|Born||Marie Elias Ziade
February 11, 1886
Nazareth, Vilayet of Syria
|Died||October 17, 1941
Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
|Pen name||May Ziade|
Known as a prolific writer, she wrote for Arabic newspapers and periodicals, Ziade also wrote a number of poems and books. She was a key figure of the Nahda in the early 20th-century Arab literary scene, and is known for being an "early feminist" and a "pioneer of Oriental feminism."
Early and personal life
Ziade attended primary school in Nazareth. As her father came to the Kesrouan region of Mount Lebanon, at 14 years of age she was sent to Aintoura to pursue her secondary studies at a French convent school for girls. Her studies in Aintoura had exposed her to French literature, and Romantic literature, to which she took a particular liking. She attended several Roman Catholic schools in Lebanon and in 1904, returned to Nazareth to be with her parents. She is reported to have published her first articles at age 16.
Ziade never married, but she had a relationship with one of the Arab literary greats of the twentieth century, the Lebanese-American poet and writer, Khalil Gibran. Although the pair never met, they maintained a written correspondence until Gibran's death in 1931.
Between 1928 and 1932, Ziade suffered a series of personal losses, beginning with the death of her parents, her friends, and above all Khalil Gibran. She fell into a deep depression and returned to Lebanon where her relatives placed her in a psychiatric hospital to gain control over her estate. Nawal El Saadawi submits that Ziade was sent to the hospital for expressing feminist sentiments. Ziyadah was profoundly humiliated and incensed by this decision; Ziade eventually recovered and left after a medical report proved that she was of sound mental health. She returned to Cairo where she died on October 17, 1941.
Journalism and language studies
Ziade was particularly interested in learning languages, studying privately at home coupled with a French-Catholic education, and studying at local university for a Modern Languages degree while in Egypt. As a result, Ziade was completely bilingual in Arabic and French, and had working knowledge of English, Italian, German, Spanish, Latin as well as Modern Greek. She graduated in 1917.
Key Arab literary figure
Ziade was well known in Arab literary circles, receiving many male and female writers and intellectuals at a literary salon she established in 1912. Among those that frequented the salon were Taha Hussein, Khalil Moutrane, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, Antoun Gemayel, Walieddine Yakan, Abbas el-Akkad and Yacoub Sarrouf.
Though she never married, from 1912 onward, she maintained an extensive written correspondence with Khalil Gibran. While they never met as he was living in New York City, the correspondence lasted 19 years until his death in 1931, and Ziade is credited with introducing his work to the Egyptian public.
Unlike her peers, Princess Nazli Fadil and Huda Sha'arawi, Mayy Ziyadah was more a 'woman of letters' than a social reformer. However, she was also involved in the women's emancipation movement. Ziade was deeply concerned with the emancipation of the Arab woman; a task to be effected first by tackling ignorance, and then anachronistic traditions. She considered women to be the basic elements of every human society and wrote that a woman enslaved could not breastfeed her children with her own milk when that milk smelled strongly of servitude.
She specified that female evolution towards equality need not be enacted at the expense of femininity, but rather that it was a parallel process. In 1921, she convened a conference under the heading, "Le but de la vie" ("The goal of life"), where she called upon Arab women to aspire toward freedom, and to be open to the Occident without forgetting their Oriental identity. Despite her death in 1941 her writings still represent the ideals of the first wave of Lebanese feminism. Ziade believed in liberating women and the first wave focused on doing just that through education, receiving voting rights, and finally having representation in government.
Romanticism and Orientalism
Bearing a romantic streak from childhood, Ziade was successively influenced by Lamartine, Byron, Shelley, and finally Gibran. These influences are evident in the majority of her works. She often reflected on her nostalgia for Lebanon and her fertile, vibrant, sensitive imagination is as evident as her mystery, melancholy and despair.
Ziade's first published work, Fleurs de rêve (1911), was a volume of poetry, written in French, using the pen name of Isis Copia. She wrote quite extensively in French, and occasionally English or Italian, but as she evolved she increasingly found her literary voice in Arabic. She published works of criticism and biography, volumes of free-verse poetry and essays, and novels. She translated several European authors into Arabic, including Arthur Conan Doyle from English, 'Brada' (the Italian Contessa Henriette Consuelo di Puliga) from French, and Max Müller from German. She hosted the most famous literary salon of the Arab world during the twenties and thirties in Cairo.
Well noted titles of her works in Arabic (with English translation in brackets) include:
- Al Bâhithat el-Bâdiya باحثة البادية ("Seeker in the Desert," pen name of Malak Hifni Naser)
- Sawâneh fatât سوانح فتاة (Platters of Crumbs)
- Zulumât wa Ichâ'ât ظلمات وأشعة (Humiliation and Rumors...)
- Kalimât wa Ichârât كلمات وأشارات (Words and Signs)
- Al Saha'ef الصحائف (The Newspapers)
- Ghayat Al-Hayât غاية الحياة (The Meaning of Life)
- Al-Musâwât المساواة (Equality)
- Bayna l-Jazri wa l-Madd بين الجزر والمد (Between the Ebb and Flow)
- "Previously Featured Life of a Woman: May Ziade". Lebanese Women's Association. Archived from the original on 2007-04-18. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
- "May Ziade: Temoin authentique de son epoque". Art et culture. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
- "Remembering May Ziadeh: Ahead of (her) Time". middle east revised. 30 October 2014.
- Boustani, 2003, p. 203.
- Peterson and Lewis, 2001, p. 220.
- "Notice sur la poetesse May Ziade". BIBLIB. Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
- Gibran, Khalil (1983). Blue Flame: The Love Letters of Khalil Gibran to May Ziadah. edited and translated by Suheil Bushrui and Salma Kuzbari. Harlow, England: Longman. ISBN 0-582-78078-0.
- Khaldi, 2008 p. 103
- "Notice sur la poetesse May Ziade". BIBLIB. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
- Gibran, 2006, p. 22.
- Zeidan, 1995, p. 75
- "Four Waves of Lebanese Feminism". E-International Relations. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
- Ziegler, p. 103
- Boustani, Carmen (2003). Effets du féminin: variations narratives francophones. Collection Lettres du Sud. Paris: Editions Karthala. ISBN 978-2-84586-433-7. OCLC 53297358.
- Gibran, Khalil (2006) . Jesus, el hijo del hombre. Deva's. ISBN 978-987-1102-57-0.
- Peterson, Janice; Lewis, Margaret (2001) . The Elgar Companion to Feminist Economics. Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84064-783-9. OCLC 827907131.
- Bloomsbury Guide to Women's Literature
- Marilyn Booth, 'Biography and Feminist Rhetoric in Early Twentieth Century Egypt: Mayy Ziyada's Studies of Three Women's Lives', Journal of Women's History 3:1 (1991), pp. 38–64
- Tahir Khemiri & G. Kampffmeyer, Leaders in Contemporary Arabic Literature: A Book of Reference (1930), pp. 24–27
- Joseph T. Zeidan, Arabic Women Novelists: The Formative Years and Beyond. 1995.
- Antje Ziegler, 'Al-Haraka Baraka! The Late Rediscovery of Mayy Ziyāda's Works', Die Welt des Islams 39:1 (1999), pp. 103–115