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Nz boobook.JPG
Morepork in Warkworth, New Zealand
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Strigiformes
Family: Strigidae
Genus: Ninox
Species: N. novaeseelandiae
Binomial name
Ninox novaeseelandiae
(Gmelin, 1788)
  • Ninox rotiensis

The morepork (Ninox novaeseelandiae), also called the Tasmanian spotted owl, is a small brown owl found throughout New Zealand and Tasmania.

The bird has almost 20 alternative common names, including mopoke, boobook and ruru – many of these names are onomatopoeic, as they emulate the bird's distinctive two-pitched call.[2]


Johann Friedrich Gmelin described the morepork in 1788.

Both Gerlof Fokko Mees and Ernst Mayr regarded the taxonomy of the boobook owl as extremely challenging,[3] the latter remarking that it was "one of the most difficult problems I have ever encountered".[4]

Two subspecies, the Lord Howe boobook and the Norfolk Island boobook, became extinct during the 20th century.

Janette Norman and colleagues tested the cytochrome b DNA of three subspecies (as well as the powerful and rufous owls) to ascertain whether the closest relative was used in breeding with the last surviving female of the Norfolk boobook. They discovered that although the Norfolk boobook was similar in plumage to the Tasmanian boobook, that it was genetically much closer to the New Zealand subspecies. In fact, the two were so close genetically that they considered whether the Norfolk boobook should be recognised as a separate taxon at all, although they conceded the two were easily distinguishable in appearance and so maintained the three as subspecies; the Tasmanian boobook only diverged by 2.7% from the other two, while the powerful and rufous owls diverged by 4.4% from each other.[5] Leading from this, the southern boobook was split from the Tasmanian boobook and morepork in volume 5 of the Handbook of the Birds of the World, however several authors, including Les Christidis and Walter Boles, contested that the data had been misinterpreted from the Norman study, which had not sampled any Australian mainland boobooks at all. They treated the three taxa (southern, Tasmanian boobooks and moreporks) as a single species.[6]

Examining both morphological and genetic (cytochrome b) characters, Michael Wink and colleagues concluded that the southern boobook was distinct from the morepork, as was the Tasmanian boobook, which should be raised to species status as Ninox leucopsis.[7]


It occurs in most habitats with trees, ranging from deep tropical forests to isolated stands at the edges of arid zones, farmland, alpine grasslands or urban areas, but is most common in temperate woodland. They are usually seen singly, in pairs, or in small family groups of an adult pair and up to three young.

Hunting habits[edit]

During the day, moreporks sleep in roosts. Although mainly nocturnal, they are sometimes active at dawn and dusk. The main hunting times are evenings and mornings, with brief bursts of activity through the night. On dark nights they often perch through the middle hours and, particularly if the weather is bad, may hunt by daylight instead. Although their main hunting technique is perch-and-pounce, they are agile birds with a swift, goshawk-like wing action and the ability to manoeuvre rapidly when pursuing prey or hawking for insects.

They hunt a variety of animals – mainly large invertebrates including scarab and huhu beetles, moths and caterpillars, spiders, grasshoppers and, in New Zealand, wetas. They also take almost any suitably sized prey, particularly small birds, rats and mice. They can find suitable food in pine forests as well as native forest.


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Ninox novaeseelandiae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  2. ^ Burnie, David (2012). Nature Guide: Birds. New York: Penguin. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-7566-9862-1. 
  3. ^ Mees, Gerlof Fokko (1964). "A revision of the Australian owls (Strigidae and Tytonidae)". Zoologische Verhandelingen. 65: 3–62. 
  4. ^ Mayr, Ernst (1943). "Notes on Australian Birds (II)". Emu. 43 (1): 3–17. doi:10.1071/MU943003. 
  5. ^ Norman, Janette; Olsen, Penny; Christidis, Les (1998). "Molecular genetics confirms taxonomic affinities of the endangered Norfolk Island Bookbook Owl Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata". Biological Conservation. 86 (1): 33–36. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00012-3. 
  6. ^ Christidis, Les; Boles, Walter (2008). Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6. 
  7. ^ Michael Wink; Petra Heidrich; Hedi Sauer-Gürth; Abdel-Aziz Elsayed & Javier Gonzalez (2008). "Molecular phylogeny and systematics of owls (Strigiformes)". In König, Claus & Weick, Friedhelm. Owls of the World (2nd ed.). A&C Black. pp. 42–63. ISBN 9781408108840. 

External links[edit]