1889 declared that Palakkunnathu Thomas Mar Athanasius and the Reformist faction has no rights in the Malankara Syrian Church. Later the Reformist faction organized themselves as the independent Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church.
The practice of issuing Royal proclamation ceased after the time of Palakkunnathu Mathews Mar Athanasius. Dionysius V of the (Syrian traditionalists) invited and brought Patriarch Peter III of Antioch to Malankara in 1875.The Patriarch divided the Malankara church into seven dioceses; Dionysius V who was holding the Diocese of Quilon was declared as the Malankara Metropolitan in the synod of Mulanthuruthy(27 to 30 June 1876). Neither the reigning Malankara Metropolitan, Palakkunathu Mathews Mar Athanasius nor the Churches favoring him participated in the synod.
Later on, a series of court cases and stronger rift occurred in the church. The head of Malankara Church, Malankara Metropolitan Dionysius V approached the Royal Court of Travancore against Palakkunnathu Thomas Mar Athanasius reigning as Malankara Metropolitan and against occupying assets of church and seminary. Appellant Dionysius V won the case in 1889 and Palakkunnathu Thomas Mar Athanasius was deprived of the title of Malankara Metropolitan and evicted from Syrian Seminary.
Later the reformist faction argued over years that the case took a turn in favor of Dionysius 5,on production of an evidence exhibit which later became infamous as KAPPI CANON (a Syriac Church law book which was tampered with addition of extra articles narrating historic subordination of Malankara church to Holy See of Antioch and giving temporal powers to See of Antioch) dipped in coffee concentrate to show its antiquity.Mean while the defeated reformist faction organized themselves under the Malankara Metropolitan Thomas Mar Athanasius with independent Indigenous Christian heritage as Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church.
- Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church: Indipendented Reformation Church under the jurisdiction of Metropolitan Throne of Malankara See.
- Malankara Syrian Church: Continue under the jurisdiction of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.
However, later after the establishment of Catholicate in Malankara in 1912, again a rift occurred among Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church over the temporal authority of Patriarch of Antioch. There were several years of litigation between the two factions, the Metran faction, and the Bava faction.
- Mathran Faction (Malankara Orthodox Church): Catholicos of the East is the primate of the church, throne of Saint Thomas.
- Bava Kakshi (Jacobite Syrian Church) : continue under the local jurisdiction of Malankara Metropolitan of Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, Later established Catholicos of India.
Historically the primate or the leader of St Thomas Christians were known as Jathikku Karthavyan (leader of Community), Malankara Moopen (Elder of the Community), Archdeacon or Arkadyokon (High Priest). In the 16th century to resist the Latinization attempts of the Jesuits, it became necessary to elevate the Archdeacon to a position of 'Metropolitan Bishop' named as Mar Thoma. In 1653 the Archdeacon position was elevated to Bishopric by laying hands of twelve priests in the absence of a valid Bishop. This was an emergency step. Then onwards the Metropolitan Bishop assumed the honorific ecclesiastical title Marthoma. This title was used from 1653 to 1815. Later a regular 'Bishopric' was established in Malankara with the help of Gregorios Abdal Jaleel. Until a few hundred years back, the leadership of St Thomas Christian Community was dynastically held by members of the Pakalomattom family.
Mar Thoma (title)
- Mar Thoma I – In 1653, Thomas of Pakalomattam Thravadu was consecrated with the title Marthoma I by Mar Gregorios Abdal Jaleel. Marthoma I survived a number of assassination attempts. He died on 25 April 1670 and was interred in Angamaly St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church.
- Mar Thoma II – (1670–1686) Consecrated by Marthoma I and Mar Gregorios Abdal Jaleel. Died on 14 April 1686 and was interred at St. Mary's Syriac Orthodox Church, Niranam.
- Mar Thoma III – (1686–1688) Consecrated by Mar Ivanios Hirudyathulla (from Antioch), died on 21 April 1688. Laid to rest at St.Thomas Syriac Orthodox Church, Kadampanad.
- Mar Thoma IV – (1688–1728). Consecrated by Mar Ivanios Hirudyathulla. Died on 24 March 1728 and was interred at Kandanad Martha Mariam Syriac Orthodox Church.
- Mar Thoma V – (1728–1765) – Consecrated by Marthoma IV. Died on 8 May 1765 and laid to rest at St. Mary's Syriac
Orthodox Church, Niranam.
- Mar Thoma VI – (1765–1808) Consecrated by Marthoma V. Died on 8 April 1808 and laid to rest at St. Mary's Syriac Orthodox Cathedral, Puthenkavu. Important events:
In June 1770, he accepted re-consecration from Antiochian bishops in order to avoid a split in the Church and the title Dionysius was accepted. Marthoma VI did not approve the appointment of Kattumangattu Abraham Mar Coorilos as a metropolitan by a bishop from Antioch. This was the beginning of Malabar Independent Syrian Church. He was forced to conduct a service according to Chaldean Catholic rites but escaped during a rebellion in Travancore under Velu Thampi. Rev.Dr. Claudius Buchanan visited and made arrangement for the translation of the Bible into Malayalam. Marthoma presented him the Peshitto Bible written in the old Syriac. This manuscript is kept in the public library of the University of Cambridge.
- Mar Thoma VII – (1808–1809) Consecrated by Marthoma VI in 1796. During his time on 1 December 1808, a sum of 3000 Star Pagoda (in 2002 one Star Pagoda coin had a market value of £475) was given as loan in perpetuity to the British resident Colonel Macaulay. This is known as Vattipanam. Marthoma died on 4 July 1809 and was interred at St. Peter's & St. Paul's Syriac Orthodox Church, Kolencherry.
- Mar Thoma VIII – (1809–1816) Consecrated on 2 July 1809 by Marthoma VII. During his time Kottayam Suryani Seminary was opened and modern education began in Kerala. Marthoma died on 26 January 1816 and was interred at St. Mary's Cathedral, Puthencavu, Chengannur.
- Mar Thoma IX – (1816–1817). Consecrated by Marthoma VIII without the consent of the people. So he retired to St.George Orthodox Church, Kadamattom, and spent the rest of his days in prayer and fasting.
Thereafter the Malankara Metropolitans didn't use the name Marthoma with their ecclesiastical title until 1975. Pulikottil Joseph Mar Dionysius (Malankara Metropolitan) – (1816) was consecrated by Mar Philoxenos II, of the Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyoor Sabha). Died on 25 November 1816 and laid to rest at Orthodox Old Seminary, Kottayam. (He didn't use the official title Marthoma even though people affectionately called him Marthoma X.)
- Mar Dionysius II (Pulikottil Joseph Mar Dionysius)
- Mar Dionysius III (Punnathra Geevargis Mar Dionysius)-(1817–1825)
- Mar Dionysius IV (Cheppattu Philipose Mar Dionysius)-(1825–1852)
- Mathews Mar Athanasius-(1852–1877)
- Mar Dionysius V (Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysius II)-(1865-1909)
- Mar Dionysius VI (Geevarghese Dionysius of Vattasseril)-(1909-1934) of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
Malankara Metropolitans in Jacobite Syrian Church
Catholicos of the East and Malankara Metropolitan
Since 1936, the Catholicos and Malankara Metropolitan were held by same person in Indian Orthodox Church
- Baselios Geevarghese II (1934-1964)
- Baselios Augen I (1964–1975)
- Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews I (1975–1991)
- Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews II (1991–2005)
- Baselios Mar Thoma Didymos I (2005–2010)
- Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II(2010–present)
- Kallumkathra Padiyola Explaining Under the Holy See of Antioch | http://www.syriacchristianity.info/Kallumkathra/KallumkathraPadiyola.pdf
- http://www.syriacchristianity.info/StGG/mavelikara__padiyola.htm</ref|Mavelikara Padiyola subject to the supremacy of Mar Ignatius Patriarch
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-03-24. Retrieved 2010-03-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Niranam St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Church – Niranam Valiyapally". Niranamchurch.com. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
-  Archived 30 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "St.George Orthodox Syrian church,Kadamattom,Kerala,India,Kadamatttathu Kathanar,Kadamattom pally,churches in Kerala,orthodox church". Kadamattomchurch.org. Archived from the original on 2014-12-27. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
- Frykenberg, Robert Eric (2008). Christianity in India: From Beginnings to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press.