Murder of Farkhunda Malikzada

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Farkhunda Malikzada[1], commonly referred to as Farkhunda, was a 27-year-old Afghan woman who was publicly beaten and killed by a mob in Kabul on March 19, 2015. A large crowd formed in the streets around her when accusers began yelling, announcing her alleged crimes to the public. They claimed that she had burned the Quran, and for that, her accusers announced that she must be killed. Police initially tried to protect her and disperse the crowd, but were overwhelmed by the mob's number and fury.

She was murdered after allegedly arguing with a mullah who falsely accused her of burning the Quran. Later police investigations revealed that she had not done so.[2] Her murder led to 49 arrests;[3] three adult men received twenty-year prison sentences, eight other adult males received sixteen year sentences, a minor received a ten-year sentence, and eleven police officers received one-year prison terms for failing to protect her.[4] Her murder and the subsequent protests served to draw attention to women's rights in Afghanistan. A memorial to her has been built in Kabul with support of the Solidarity Party of Afghanistan.[5][6]

Background[edit]

Farkhunda was an observant Muslim who wore a veil (hijab). At the time of the attack, she had just finished a degree in religious studies and was preparing to take a teaching post.[7] Her name means "auspicious" and "jubilation" in Persian language.[8]

The attack[edit]

In a still frame from a video captured and widely disseminated on social media and in the news, a bloodied Farkhunda appears to plead with her attackers before she is knocked down.
Farkhunda when beaten

Farkhunda had previously been arguing with a mullah named Zainuddin, in front of a mosque where she worked as a religious teacher,[2] about his practice of selling charms at the Shah-Do Shamshira Mosque, the Shrine of the King of Two Swords,[9] a religious shrine in Kabul.[10] During this argument, Zainuddin reportedly accused her of burning the Quran. She responded

"I am a Muslim, and Muslims do not burn the Quran!"[11]

Hundreds of angry civilians flocked to the shrine upon overhearing the mullah's accusation. Police arrived and attempted to lead Farkhunda to a local precinct building one mile away, but she refused, asking for a female police officer to accompany her.[12] The mob was able to drag Farkhunda away into the street where they knocked her to the ground and began beating and kicking her. More police arrived, firing warning shots into the air and temporarily dispersing the crowd. They moved her into the shrine in an attempt to shield her. As the crowd grew in size and rumors that she was working with Americans began circulating, the mob attempted to storm the shrine's walls. Police hoisted her onto the roof of the building in an escape attempt, but Farkhunda slipped and fell into the crowd.[12]

The mob dragged Farkhunda into the street and savagely beat and stomped her.[7] She was bludgeoned with sticks and rocks outside the mosque, then placed into the road and run over with a car, dragging her body 300 feet. Police offered no resistance, and directed traffic around the scene.[12] The mob then dragged her body to the nearby bank of the Kabul River, took turns stoning her and set her on fire; her body was soaked in blood and would not burn, so the crowd ripped off articles of their own clothing to ignite and maintain the fire. The mob shouted Allahu Akbar during the lynching. [10][13]

Farkhunda's parents said the killing was instigated by the mullah Farkhunda had been speaking to. According to Tolo News he loudly accused her of burning the Quran "in order to save his job and life."[14] An eyewitness said that the mob was chanting anti-American and anti-democratic slogans while beating Farkhunda.[15] The mob was captured on video accusing of her of working with Americans, and of being a French embassy worker.[12]

Reactions[edit]

Public reaction in Afghanistan[edit]

A number of prominent public officials turned to Facebook immediately after the death to endorse the murder. A spokesman for the Kabul police Hashmat Stanekzai, wrote that Farkhunda “thought, like several other unbelievers, that this kind of action and insult will get them U.S. or European citizenship. But before reaching their target, they lost their life.” [16]

After it was revealed that she did not burn the Quran, the public reaction in Afghanistan turned to shock and anger. Hundreds of protesters took to the streets of Kabul on 23 March protesting her brutal death. Protesters marched from where the attack began to where Farkhunda was thrown in the river. A number of women on the march wore masks of her bloodied face while others condemned the government for failing to bring security to Afghanistan. Shukria Barakzai, a member of parliament representing Kabul Province and a longtime women’s rights activist, told Al Jazeera that her killing had triggered the city and the rest of the country to think about women's rights.[13] She said: "This is not a male or female issue, this is a human issue and we will not stop until the killers are brought to justice."[13] Roshan Siren, a former member of parliament, said that the murder highlights violence against women in the country, and has become a rallying point for a younger generation of women to campaign for "the protection and progress of women."[17]

The woman's father complained that police could have done more to save Farkhunda.[10]

Protests[edit]

On March 23, hundreds of women protested the attack, demanding that the government prosecute those responsible for Farkhunda's murder.[10] The protest was organized by Solidarity Party of Afghanistan and residents of Kabul.[18] Farkhunda's murder has also become a rallying point for women's rights activists in Afghanistan.[19] On March 24, thousands of people protested the attack in front of the Afghan Ministry of Justice in Kabul.[20] On April 27, Leena Alam and her co- actors re-enacted the attack during a protest in Kabul, in what Afghan observers called an unprecedented case of a public theatrical performance commemorating a woman's murder.[21]

Official response in Afghanistan[edit]

Afghan president Ashraf Ghani ordered an investigation into the incident and, in a statement released by his office, condemned the "act of extreme violence".[22] He described the killing as "heinous".[14] He also said that Farkhunda's murder revealed that Afghanistan's police were too focused on the Taliban insurgency in the country and not focused enough on local policing.[23]

Nine men who were seen in the video of Farkhunda's murder on social media were subsequently detained.[24] The Interior Ministry later reported that 28 people were arrested and 13 police officers suspended as part of investigations. Hashmat Stanikzai, an official spokesman for the Kabul police who publicly endorsed the murder, was sacked over comments that he made on social media supporting Farkhunda's killers.[7]

The Afghanistan Ministry of Hajj and Religious Affairs announced that it found no evidence that Farkhunda had burned the Quran.[14]

International reaction[edit]

The European Union condemned the attack. A spokeswoman for European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini said in a statement that "the killing of Ms. Farkhunda... is a tragic reminder of dangers women face from false accusations and the lack of justice in Afghanistan." She added, "We all hope that [those] responsible can be brought to justice."[7] The United States also condemned the murder, with a statement from its embassy in Kabul calling for "those responsible to be brought to justice so such heinous acts will never occur again".[25]

Global Times China columnist Farman Nawaz wrote "Choosing rulers through the ballot box is a positive sign for the country, but the survival, and even growth, of extremist mentality even after suffering from the barbarism of extremist groups reflects a critical failure by Afghan political parties".[26] Afghan American historian Ali A Olomi argued that Farkhunda's murder demonstrated the endurance of an underlying culture of violence and devaluation of human life that comes out of generations of Afghans being raised during a war and facing oppression.[27]

Reaction from Islamic scholars[edit]

In Afghanistan[edit]

The day after the murder, certain imams and mullahs endorsed the killing during Friday prayer services in their mosques. One of them, the influential Maulavi Ayaz Niazi of the Wazir Akbar Khan mosque, warned the government that any attempt to arrest the men who had "defended the Quran" would lead to an uprising.[16][28]

After it was revealed she did not burn the Quran, senior Islamic scholars in Afghanistan expressed outrage over the incident. Ahmad Ali Jebreili, a member of Afghanistan's Ulama Council set for administering Islamic law, condemned the attack, accusing it of contravening Islam.[22] Haji Noor Ahmad, a local cleric, said "People come and execute a person arbitrarily; this is totally prohibited and unlawful. However, some justified her killing and were met with public anger."[29]

Abroad[edit]

Abu Ammaar Yasir Qadhi, a prominent, conservative, Islamic scholar, expressed horror on his Facebook page and said "A sign of how truly civilized a nation is, is how it treats its women. May Allah restore the honor and respect that women deserve in our societies!"[30]

Yama Rasaw of the International Policy Digest blamed intolerance among Afghans and Muslims for the killing of Farkhunda.[31]

Funeral[edit]

On March 22, a number of women, dressed in black, carried Farkhunda's coffin from an ambulance to a prayer ground and then to a graveyard in Chaikhana, a northern neighborhood of Kabul. This was a marked departure from tradition, which holds that such funerals are typically only attended by men.[15] At the end of 2015, it was reported that Farkhunda's grave was half-finished.[32]

Criminal cases[edit]

Of 49 suspects tried in the case, four men were sentenced to death for their roles in Farkhunda's murder. The sentences were handed down by Judge Safiullah Mojadedi in Kabul on May 5, 2015. Eight other defendants were sentenced to 16 years in prison. The trial was noted for its unusual brevity, lasting just two days.[33] The verdict has been criticized because although some investigators believe a fortuneteller set the attacks on Farkhunda in motion, this person was found not guilty on appeal, and the shrine's custodian had his death sentence commuted despite the fact that he originated the false charge that Farkhunda had burned the Koran.[34]

Three suspects in the murder were still at large at the time of the May 5 sentencing, according to Mojadedi.[35]

On May 19, eleven police officers including the local district police chief were sentenced to one year in prison for failing to protect Farkhunda.[36][37]

On 2 July 2015, an appeals court overturned the death sentences of the four men condemned in the mob killing. Three of those had their sentences reduced to 20 years in jail, while the fourth was re-sentenced to 10 years prompting street protests and a debate on women's rights.[38] The chief of police and a caretaker of the Shah-Do Shamshira holy shrine where the murder occurred were acquitted.[37]

As of August 12, 2015 an examination of the outcome of the proceedings in the matter by a panel of lawyers appointed by Afghanistan’s president resulted in a planned recommendation to the Afghan Supreme Court that those accused in her death be retried.[39] On March 19, 2016, the Women’s Political Participation Committee, an Afghan civil society organization, called for reevaluation of the Supreme Court’s decisions with more transparency.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Family of Afghan woman lynched by mob demands justice". AlJazeera. 2 Apr 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Rasmussen, Sune Engel (23 March 2015). "Farkhunda's family take comfort from tide of outrage in wake of her death". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  3. ^ "Trial begins in case of Kabul lynching of Farkhunda". BBC News. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  4. ^ "Afghan court quashes Farkhunda mob killing death sentences". BBC News. 2 Jul 2015. 
  5. ^ http://hambastagi.org/new/english-section/reports/1481-a-memorial-to-farkhunda-appears-in-kabul-22-oct-2015.html
  6. ^ http://www.hambastagi.org/new/english-section/reports/1700-unveiling-of-shaheed-farkhunda-monument-by-spa.html
  7. ^ a b c d "Thousands march in Kabul over mob killing of woman: Marchers demand justice for Afghan woman beaten to death after being falsely accused of burning Quran". Aljazeera. AP. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  8. ^ Malikyar, Helena (23 March 2015). "Farkhunda's murder reveals a nation that has changed". Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  9. ^ Joseph Goldstein (March 29, 2015). "Woman Killed in Kabul Transformed From Pariah to Martyr". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Afghan woman Farkhunda lynched in Kabul 'for speaking out'". BBC. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  11. ^ "Farkhunda 'didn't burn Koran': Afghanistan mob killed innocent woman". News.com.au. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d The Killing of Farkhunda. New York Times. 
  13. ^ a b c Moore, Jack (23 March 2015). "Afghans Protest Brutal Mob Killing of 'Innocent' Woman". Newsweek. Newsweek. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c Whiteman, Hilary (23 March 2015). "26 arrests after mob beats, burns Afghan woman". CNN. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  15. ^ a b "Afghan women show defiance over lynching of 27-year-old". CBS News. 22 March 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Shalizi, Hamid; Donati, Jessica (20 March 2015). "Afghan cleric and others defend lynching of woman in Kabul". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 9 August 2015. 
  17. ^ "WHAT'S THE FUTURE FOR WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN AFGHANISTAN?". EqualTimes.org. 14 Apr 2015. 
  18. ^ "Media Coverage of "Solidarity Party of Afghanistan" Gathering to Seek Justice for Farkhunda". 25 March 2015. 
  19. ^ Kaplan, Sarah (23 March 2015). "Afghan woman, killed by a mob for a crime she didn't commit, becomes a rallying point for activists". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  20. ^ Bloomberg, Unprecedented Afghan Protest After Woman Killed Over Koran, 24-03-2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-03-24/unprecedented-afghan-protest-after-woman-killed-over-koran
  21. ^ Akbar, Shaharzad (10 April 2016). "Afghans must ensure woman's murder by mob was not in vain". Newsweek. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
  22. ^ a b "Afghan mob kills woman for allegedly burning Quran". Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera. 21 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  23. ^ Associated Press (22 March 2015). "Afghanistan Buries Farkhunda, Woman Beaten and Set Alight by Mob". NBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  24. ^ Noori, Rateb (21 March 2015). "Unspoken Facts About Woman Beaten To Death and Burnt in Kabul". Tolo News. Tolo News. Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  25. ^ "U.S. Embassy Kabul Condemns the Murder of Farkhunda". Embassy of the United States, Kabul, Afghanistan. 25 March 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  26. ^ "Brutal Kabul mob murder shows extremism still exists among public - Global Times". globaltimes.cn. 
  27. ^ "Why We Are Right to Be Shocked by the Mob Murder of a 27 Year-Old Woman in Afghanistan". historynewsnetwork.org. 
  28. ^ "Citizen's Revolt in Afghanistan". 
  29. ^ "Afghan women carry coffin of 27-year-old woman beaten to death by mob over false reports she burned a Qur'an". Associated Press. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  30. ^ Qadhi, Yasir. "So hurt to hear of the death of Sr. Farkhunda". Muslim Minds. Retrieved 29 March 2015. 
  31. ^ "An Afghan-American Perspective on the Killing of Farkhunda- International Policy Digest". 
  32. ^ Rubin, Alissa J (December 26, 2015). "Flawed Justice After a Mob Killed an Afghan Woman". NYTimes. 
  33. ^ "Farkhunda murder: Afghan judge sentences four to death over mob killing". The Guardian. 6 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  34. ^ Rubin, Alissa (26 December 2015). "Flawed Justice After a Mob Killed an Afghan Woman". New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  35. ^ Variyar, Mugdha (6 May 2015). "Farkhunda Lynching: Four Sentenced to Death for Killing Afghan Woman, 3 Key Suspects Still at Large". International Business Times. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  36. ^ "Afghan police jailed over Farkhunda mob killing". BBC News. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  37. ^ a b "Farkhunda's Murder: Death Sentences Overturned for Four Killers". NBC News. 7 July 2015. 
  38. ^ "Farkhunda murder: Afghan court overturns death sentences". The Daily Telegraph. London. 2 July 2015. 
  39. ^ Rod Nordland (August 12, 2015). "Afghan Panel to Call for Retrial in Death of Farkhunda, a Female Scholar". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2015. 
  40. ^ Akbar, Noorjahan (April 1, 2016). "A Year Later, Still No Justice for Farkhunda". 

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