Municipalities of Baja California

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Map of Mexico with Baja California highlighted
Map of Mexico with Baja California highlighted
Map of the Municipalities of Baja California
Municipalities of Baja California

Baja California is a state located in northern Mexico. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, Baja California is the 13th most populous state with 3,315,766[1] inhabitants and the 12th largest by land area spanning 71,446 square kilometres (27,585 sq mi).[2] Baja California is divided into five municipalities.[1]

Municipalities in Baja California are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico.[3] Their legal framework derives from Title VI of the state Constitution[4] and the state's 2001 Law of the Municipal Regime.[5] Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing public services for their constituents.[4] The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos).[6] Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries.[7] They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.[7] Municipalities may establish internal subdivisions called delegaciones and subdelegaciones[8] in accordance with Article 29 of the Law of the Municipal Regime.[5]

Around half (49.5%) of the population of the state of Baja California is located in Tijuana, the largest municipality by population with 1,641,570 residents. The smallest municipality by population is Playas de Rosarito with 96,734 residents.[1] The largest municipality by area is Ensenada which spans 53,199.786 km2 (20,540.552 sq mi), while Playas de Rosarito is the smallest at 500.667 km2 (193.309 sq mi).[2] The first municipality to incorporate was Ensenada on May 15, 1882 and the newest municipality is Rosarito which incorporated July 21, 1995.[9]


  State capital State capital

Name Municipal seat Population
Change Land area[2] Population density Incorporation date[9]
km2 sq mi
Ensenada Ensenada 486,639 466,814 +4.2% 53,199.786 20,540.552* 9.1/km2 (23.7/sq mi) May 15, 1882
MexicaliState capital Mexicali 988,417 936,826 +5.5% 15,665.222 6,048.376* 63.1/km2 (163.4/sq mi) November 20, 1914
Playas de Rosarito Rosarito 96,734 90,668 +6.7% 500.667 193.309* 193.2/km2 (500.4/sq mi) July 21, 1995
Tecate Tecate 102,406 101,079 +1.3% 2,688.893 1,038.187* 38.1/km2 (98.6/sq mi) March 11, 1917
Tijuana Tijuana 1,641,570 1,559,683 +5.3% 1,235.513 477.034* 1,328.7/km2 (3,441.2/sq mi) March 11, 1917
Baja California 3,315,766 3,155,070 +5.1% 71,446 27,585* 46.4/km2 (120.2/sq mi)
Mexico[12] 119,938,473 112,336,538 +6.8% 1,972,550 761,610* 60.8/km2 (157.5/sq mi)


  1. ^ a b c d "Número de habitantes". INEGI. Retrieved July 15, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c "Unidad de Microrregiones Cedulas de Informacion Municipal (SCIM)" (in Spanish). Secretara de Desarrollo Social. Retrieved November 18, 2017. 
  3. ^ Article 115, Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, 1917 (in Spanish). Retrieved on September 27, 2017.
  4. ^ a b Title VI, Constitución Política del Estado Libre y Sobrerano de Baja California, January 19, 2018 (in Spanish). Retrieved on February 25, 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Ley del Régimen Municipal para el Estado de Baja California" (PDF) (in Spanish). Baja California State Congress. November 10, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2018. 
  6. ^ OECD (Nov 12, 2004). New Forms of Governance for Economic Development. OECD Publishing. p. 121. ISBN 9264015329. 
  7. ^ a b International Business Publications (2009). Mexico Company Laws and Regulations Handbook. p. 42. ISBN 1-4330-7030-8. 
  8. ^ Polo Martínez, Humberto (November 2012). Administración pública comunitaria y gobierno local en México: Las autoridades auxiliares municipales (PDF) (in Spanish). National Institute of Public Administration. p. 114. ISBN 978-607-9026-26-4. 
  9. ^ a b Estado de Baja California. División Territorial de 1810 a 1995 (PDF) (in Spanish). Mexico: INEGI. 1996. pp. 65–66. ISBN 970-13-1487-5. 
  10. ^ "Tabulados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (xls) (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved July 15, 2017. 
  11. ^ "Localidades y su población por municipio según tamaño de localidad" (PDF) (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved July 15, 2017. 
  12. ^ "Población". INEGI. Retrieved January 20, 2018.