Jump to content

Nawal El Saadawi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nawal El Saadawi
نوال السعداوي
Saadawi in 2008
Born(1931-10-22)22 October 1931
Died21 March 2021(2021-03-21) (aged 89)
Cairo, Egypt
Other namesNawal Zeinab el Sayed
Alma materCairo University
Columbia University
Occupation(s)Physician, psychiatrist, author
Notable workWomen and Sex (1969)
Woman at Point Zero (1975)
Ahmed Helmi
(m. 1955; div. 1957)
Rashad Bey
(m. 1964; div. 2010)

Nawal Elsaadawi (Egyptian Arabic: نوال السعداوى, ALA-LC: Nawāl Elsaʻdāwī, 22 October 1931 – 21 March 2021) was an Egyptian feminist writer, activist and physician. She wrote numerous books on the subject of women in Islam, focusing on the practice of female genital mutilation in her society.[1] She was described as "the Simone de Beauvoir of the Arab World",[2][3] and as "Egypt's most radical woman".[4]

She was founder and president of the Arab Women's Solidarity Association[5][6] and co-founder of the Arab Association for Human Rights.[7] She was awarded honorary degrees on three continents. In 2004, she won the North–South Prize from the Council of Europe. In 2005, she won the Inana International Prize in Belgium,[8] and in 2012, the International Peace Bureau awarded her the 2012 Seán MacBride Peace Prize.[9]

Early life[edit]

The second-eldest of nine children, Saadawi was born on 22 October 1931 in the small village of Kafr Tahla, Egypt.[10] Saadawi was mutilated (her clitoris cut off)[11] at the age of six,[12] though her father believed that both girls and boys should be educated. She had described her mother and father as being relatively liberal when growing up.[12]

Her Upper Egyptian father was a government official in the Ministry of Education, who had campaigned against the British occupation of Egypt during the Egyptian Revolution of 1919. As a result, he was exiled to a small town in the Nile Delta, and the government refrained from promoting him for 10 years. He was relatively progressive and taught his daughter self-respect and to speak her mind. He also encouraged her to study the Arabic language. However, when El Saadawi was 10 years old, her family tried to make her marry, but her mother supported her in resisting.[13] Both her parents died at a young age,[14][unreliable source] leaving Saadawi with the sole burden of providing for a large family.[15] Her mother, Zaynab, was partially descendant from a wealthy Ottoman family;[16] Saadawi described both her maternal grandfather, Shoukry,[17] and her maternal grandmother as having Ottoman origin.[18] Even as a child she objected to the male-dominated society she lived in, with sons valued far more highly than daughters, reacting angrily to her grandmother who said that "a boy is worth 15 girls at least... Girls are a blight".[13] She described herself proudly as a dark-skinned Egyptian woman since she was young.[19][20]


Saadawi graduated as a medical doctor in 1955 from Cairo University. That year, she married Ahmed Helmi, whom she met as a fellow student in medical school. They have a daughter, Mona Helmi.[11] The marriage ended after two years.[21][11] Through her medical practice, she observed women's physical and psychological problems and connected them with oppressive cultural practices, patriarchal oppression, class oppression and imperialist oppression.[22] Her second husband was a colleague, Rashad Bey.[21][23]

While working as a doctor in her birthplace of Kafr Tahla, she observed the hardships and inequalities faced by rural women. After attempting to protect one of her patients from domestic violence, Saadawi was summoned back to Cairo. She eventually became the Director of the Ministry of Public Health and met her third husband, Sherif Hatata, while sharing an office in the Ministry of Health. Hatata, also a medical doctor and writer, had been a political prisoner for 13 years. They married in 1964 and have a son.[15][11] Saadawi and Hatata lived together for 43 years[24] and divorced in 2010.[25]

Saadawi attended Columbia University, earning a master's degree in public health in 1966.[26] In 1972, she published Woman and Sex (المرأة والجنس), confronting and contextualising various aggressions perpetrated against women's bodies, including female circumcision. The book became a foundational text of second-wave feminism. As a consequence of the book and her political activities, Saadawi was dismissed from her position at the Ministry of Health.[22] She also lost her positions as chief editor of a health journal, and as Assistant General Secretary in the Medical Association in Egypt. From 1973 to 1976, Saadawi worked on researching women and neurosis in Ain Shams University's Faculty of Medicine. From 1979 to 1980, she was the United Nations Advisor for the Women's Programme in Africa (ECA) and the Middle East (ECWA).[27][28]

Court cases against her[edit]

In 2002 a legal attempt was made by Nabih el-Wahsh in an Egyptian Court to legally divorce el-Saadwai from her husband on account of hesba, a 9th-century principle of shariah law, that allows for the conviction of Muslims who are seen to be harming Islam. The evidence used against her was a March interview in which el-Wahsh claims was proof she had abandoned Islam. The legal attempt was unsuccessful.[11][29]

In 2008, a similar attempt was made to strip el-Saadawi of her Egyptian nationality due to her radical opinions and writing, this attempt was also unsuccessful.[11]


Long viewed as controversial and dangerous by the Egyptian government, Saadawi helped publish a feminist magazine in 1981 called Confrontation. She was imprisoned in September by President of Egypt Anwar Sadat.[30] Saadawi stated once in an interview, "I was arrested because I believed Sadat. He said there is democracy and we have a multi-party system and you can criticize. So I started criticizing his policy and I landed in jail." Sadat claimed that the established government was a democracy for the people and that democracy as always was open for constructive criticism. According to Saadawi, Sadat imprisoned her because of her criticism of his purported democracy. Even in prison she still found a way to fight against the oppression of women. While in prison she formed the Arab Women's Solidarity Association. This was the first legal and independent feminist group in Egypt. In prison, she was denied pen and paper, however, that did not stop her from continuing to write. She used a "stubby black eyebrow pencil" and "a small roll of old and tattered toilet paper" to record her thoughts.[31] She was released later that year, one month after the President's assassination. Of her experience she wrote: "Danger has been a part of my life ever since I picked up a pen and wrote. Nothing is more perilous than truth in a world that lies."[32]

In 1982, she founded the Arab Women's Solidarity Association.[33] She described her organization as "historical, socialist, and feminist".[34]

Saadawi was one of the women held at Qanatir Women's Prison. Her incarceration formed the basis for her 1983 Memoirs from the Women's Prison (Arabic: مذكرات في سجن النساء). Her contact with a prisoner at Qanatir, nine years before she was imprisoned there, served as inspiration for an earlier work, a novel titled Woman at Point Zero (Arabic: امرأة عند نقطة الصفر, 1975).[35]

Further persecution, teaching in the US, and later activism[edit]

In 1993, when her life was threatened by Islamists and political persecution, Saadawi was forced to flee Egypt. She accepted an offer to teach at Duke University's Asian and African Languages Department in North Carolina,[36][37] as well as at the University of Washington. She later held positions at a number of prestigious colleges and universities including Cairo University, Harvard, Yale, Columbia, the Sorbonne, Georgetown, Florida State University, and the University of California, Berkeley. In 1996, she moved back to Egypt.[37][38]

Saadawi continued her activism and considered running in the 2005 Egyptian presidential election, before stepping out because of stringent requirements for first-time candidates.[39] She was among the protesters in Tahrir Square in 2011.[40] She called for the abolition of religious instruction in Egyptian schools.[41]

Saadawi was awarded the 2004 North–South Prize by the Council of Europe.[42] In July 2016, she headlined the Royal African Society's "Africa Writes" literary festival in London, where she spoke "On Being a Woman Writer" in conversation with Margaret Busby.[43][44]

At the Göteborg Book Fair that took place on 27 to 30 September 2018, Saadawi attended a seminar on development in Egypt and the Middle East after the Arab Spring[45] and during her talk at the event stated that "colonial, capitalist, imperialist, racist" global powers, led by the United States, collaborated with the Egyptian government to end the 2011 Egyptian revolution. She added that she remembered seeing then-U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Tahrir Square handing out dollar bills to the youth in order to encourage them to vote for the Muslim Brotherhood in the upcoming elections.[46]

Nawal El Saadawi held the positions of Author for the Supreme Council for Arts and Social Sciences, Cairo; Director General of the Health Education Department, Ministry of Health, Cairo, Secretary General of the Medical Association, Cairo, Egypt, and medical doctor at the University Hospital and Ministry of Health. She was the founder of the Health Education Association and the Egyptian Women Writers' Association; she was Chief Editor of Health Magazine in Cairo, and Editor of Medical Association Magazine.[47][48]


Saadawi at the Göteborg Book Fair in 2010

Saadawi began writing early in her career. Her earliest writings include a selection of short stories entitled I Learned Love (1957) and her first novel, Memoirs of a Woman Doctor (1958). She subsequently wrote numerous novels and short stories and a personal memoir, Memoir from the Women's Prison (1986). Saadawi has been published in a number of anthologies, and her work has been translated from the original Arabic into more than 30 languages,[49] including English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Italian, Dutch, Finnish, Indonesian, Japanese, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and others.[50]

In 1972, she published her first work of non-fiction, Women and Sex,[22] which evoked the antagonism of highly placed political and theological authorities.[35] It also led to her dismissal at the Ministry of Health.[22] Other works include The Hidden Face of Eve,[51] God Dies by the Nile,[52] The Circling Song,[53] Searching,[54] The Fall of the Imam (described as "a powerful and moving exposé of the horrors that women and children can be exposed to by the tenets of faith"),[55] and Woman at Point Zero.[56]

Many have criticised her work The Hidden Face of Eve on claims that she was writing for the "critical foreigner".[57] The original title of the book, directly translated into English was "The Naked Face of the Arab Woman" and many chapters have been removed from the English edition of the book, when compared to the Arabic original.[57]

She contributed the piece "When a woman rebels" to the 1984 anthology Sisterhood Is Global, edited by Robin Morgan,[58] and was a contributor to the 2019 anthology New Daughters of Africa, edited by Margaret Busby, which included her essay "About Me in Africa—Politics and Religion in my Childhood".[59][60]

Saadawi's novel Zeina was published in Lebanon in 2009. The French translation was published under the pseudonym Nawal Zeinab el Sayed, using her mother's maiden name.[61]

Saadawi spoke fluent English in addition to her native Egyptian Arabic.[62] As she wrote in Arabic, she saw the question of translation into English or French as "a big problem" linked to the fact that

"the colonial capitalist powers are mainly English- or French-speaking.... I am still ignored by big literary powers in the world, because I write in Arabic, and also because I am critical of the colonial, capitalist, racist, patriarchal mindset of the super-powers."[63]

Her book Mufakirat Tifla fi Al-Khamisa wa Al-Thamaneen (A Notebook of an 85-year-old Girl), based on excerpts from her journal, was published in 2017.[64]


Opposition to genital mutilation[edit]

At a young age, Saadawi underwent the process of female genital mutilation.[65] As an adult, she wrote about and criticized this practice. She responded to the death of a 12-year-old girl, Bedour Shaker, during a genital circumcision operation in 2007 by writing: "Bedour, did you have to die for some light to shine in the dark minds? Did you have to pay with your dear life a price ... for doctors and clerics to learn that the right religion doesn't cut children's organs?"[66] As a doctor and human rights activist, Saadawi was also opposed to male circumcision. She believed that both male and female children deserve protection from genital mutilation.[67]

Socialism and feminism[edit]

Saadawi describes herself as a "socialist-feminist", believing the feminist struggle cannot be won under capitalism.[68] This socialist belief has emerged from the injustices she witnessed in her own life.[68] In The Hidden Face of Eve she writes about how peoples sexual and emotional lives cannot be separated from their economic lives and their productivity, and therefore the personal status laws in Arab countries must be a priority for socialists.[69][68] In an interview she stated that she is not a Marxist, having read his works which she found problems with.[70]


In a 2014 interview, Saadawi said that "the root of the oppression of women lies in the global post-modern capitalist system, which is supported by religious fundamentalism".[71]

When hundreds of people were killed in what has been called a "stampede" during the 2015 pilgrimage (Hajj) of Muslims to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, she said:

"They talk about changing the way the Hajj is administered, about making people travel in smaller groups. What they don’t say is that the crush happened because these people were fighting to stone the devil. Why do they need to stone the devil? Why do they need to kiss that black stone? But no one will say this. The media will not print it. What is it about, this reluctance to criticize religion? ... This refusal to criticize religion ... is not liberalism. This is censorship."[24]

She said that elements of the Hajj, such as kissing the Black Stone, had pre-Islamic pagan roots.[72] Saadawi was involved in the academic exploration of Arab identity throughout her writing career.[73]

Saadawi described the Islamic veil as "a tool of oppression of women".[67]

Objectification of women[edit]

She was also critical of the objectification of women and female bodies in patriarchal social structures common in Europe and the US,[74] upsetting fellow feminists by speaking against make-up and revealing clothes.[13]

United States[edit]

In a 2002 lecture at the University of California, Saadawi described the US-led war on Afghanistan as "a war to exploit the oil in the region", and US foreign policy and its support of Israel as "real terrorism".[75] Saadawi held the opinion that Egyptians are forced into poverty by US aid.[76]


Saadawi is the subject of the film She Spoke the Unspeakable, directed by Jill Nicholls, broadcast in February 2017 in the BBC One television series Imagine.[77]


Saadawi died on 21 March 2021, aged 89, at a hospital in Cairo.[78][79][80] Her life was commemorated on BBC Radio 4's obituary programme Last Word.[81]

Selected awards and honours[edit]

Selected works[edit]

Saadawi wrote prolifically, placing some of her works online.[90][91]

Novels and novellas

  • Mudhakkirat tabiba (Cairo, 1958). Memoirs of a Woman Doctor, trans. Catherine Cobham (Saqi Books, 1988)
  • Al ghayib (Cairo, 1965). Searching, trans. Shirley Eber (Zed Books, 1991)
  • Imra'tani fi-Imra'a (Cairo, 1968). Two Women in One, trans. Osman Nusairi and Jana Gough (Saqi Books, 1985)
  • Maut ar-raǧul al-waḥīd ʿala ‚l-arḍ (1974). God Dies by the Nile, trans. Sherif Hetata (Zed Books, 1985)
  • Al-khait wa'ayn al-hayat (Cairo, 1976). The Well of Life and the Thread: Two Short Novels, trans. Sherif Hetata (Lime Tree, 1993)
  • Ughniyat al-atfal al da iriyah (Beirut: Dar al-Adab, 1977). The Circling Song, trans. Marilyn Booth (Zed Books, 1989)
  • Emra'a enda noktat el sifr (Beirut: Dar al-Adab, 1977). Woman at Point Zero, trans. Sherif Hetata (Zed Books, 1983)
  • Mawt Ma'ali al-Wazir Sabiqan (1980). Death of an Ex-Minister, trans. Shirley Eber (Methuen, 1987)
  • Suqūṭ al-imām (Cairo, 1987). The Fall of the Imam, trans. Sherif Hetata (Methuen, 1988)
  • Jann āt wa-Iblīs (Beirut, 1992). The Innocence of the Devil, trans. Sherif Hetata (Methuen, 1994)
  • Ḥubb fī zaman al-naf̣t (Cairo, 1993). Love in the Kingdom of Oil, trans. Basil Hatim and Malcolm Williams (Saqi Books, 2001)
  • Al-Riwayah (Cairo: Dar El Hilal, 2004). The Novel, trans. Omnia Amin and Rick London (Interlink Books, 2009)
  • Zeina (Beirut: Dar Al Saqi, 2009). Zeina, trans. Amira Nowaira (Saqi Books, 2011)

Short story collections

  • Ta'allamt al-hubb (Cairo, 1957). I Learned Love
  • Lahzat sidq (Cairo, 1959). Moment of Truth
  • Little Tenderness (Cairo, 1960)
  • al-Khayt wa-l-jidar (1972). The Thread and the Wall
  • Ain El Hayat (Beirut, 1976)
  • Kānat hiya al-aḍʻaf ["She Was the Weaker"] (1979). She Has No Place in Paradise, trans. Shirley Eber (Methuen, 1987). Includes three additional stories: "She Has No Place in Paradise", "Two Women Friends", and "'Beautiful'".
  • Adab Am Kellet Abad (Cairo, 2000)


  • Ithna 'ashar imra'a fi zinzana wahida (Cairo, 1984). Twelve Women in a Cell
  • Isis (Cairo, 1985)
  • God Resigns in the Summit Meeting (1996), published by Madbouli, and four other plays included in her Collected Works (45 books in Arabic), Cairo: Madbouli, 2007
  • Twelve Women in a Cell: Plays by Mediterranean Women (Aurora Metro Books, 1994)


  • Mudhakkirat fi Sijn al-Nisa (Cairo, 1983). Memoirs from the Women's Prison, trans. Marilyn Booth (The Women's Press, 1986)
  • Rihlati hawla al-'alam (Cairo, 1986). My Travels Around the World, trans. Shirley Eber (Methuen, 1991)
  • Memoirs of a Child Called Soad (Cairo, 1990)
  • Awraqi hayati, first volume (Cairo, 1995). A Daughter of Isis, trans. Sherif Hetata (Zed Books, 1999)
  • Awraqi hayati, second volume (Cairo, 1998). Walking Through Fire, trans. Sherif Hetata (Zed Books, 2002)
  • My Life, Part III (Cairo, 2001)


  • Women and Sex (Cairo, 1969)
  • Woman Is the Origin (Cairo, 1971)
  • Men and Sex (Cairo, 1973)
  • The Naked Face of Arab Women (Cairo, 1974)
  • Women and Neurosis (Cairo, 1975)
  • Al-Wajh al-'ari lil-mar'a al-'arabiyy (1977). The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World, trans. Sherif Hetata (Zed Press, 1980)
  • On Women (Cairo, 1986)
  • A New Battle in Arab Women Liberation (Cairo, 1992)
  • Collection of Essays (Cairo, 1998)
  • Collection of Essays (Cairo, 2001)
  • Breaking Down Barriers (Cairo, 2004)

Compilations in English

  • North/South: The Nawal El Saadawi Reader (Zed Books, 1997)
  • Off Limits: New Writings on Fear and Sin (Gingko Library, 2019, ISBN 978-88-87847-16-1)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Skopeliti, Clea; agencies (21 March 2021). "Nawal El Saadawi, trailblazing Egyptian writer, dies aged 89". The Guardian.
  2. ^ "Nawal El Saadawi | Egyptian physician, psychiatrist, author and feminist". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  3. ^ "I don't fear death: Egyptian feminist, novelist Nawal El Saadawi". EgyptToday. Reuters. 24 May 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  4. ^ Bennett, Natalie (6 March 2009). "Meet Egypt's most radical woman". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  5. ^ "Nawal El Saadawi". Women Inspiring Change. 2 March 2015. Archived from the original on 18 December 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  6. ^ Hitchcock, Peter, Nawal el Saadawi, Sherif Hetata. "Living the Struggle". Transition 61 (1993): 170–179.
  7. ^ Nawal El Saadawi, "Presentation by Nawal El Saadawi: President's Forum, M/MLA Annual Convention, November 4, 1999", The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 33.3–34.1 (Autumn 2000 – Winter 2001): 34–39.
  8. ^ a b "PEN World Voices Arthur Miller Freedom to Write Lecture by Nawal El Saadawi", YouTube. 8 September 2009.
  9. ^ a b "International Peace Bureau". www.ipb.org. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  10. ^ Smith, Sarah A (22 March 2021). "Nawal El Saadawi obituary". The Guardian.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Khaleeli, Homa (15 April 2010). "Nawal El Saadawi: Egypt's radical feminist". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  12. ^ a b Sa'dawi, Nawal; Saadawi, Nawal El; Saʻdāwī, Nawāl; Saʿdāwī, Nawāl as- (1999). A Daughter of Isis: The Autobiography of Nawal El Saadawi. Zed Books. pp. 63–87. ISBN 978-1-85649-680-3.
  13. ^ a b c Taylor-Coleman, Jasmine (21 March 2021). "Nawal El Saadawi: Feminist firebrand who dared to write dangerously (obituary)". BBC News.
  14. ^ "Nawal El Saadawi". faculty.webster.edu. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  15. ^ a b El Saadaw, Nawal (November 2002). "Exile and Resistance". Nawal El Saadawi/Sherif Hetata. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
  16. ^ Cowell, Alan (2021). "Nawal El Saadawi, Advocate for Women in the Arab World, Dies at 89". The New York Times. Nawal El Saadawi was born on Oct. 27, 1931, in the village of Kafr Tahla, a settlement in the lower Nile Delta, the second of nine children. Her mother, Zaynab (Shoukry) El Saadawi, was partially descended from a wealthy Ottoman family. Her father, Al-Sayed El Saadawi, was an official in the government's education ministry.
  17. ^ El Saadawi, Nawal (2013). A Daughter of Isis: The Early Life of Nawal El Saadawi. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1848136403.
  18. ^ El Saadawi, Nawal (1986), Memoirs from the Women's Prison, University of California Press, p. 64, ISBN 0520088883, My eyes widened in astonishment. Even my maternal grandmother used to sing, although she was born to a Turkish mother and lived in my grandfather's house in the epoch when harems still existed.
  19. ^ El Saadawi, Nawal (13 June 2019), "My Childhood in Egypt, Not Knowing I Was in Africa", zora.medium.com
  20. ^ Nawal, El Saadawi (2020). "About Me in Africa—Politics and Religion in my Childhood". In Busby, Margaret (ed.). New Daughters of Africa (paperback ed.). Myriad Editions. pp. 42–44.
  21. ^ a b Koseli, Yusuf (2013). "A PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH TO THE NOVEL OF NAWAL EL SAADAWI TITLED MÜZEKKİRAT TABİBE" (PDF). The Journal of International Social Research. 6 (28). Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  22. ^ a b c d Feminism in a nationalist century Archived 19 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Puthiyakath, Hashim H. Voice of Oppressed from the Margins: A Critical Reading on Nawal El Saadawi's "Woman at Point Zero" (Thesis). Central University of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  24. ^ a b Cooke, Rachel (11 October 2015). "Nawal El Saadawi: 'Do you feel you are liberated? I feel I am not'". The Observer. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  25. ^ El-Wardani, Mahmoud (24 April 2014). "El-Saadawi and Hatata: Voyage of a lifetime". Ahram Online. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  26. ^ Smith, Harrison (23 March 2021). "Nawal El Saadawi, Egyptian author, physician and feminist activist, dies at 89". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  27. ^ "Saadawi, Nawal el – Postcolonial Studies". scholarblogs.emory.edu. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  28. ^ Saʻdāwī, Nawāl (15 December 1997). The Nawal El Saadawi Reader. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781856495141.
  29. ^ "Cairo writer threatened with divorce". the Guardian. 18 June 2001. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  30. ^ Uglow, Jennifer S.; Maggy Hendry (1999). The Northeastern Dictionary of Women's Biography. Northeastern University Press. pp. 189–190. ISBN 9781555534219.
  31. ^ Network, Vile News (2015). "Interview with Nawal el aasawi". Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  32. ^ Sharma, Kalpana (3 June 2001). "Egypt's face of courage". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 October 2004. Retrieved 25 September 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  33. ^ Hussey, Sierra, "Biography of Nawal El Saadawi", South African History Online.
  34. ^ Melhem, D.H. (Autumn 1999). "Nawal El-Saadawi's 'Daughter of Isis' Life and Times via the Plenitude of Her Writings". Al Jadid Magazine. Vol. 5, no. 29. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  35. ^ a b Krajeski, Jenna (7 March 2011). "The Books of Nawal El Saadawi". The New Yorker. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  36. ^ "Former Visiting Professor in Court, Under Fire in Egypt". Duke Today. Duke University. 29 June 2001. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  37. ^ a b Dr Dora Carpenter-Latiri, "The Reading Room: A review of ‘Memoirs of a woman doctor'", BMJ Blog, 11 November 2015.
  38. ^ Ling, Jessica (27 October 2016). "Today in History: Happy 85th Birthday, Nawal El Saadawi!". Warscapes.
  39. ^ "Egypt presidential aspirant pulls out", AlJazeera, 16 July 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  40. ^ Rubin, Elizabeth (6 March 2011). "The Feminists in the Middle of Tahrir Square". Newsweek.
  41. ^ "Nawal El Saadawi – Illustrated Women in History". 28 October 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  42. ^ "North-South Centre homepage". North-South Centre. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  43. ^ Iwumene, Kelechi (July 2016). "Africa Writes 2016: The Round-Up". Royal African Society.
  44. ^ "On Being A Woman Writer: Nawal El Saadawi in conversation". Africa Writes. Royal African Society. 2 July 2016.
  45. ^ "Nawal El Sadaawi till Bokmässan". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). 29 August 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  46. ^ "Egyptian Women's Rights Activist Nawal El Saadawi: I Saw Hillary Clinton Handing Out U.S. Dollars In Tahrir Square So That People Would Vote For the Muslim Brotherhood", Memri TV, 30 September 2018.
  47. ^ Breines, Ingeborg. "Nawal El Sadaawi – In Memory". ipb.org. IPB – International Peace Bureau. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  48. ^ "Tribute to doctor, writer and activist Nawal El Saadawi". gold.ac.uk. Goldsmiths University of London. 26 March 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  49. ^ Van Allen, Judith Imel, "Saadawi, Nawal El (1931–)", in Gary L. Anderson and Kathryn G. Herr (eds), Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, Sage Publications, 2007, pp. 1249–1250.
  50. ^ "El Saadawi, Nawal (1932–) | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  51. ^ The hidden face of Eve : women in the Arab world. OCLC 924716956. Retrieved 22 March 2021 – via worldcat.org.
  52. ^ God dies by the Nile. OCLC 12583064. Retrieved 22 March 2021 – via worldcat.org.
  53. ^ The circling song. OCLC 18587928. Retrieved 22 March 2021 – via worldcat.org.
  54. ^ Searching. OCLC 24707056. Retrieved 22 March 2021 – via worldcat.org.
  55. ^ Womack, Philip (20 August 2009). "The Fall of the Imam by Nawal El Saadawi (review)". New Humanist.
  56. ^ Woman at point zero. OCLC 10887569. Retrieved 22 March 2021 – via worldcat.org.
  57. ^ a b Amireh, Amal (2000). "Framing Nawal El Saadawi: Arab Feminism in a Transnational World". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 26 (1): 215–249. doi:10.1086/495572. ISSN 0097-9740. S2CID 143010343.
  58. ^ "Sisterhood Is Global: Table of Contents". Catalog.vsc.edu. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  59. ^ Perry, Imani (29 March 2019), "New Daughters of Africa — a new anthology of a groundbreaking book", Financial Times.
  60. ^ Rocker-Clinton, Johnna (August 2019), "Margaret Busby does it again!" (review of New Daughters of Africa: An International Anthology of Writing by Women of African Descent), San Francisco Book Review.
  61. ^ "Radical writer back with vengeance". The National. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  62. ^ Obrist, Hans Ulrich (February 2013). "In Conversation with Nawal El Saadawi". e-flux Journal.
  63. ^ Fatunla, Dele Meiji (30 June 2016). "Nawal El Saadawi: 'My identity is not fixed'". New African.
  64. ^ El-Wardani, Mahmoud (5 August 2017). "At 85, Nawal El-Saadawi writes about Nawal El-Saadawi". Ahram Online.
  65. ^ el-Saadawi, Nawal, The Hidden Face of Eve, Part 1: The Mutilated Half.
  66. ^ Michael, Maggie, "Egypt Officials Ban Female Circumcision", Phys.org, 30 June 2007. Archived 2 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  67. ^ a b Mitchell, Allston (16 May 2010). "Nawal al Saadawi". The Global Dispatches. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  68. ^ a b c Fawzy, Mary (7 May 2021). "The socialist feminism of Nawal El Saadawi". New Frame. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  69. ^ "Introduction", The Hidden Face of Eve, Zed Books, 2015, doi:10.5040/9781350251076.0006, ISBN 978-0-90576-251-7, retrieved 22 December 2022
  70. ^ "Nawal El Saadawi on feminism, fiction and the illusion of democracy". Channel 4 News. 13 June 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2022 – via YouTube.
  71. ^ Fariborz, Arian (5 July 2014). "They don't want any really courageous people!". Qantara.de - Dialogue with the Islamic World. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  72. ^ Fiona Lloyd-Davies, "No compromise", Correspondent, BBC News, 26 October 2001.
  73. ^ Hanadi, Al-Samman (2000). Diasporic Na(rra)tions: Arab Women Rewriting Exile. Indiana University. p. 25.
  74. ^ El Saadawi, Nawal (1997). The Nawal El Saadawi Reader. Zed Books. ISBN 9781856495141. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  75. ^ Pasquini, Elaine (March 2002). "El Saadawi Calls U.S. Foreign Policy 'Real Terrorism'". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016.
  76. ^ Nielsen, Nikolaj (11 July 2013). "Nawal El Saadawi: 'I am against stability. We need revolution'". The Chronikler. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  77. ^ "She Spoke the Unspeakable", BBC One, Imagine, Winter 2017. Via Dailymotion.
  78. ^ Saad, Mohammed (21 March 2021). "Renowned Egyptian feminist, author Nawal El-Saadawi dies at the age of 89". Ahram Online.
  79. ^ "Pioneering Egyptian Feminist Nawal El Saadawi Dies Aged 89". Egyptian Streets. 21 March 2021.
  80. ^ "Arab author, women's rights icon Nawal El-Saadawi dies in Cairo". Arab News. 21 March 2021.
  81. ^ Producer: Neil George; Interviewed guests: Mona Eltahawy, Sally Nabil (26 March 2021). "Nawal El Saadawi (pictured), Brigadier Jack Thomas, President John Magufuli, Ion Mihai Pacepa". Last Word. [BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  82. ^ "Previous laureates of the North-South Prize". coe.int. Council of Europe.
  83. ^ El Saadawi, Nawal (2016). "Nawal el Saadawi and a History of Oppression: Brief Biographical Facts". Diary of a Child Called Souad. Nawal El Saadawi. pp. 153–158. doi:10.1007/978-1-137-58730-5_4. ISBN 978-1-137-58936-1.
  84. ^ "ULB's honorary doctorates". ulb.be. Université libre de Bruxelles.
  85. ^ Farid, Farid (21 March 2021). "Author, Physician Nawal El-Saadawi, Egypt's Critic Of Taboos". barrons.com. Barron's.
  86. ^ "Motvillig El Saadawi får Dagermanpriset". SvD (in Swedish). 9 January 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  87. ^ "Lydnad är ett dödligt gift". Kultur (in Swedish). 15 May 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  88. ^ "BBC 100 Women 2015: Who is on the list?". BBC News. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  89. ^ "1981: Nawal El Saadawi". Time. 5 March 2020.
  90. ^ Amireh, Amal (2000). "Framing Nawal El Saadawi: Arab Feminism in a Transnational World". Signs. 26 (1): 215–249. doi:10.1086/495572. ISSN 0097-9740. JSTOR 3175385. S2CID 143010343.
  91. ^ Saiti, Ramzi; Salti, Ramzi M. (1994). "Paradise, Heaven, and Other Oppressive Spaces: A Critical Examination of the Life and Works of Nawal el-Saadawi". Journal of Arabic Literature. 25 (2): 152–174. doi:10.1163/157006494X00059. ISSN 0085-2376. JSTOR 4183334.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]