Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. The term capital is derived from the Latin capitalis ("of the head", referring to execution by beheading).
Thirty-six countries actively practice capital punishment, 103 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 50 have abolished it de facto (have not used it for at least ten years and/or are under moratorium).
Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in various countries and states, and positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region. In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. Also, the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, prohibits the use of the death penalty by its members.
The United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where executions take place, such as China, India, the United States and Indonesia.
- 1 History
- 2 Modern-day public opinion
- 3 Movements towards non-painful execution
- 4 Abolition of capital punishment
- 5 Contemporary use
- 6 Capital crime
- 7 Controversy and debate
- 8 Religious views
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Execution of criminals and political opponents has been used by nearly all societies—both to punish crime and to suppress political dissent. In most countries that practice capital punishment it is reserved for murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and sodomy, carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as apostasy in Islamic nations (the formal renunciation of the state religion). In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is also a capital offense. In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny.
The use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing generally included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning, banishment and execution. Usually, compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice. The response to crime committed by neighbouring tribes or communities included a formal apology, compensation or blood feuds.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion. It may result from crime, land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies (as well as potential allies) that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is often difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest.
Severe historical penalties include breaking wheel, boiling to death, flaying, slow slicing, disembowelment, crucifixion, impalement, crushing (including crushing by elephant), stoning, execution by burning, dismemberment, sawing, decapitation, scaphism, necklacing or blowing from a gun.
Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements often done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material (for example, cattle, slave) compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution. The person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the system was based on tribes, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts (for example, trial by combat). One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel.
In certain parts of the world, nations in the form of ancient republics, monarchies or tribal oligarchies emerged. These nations were often united by common linguistic, religious or family ties. Moreover, expansion of these nations often occurred by conquest of neighbouring tribes or nations. Consequently, various classes of royalty, nobility, various commoners and slave emerged. Accordingly, the systems of tribal arbitration were submerged into a more unified system of justice which formalized the relation between the different "classes" rather than "tribes". The earliest and most famous example is Code of Hammurabi which set the different punishment and compensation, according to the different class/group of victims and perpetrators. The Torah (Jewish Law), also known as the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Christian Old Testament), lays down the death penalty for murder, kidnapping, magic, violation of the Sabbath, blasphemy, and a wide range of sexual crimes, although evidence suggests that actual executions were rare.
A further example comes from Ancient Greece, where the Athenian legal system was first written down by Draco in about 621 BC: the death penalty was applied for a particularly wide range of crimes, though Solon later repealed Draco's code and published new laws, retaining only Draco's homicide statutes. The word draconian derives from Draco's laws. The Romans also used death penalty for a wide range of offenses.
Although many are executed in the People's Republic of China each year in the present day, there was a time in the Tang dynasty when the death penalty was abolished. This was in the year 747, enacted by Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (r. 712–756). When abolishing the death penalty Xuanzong ordered his officials to refer to the nearest regulation by analogy when sentencing those found guilty of crimes for which the prescribed punishment was execution. Thus depending on the severity of the crime a punishment of severe scourging with the thick rod or of exile to the remote Lingnan region might take the place of capital punishment. However, the death penalty was restored only 12 years later in 759 in response to the An Lushan Rebellion. At this time in the Tang dynasty only the emperor had the authority to sentence criminals to execution. Under Xuanzong capital punishment was relatively infrequent, with only 24 executions in the year 730 and 58 executions in the year 736.
The two most common forms of execution in the Tang dynasty were strangulation and decapitation, which were the prescribed methods of execution for 144 and 89 offenses respectively. Strangulation was the prescribed sentence for lodging an accusation against one's parents or grandparents with a magistrate, scheming to kidnap a person and sell them into slavery and opening a coffin while desecrating a tomb. Decapitation was the method of execution prescribed for more serious crimes such as treason and sedition. Interestingly, and despite the great discomfort involved, most of the Tang Chinese preferred strangulation to decapitation, as a result of the traditional Tang Chinese belief that the body is a gift from the parents and that it is, therefore, disrespectful to one's ancestors to die without returning one's body to the grave intact.
Some further forms of capital punishment were practiced in the Tang dynasty, of which the first two that follow at least were extralegal. The first of these was scourging to death with the thick rod which was common throughout the Tang dynasty especially in cases of gross corruption. The second was truncation, in which the convicted person was cut in two at the waist with a fodder knife and then left to bleed to death. A further form of execution called Ling Chi (slow slicing), or death by/of a thousand cuts, was used from the close of the Tang dynasty (around 900) to its abolition in 1905.
When a minister of the fifth grade or above received a death sentence the emperor might grant him a special dispensation allowing him to commit suicide in lieu of execution. Even when this privilege was not granted, the law required that the condemned minister be provided with food and ale by his keepers and transported to the execution ground in a cart rather than having to walk there.
Nearly all executions under the Tang dynasty took place in public as a warning to the population. The heads of the executed were displayed on poles or spears. When local authorities decapitated a convicted criminal, the head was boxed and sent to the capital as proof of identity and that the execution had taken place.
In medieval and early modern Europe, before the development of modern prison systems, the death penalty was also used as a generalized form of punishment. During the reign of Henry VIII, as many as 72,000 people are estimated to have been executed.
During early modern Europe, a massive moral panic regarding witchcraft swept across Europe and later the European colonies in North America. During this period, there were widespread claims that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom. As a result, tens of thousands of women were prosecuted and executed through the witch trials of the early modern period (between the 15th and 18th centuries).
The death penalty also targeted sexual offenses such as sodomy. In England, the Buggery Act 1533 stipulated hanging as punishment for "buggery". James Pratt and John Smith were the last two Englishmen to be executed for sodomy in 1835.
Despite the wide use of the death penalty, calls for reform were not unknown. The 12th century Jewish legal scholar, Moses Maimonides, wrote, "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent man to death." He argued that executing an accused criminal on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice". Maimonides' concern was maintaining popular respect for law, and he saw errors of commission as much more threatening than errors of omission.
Islam on the whole accepts capital punishment, and the Abbasid Caliphs in Baghdad, such as Al-Mu'tadid, were often cruel in their punishments. For hudud crimes such as zina (consensual extramarital or homosexual sex) and apostasy (leaving Islam and converting to another religion), Sharia requires capital punishment in public, while for crimes such as murder and manslaughter, the victim's family can either seek execution (Qisas) or can choose to spare the life of the killer in exchange for blood money restitution (Diyya).
In the last several centuries, with the emergence of modern nation states, justice came to be increasingly associated with the concept of natural and legal rights. The period saw an increase in standing police forces and permanent penitential institutions. Rational choice theory, a utilitarian approach to criminology which justifies punishment as a form of deterrence as opposed to retribution, can be traced back to Cesare Beccaria, whose influential treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764) was the first detailed analysis of capital punishment to demand the abolition of the death penalty. Jeremy Bentham, regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism, also called for the abolition of the death penalty. Beccaria, and later Charles Dickens and Karl Marx noted the incidence of increased violent criminality at the times and places of executions. Official recognition of this phenomenon led to executions being carried out inside prisons, away from public view.
In England in the 18th century, when there was no police force, there was a large increase in the number of capital offenses to more than 200. These were mainly property offenses, for example cutting down a cherry tree in an orchard. In 1820, there were 160, including crimes such as shoplifting, petty theft or stealing cattle. The severity of the so-called Bloody Code was often tempered by juries who refused to convict, or judges, in the case of petty theft, who arbitrarily set the value stolen at below the statutory level for a capital crime.
The 20th century was a violent period. Tens of millions were killed in wars between nation-states as well as genocide perpetrated by nation states against political opponents (both perceived and actual), ethnic and religious minorities; the Turkish assault on the Armenians, Hitler's attempt to exterminate the European Jews, the Khmer Rouge decimation of Cambodia, the massacre of the Tutsis in Rwanda, to cite four of the most notorious examples. A large part of execution was the summary execution of enemy combatants. In Nazi Germany there were three types of capital punishment; hanging, decapitation and death by shooting. Also, modern military organisations employed capital punishment as a means of maintaining military discipline. The Soviets, for example, executed 158,000 soldiers for desertion during World War II. In the past, cowardice, absence without leave, desertion, insubordination, looting, shirking under enemy fire and disobeying orders were often crimes punishable by death (see decimation and running the gauntlet). One method of execution, since firearms came into common use, has also been firing squad, although some countries use execution with a single shot to the head or neck.
Various authoritarian states— for example those with fascist or Communist governments—employed the death penalty as a potent means of political oppression. According to Robert Conquest, the leading expert on Stalin's purges, more than 1 million Soviet citizens were executed during the Great Terror of 1937–38, almost all by a bullet to the back of the head. Mao Zedong publicly stated that "800,000" people had been executed after the Communist Party's victory in 1949. Partly as a response to such excesses, civil rights organizations have started to place increasing emphasis on the concept of human rights and an abolition of the death penalty.
Among countries around the world, almost all European and many Pacific Area states (including Australia, New Zealand and Timor Leste), and Canada have abolished capital punishment. In Latin America, most states have completely abolished the use of capital punishment while some countries, such as Brazil, allow for capital punishment only in exceptional situations, such as treason committed during wartime. The United States (the federal government and 32 of the states), Guatemala, most of the Caribbean and the majority of democracies in Asia (for example, Japan and India) and Africa (for example, Botswana and Zambia) retain it. South Africa's Constitutional Court, in judgment of the case of State v Makwanyane and Another, unanimously abolished the death penalty on 6 June 1995.
Abolition was often adopted due to political change, as when countries shifted from authoritarianism to democracy, or when it became an entry condition for the European Union. The United States is a notable exception: some states have had bans on capital punishment for decades, the earliest is Michigan, where it was abolished in 1846, while others actively use it today. The death penalty there remains a contentious issue which is hotly debated.
In abolitionist countries, the debate is sometimes revived by particularly brutal murders though few countries have brought it back after abolishing it. However, a spike in serious, violent crimes, such as murders or terrorist attacks, has prompted some countries (such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica) to effectively end the moratorium on the death penalty. In retention countries, the debate is sometimes revived when a miscarriage of justice has occurred though this tends to cause legislative efforts to improve the judicial process rather than to abolish the death penalty.
Modern-day public opinion
The public opinion on the death penalty varies considerably by country and by the crime in question. Countries where a majority of people are against execution include New Zealand, where 55 percent of the population oppose its use, Australia where only 23 percent support the death penalty, and Norway where only 25 percent are in favour. Most French, Finns and Italians also oppose the death penalty. A 2010 Gallup poll shows that 64% of Americans support the death penalty for someone convicted of murder, down from 65% in 2006 and 68% in 2001.
Use of capital punishment is growing in India in the 2010s due to both a growth in right wing politics and due to anger over several recent brutal cases of rape. While support for the death penalty for murder is still high in China, executions have dropped precipitously, with 3,000 executed in 2012 versus 12,000 in 2002. A poll in South Africa found that 76 percent of millennium generation South Africans support re-introduction of the death penalty, which is abolished in South Africa.
Movements towards non-painful execution
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Trends in most of the world have long been to move to less painful, or more humane, executions. France developed the guillotine for this reason in the final years of the 18th century, while Britain banned drawing and quartering in the early 19th century. Hanging by turning the victim off a ladder or by kicking a stool or a bucket, which causes death by suffocation, was replaced by long drop "hanging" where the subject is dropped a longer distance to dislocate the neck and sever the spinal cord. The Shah of Persia introduced throat-cutting and blowing from a gun as quick and painless alternatives to more torturous methods of executions used at that time. In the U.S., the electric chair and the gas chamber were introduced as more humane alternatives to hanging, but have been almost entirely superseded by lethal injection. A small number of countries still employ slow hanging methods and stoning.
A study of executions carried out in the U.S. between 1977 and 2001 indicated that at least 34 of the 749 executions, or 4.5%, involved "unanticipated problems or delays that caused, at least arguably, unnecessary agony for the prisoner or that reflect gross incompetence of the executioner." A separate study published in The Lancet in 2005 found that in 43% of cases of lethal injection, the blood level of hypnotics was insufficient to guarantee unconsciousness.
Abolition of capital punishment
Many countries have abolished capital punishment either in law or in practice. Since World War II there has been a trend toward abolishing capital punishment. Capital punishment has been completely abolished by 103 countries, a further 6 have done so for all offences except under special circumstances and 50 more have abolished it in practice because they have not used it for at least 10 years or are under a moratorium.
In England, a public statement of opposition was included in The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards, written in 1395. Sir Thomas More's Utopia, published in 1516, debated the benefits of the death penalty in dialogue form, coming to no firm conclusion. More recent opposition to the death penalty stemmed from the book of the Italian Cesare Beccaria Dei Delitti e Delle Pene ("On Crimes and Punishments"), published in 1764. In this book, Beccaria aimed to demonstrate not only the injustice, but even the futility from the point of view of social welfare, of torture and the death penalty. Influenced by the book, Grand Duke Leopold II of Habsburg, famous enlightened monarch and future Emperor of Austria, abolished the death penalty in the then-independent Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the first permanent abolition in modern times. On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land. In 2000, Tuscany's regional authorities instituted an annual holiday on 30 November to commemorate the event. The event is commemorated on this day by 300 cities around the world celebrating Cities for Life Day.
The Roman Republic banned capital punishment in 1849. Venezuela followed suit and abolished the death penalty in 1854 and San Marino did so in 1865. The last execution in San Marino had taken place in 1468. In Portugal, after legislative proposals in 1852 and 1863, the death penalty was abolished in 1867.
Abolition occurred in Canada in 1976 (except for some military offences, with complete abolition in 1998), in France in 1981, and in Australia in 1973 (although the state of Western Australia retained the penalty until 1984). In 1977, the United Nations General Assembly affirmed in a formal resolution that throughout the world, it is desirable to "progressively restrict the number of offenses for which the death penalty might be imposed, with a view to the desirability of abolishing this punishment".
In the United Kingdom, it was abolished for murder (leaving only treason, piracy with violence, arson in royal dockyards and a number of wartime military offences as capital crimes) for a five-year experiment in 1965 and permanently in 1969, the last execution having taken place in 1964. It was abolished for all peacetime offences in 1998.
In the United States, Michigan was the first state to ban the death penalty, on 18 May 1846. The death penalty was declared unconstitutional between 1972 and 1976 based on the Furman v. Georgia case, but the 1976 Gregg v. Georgia case once again permitted the death penalty under certain circumstances. Further limitations were placed on the death penalty in Atkins v. Virginia (death penalty unconstitutional for people with an intellectual disability) and Roper v. Simmons (death penalty unconstitutional if defendant was under age 18 at the time the crime was committed). In the United States, 18 states and the District of Columbia ban capital punishment.
Abolitionists believe capital punishment is the worst violation of human rights, because the right to life is the most important, and capital punishment violates it without necessity and inflicts to the condemned a psychological torture. Human rights activists oppose the death penalty, calling it "cruel, inhuman, and degrading punishment". Amnesty International considers it to be "the ultimate, irreversible denial of Human Rights".
See also: Capital punishment abolition chronology.
Capital punishment by country
Most countries including almost all First World nations have abolished capital punishment either in law or in practice. Notable exceptions are the United States, China, North Korea, Japan, and most Islamic states. The U.S. is the only Western country to use the death penalty.
Since World War II, there has been a trend toward abolishing the death penalty. 36 countries retain the death penalty in active use, 103 countries have abolished capital punishment altogether, six have done so for all offences except under special circumstances, and 50 have abolished it in practice because they had not used it for at least ten years or are under a moratorium.
According to Amnesty International, 25 countries are known to have performed executions in 2015, three more than in 2014. There are countries which do not publish information on the use of capital punishment, most significantly China and North Korea.
|United Arab Emirates||1|
The use of the death penalty is becoming increasingly restrained in some retentionist countries including Taiwan and Singapore. Indonesia carried out no executions between November 2008 and March 2013. Japan and the United States are the only developed countries that are classified by Amnesty International as 'retentionist' (South Korea is classified as 'abolitionist in practice'). Nearly all retentionist countries are situated in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. The only retentionist country in Europe is Belarus. The death penalty was overwhelmingly practised in poor and authoritarian states, which often employed the death penalty as a tool of political oppression. During the 1980s, the democratisation of Latin America swelled the ranks of abolitionist countries.
This was soon followed by the fall of Communism in Europe. Many of the countries which restored democracy aspired to enter the EU. The European Union and the Council of Europe both strictly require member states not to practise the death penalty (see Capital punishment in Europe). Public support for the death penalty in the EU varies. The last execution on the present day territory of the Council of Europe took place in 1997 in Ukraine. On the other hand, rapid industrialisation in Asia has been increasing the number of developed retentionist countries. In these countries, the death penalty enjoys strong public support, and the matter receives little attention from the government or the media; in China there is a small but growing movement to abolish the death penalty altogether. This trend has been followed by some African and Middle Eastern countries where support for the death penalty is high.
Some countries have resumed practicing the death penalty after having suspended executions for long periods. The United States suspended executions in 1972 but resumed them in 1976; there was no execution in India between 1995 and 2004; and Sri Lanka declared an end to its moratorium on the death penalty on 20 November 2004, although it has not yet performed any executions. The Philippines re-introduced the death penalty in 1993 after abolishing it in 1987, but abolished it again in 2006.
The United States and Japan are the only developed countries to have carried out executions. The federal government and 32 states have a valid death penalty statute, and over 1,400 executions have been carried in the country since it reinstated the death penalty in 1976, including 28 in 2015.
The death penalty for juvenile offenders (criminals aged under 18 years at the time of their crime) has become increasingly rare. Considering the age of majority is still not 18 in some countries, since 1990 nine countries have executed offenders who were juveniles at the time of their crimes: The People's Republic of China (PRC), Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, the United States, and Yemen. The PRC, Pakistan, the United States, Yemen and Iran have since raised the minimum age to 18. Amnesty International has recorded 61 verified executions since then, in several countries, of both juveniles and adults who had been convicted of committing their offenses as juveniles. The PRC does not allow for the execution of those under 18, but child executions have reportedly taken place.
Starting in 1642 within British America, an estimated 365 juvenile offenders were executed by the states and federal government of the United States. The United States Supreme Court abolished capital punishment for offenders under the age of 16 in Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988), and for all juveniles in Roper v. Simmons (2005).
Between 2005 and May 2008, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen were reported to have executed child offenders, the most being from Iran.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which forbids capital punishment for juveniles under article 37(a), has been signed by all countries and ratified, except for Somalia and the United States (notwithstanding the latter's Supreme Court decisions abolishing the practice). The UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights maintains that the death penalty for juveniles has become contrary to a jus cogens of customary international law. A majority of countries are also party to the U.N. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (whose Article 6.5 also states that "Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age...").
Iran, despite its ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, was the world's largest executioner of juvenile offenders, for which it has received international condemnation; the country's record is the focus of the Stop Child Executions Campaign. But on 10 February 2012, Iran's parliament changed the controversial law of executing juveniles. In the new law, the age of 18 (solar year) would be for both genders considered and juvenile offenders will be sentenced on a separate law than of adults. Based on the Islamic law which now seems to have been revised, girls at the age of 9 and boys at 15 of lunar year (11 days shorter than a solar year) were fully responsible for their crimes.
Iran accounted for two-thirds of the global total of such executions, and currently[dated info] has roughly 140 people on death row for crimes committed as juveniles (up from 71 in 2007). The past executions of Mahmoud Asgari, Ayaz Marhoni and Makwan Moloudzadeh became international symbols of Iran's child capital punishment and the judicial system that hands down such sentences.
Saudi Arabia also executes criminals who were minors at the time of the offense. In 2013, Saudi Arabia was the center of an international controversy after it executed Rizana Nafeek, a Sri Lankan domestic worker, who was believed to have been 17 years old at the time of the crime.
There is evidence that child executions are taking place in the parts of Somalia controlled by the Islamic Courts Union (ICU). In October 2008, a girl, Aisho Ibrahim Dhuhulow was buried up to her neck at a football stadium, then stoned to death in front of more than 1,000 people. The stoning occurred after she had allegedly pleaded guilty to adultery in a shariah court in Kismayo, a city controlled by the ICU. According to a local leader associated with the ICU, she had stated that she wanted shariah law to apply. However, other sources state that the victim had been crying, that she begged for mercy and had to be forced into the hole before being buried up to her neck in the ground. Amnesty International later learned that the girl was in fact 13 years old and had been arrested by the al-Shabab militia after she had reported being gang-raped by three men.
Somalia's established Transitional Federal Government announced in November 2009 (reiterated in 2013) that it plans to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This move was lauded by UNICEF as a welcome attempt to secure children's rights in the country.
- Hanging (Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Palestinian National Authority, Yemen, Egypt, India, Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Liberia, Chad, Washington state in the USA)
- Shooting (the People's Republic of China, Republic of China, Vietnam, Belarus, North Korea, Indonesia, Yemen, and in the U.S. states of Oklahoma and Utah).
- Lethal injection (United States, Guatemala, Thailand, the People's Republic of China, Vietnam)
- Electrocution and gas inhalation (some U.S. states, but only if the prisoner request it or if lethal injection is unavailable)
- Beheading (Saudi Arabia)
A public execution is a form of capital punishment in which "members of the general public may voluntarily attend". The standard definition normally excludes the presence of a limited number of "passive citizens" that "witness the event to assure executive accountability". While today the great majority of the world considers public executions to be uncivilized and distasteful and most countries have outlawed the practice, throughout much of history executions were performed publicly as a means for the state to demonstrate "its power before those who fell under its jurisdiction be they criminals, enemies, or political opponents". Additionally, it afforded the public a chance to witness "what was considered a great spectacle".
According to Amnesty International, in 2012 "public executions were known to have been carried out in Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Somalia". Public executions have also taken place in Hamas-controlled Gaza.
Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity such as genocide are usually punished by the death penalty in countries retaining it. Death sentences were handed down and carried out during the Nuremberg Trials in 1946 and the Tokyo Trials in 1948, but the current International Criminal Court doesn't uses capital punishment, life imprisonment being the highest penalty available.
Intentional homicide is punishable by death in most countries retaining capital punishment, but generally provided it involves an aggravating factor required by statute or judicial precedents.
Some countries provide the death penalty for drug trafficking, mostly in Asia. Among countries who regularly execute drug offenders are China, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Singapore.
Other crimes that are punishable by death include treason, and other graves crimes against the state (most countries with the death penalty), rape (China, Iran, Saudi Arabia), economic crimes (China), adultery, sodomy, religious offences such as apostasy (Saudi Arabia, Iran), blasphemy (Saudi Arabia, Pakistan), and forms of aggravated robbery (Saudi Arabia, Kenya, Zambia).
Controversy and debate
Capital punishment is controversial. Death penalty opponents regard the death penalty as inhumane and criticize it for its irreversibility. They assert also that capital punishment lacks deterrent effect, discriminates against minorities and the poor, and that it encourages a "culture of violence". There are many organizations worldwide, such as Amnesty International, and country-specific, such as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), that have abolition of the death penalty as a fundamental purpose.
Advocates of the death penalty argue that it deters crime, is a good tool for police and prosecutors (in plea bargaining for example), makes sure that convicted criminals do not offend again, and is a just penalty for atrocious crimes.
Supporters of the death penalty argued that death penalty is morally justified when applied in murder especially with aggravating elements such as for murder of law enforcement officers, child murder, torture murder, multiple homicide and mass killing such as terrorism, massacre and genocide. This argument is strongly defended by New York Law School's Professor Robert Blecker, who says that the punishment must be painful in proportion to the crime. 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant defended a more extreme position, according to which every murderer deserves to die on the grounds that loss of life is incomparable to any jail term.
Some abolitionists argue that retribution is simply revenge and cannot be condoned. Others while accepting retribution as an element of criminal justice nonetheless argue that life without parole is a sufficient substitute. It is also argued that the punishing of a killing with another death is a relatively unique punishment for a violent act, because in general violent crimes are not punished by subjecting the perpetrator to a similar act (e.g. rapists are not punished by corporal punishment).
Abolitionists believe capital punishment is the worst violation of human rights, because the right to life is the most important, and capital punishment violates it without necessity and inflicts to the condemned a psychological torture. Human rights activists oppose the death penalty, calling it "cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment". Amnesty International considers it to be "the ultimate irreversible denial of Human Rights". Albert Camus wrote in a 1956 book called Reflections on the Guillotine, Resistance, Rebellion & Death:
An execution is not simply death. It is just as different from the privation of life as a concentration camp is from prison. [...] For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date at which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for months. Such a monster is not encountered in private life.
In the classic doctrine of natural rights as expounded by for instance Locke and Blackstone, on the other hand, it is an important idea that the right to life can be forfeited. As John Stuart Mill explained in a speech against an amendment to abolish capital punishment for murder in 1868;
And we may imagine somebody asking how we can teach people not to inflict suffering by ourselves inflicting it? But to this I should answer – all of us would answer – that to deter by suffering from inflicting suffering is not only possible, but the very purpose of penal justice. Does fining a criminal show want of respect for property, or imprisoning him, for personal freedom? Just as unreasonable is it to think that to take the life of a man who has taken that of another is to show want of regard for human life. We show, on the contrary, most emphatically our regard for it, by the adoption of a rule that he who violates that right in another forfeits it for himself, and that while no other crime that he can commit deprives him of his right to live, this shall.
It is frequently argued that capital punishment leads to miscarriage of justice through the wrongful execution of innocent persons. Many people have been proclaimed innocent victims of the death penalty.
Some have claimed that as many as 39 executions have been carried out in the face of compelling evidence of innocence or serious doubt about guilt in the US from 1992 through 2004. Newly available DNA evidence prevented the pending execution of more than 15 death row inmates during the same period in the US, but DNA evidence is only available in a fraction of capital cases. As of 2010, 139 prisoners on death row have been exonerated by DNA or other evidence, causing abolitionists to suggest that innocent prisoners have almost certainly been executed.
Improper procedure may also result in unfair executions. For example, Amnesty International argues that in Singapore "the Misuse of Drugs Act contains a series of presumptions which shift the burden of proof from the prosecution to the accused. This conflicts with the universally guaranteed right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty". This refers to a situation when someone is being caught with drugs. In this situation, in almost any jurisdiction, the prosecution has a prima facie case.
Death penalty proponents believe that executing the innocent is too rare to require abolition of the death penalty for all crimes. Since the death penalty reinstatement in the United States during the 1970s, no inmate executed has been granted posthumous exoneration.
Opponents of the death penalty argue that this punishment is being used more often against perpetrators from racial and ethnic minorities and from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, than against those criminals who come from a privileged background; and that the background of the victim also influences the outcome. Researchers have shown that white Americans are more likely to support the death penalty when told that it is mostly applied to African Americans, and that more stereotypically black-looking defendants are more likely to be sentenced to death if the case involves a white victim.
Supporters of the death penalty retort that the over-representation of minorities among those sentenced to death only reflects their over-representation among criminals in general.
The United Nations introduced a resolution during the General Assembly's 62nd sessions in 2007 calling for a universal ban. The approval of a draft resolution by the Assembly's third committee, which deals with human rights issues, voted 99 to 52, with 33 abstentions, in favour of the resolution on 15 November 2007 and was put to a vote in the Assembly on 18 December.
Again in 2008, a large majority of states from all regions adopted a second resolution calling for a moratorium on the use of the death penalty in the UN General Assembly (Third Committee) on 20 November. 105 countries voted in favour of the draft resolution, 48 voted against and 31 abstained.
A range of amendments proposed by a small minority of pro-death penalty countries were overwhelmingly defeated. It had in 2007 passed a non-binding resolution (by 104 to 54, with 29 abstentions) by asking its member states for "a moratorium on executions with a view to abolishing the death penalty".
A number of regional conventions prohibit the death penalty, most notably, the Sixth Protocol (abolition in time of peace) and the 13th Protocol (abolition in all circumstances) to the European Convention on Human Rights. The same is also stated under the Second Protocol in the American Convention on Human Rights, which, however has not been ratified by all countries in the Americas, most notably Canada and the United States. Most relevant operative international treaties do not require its prohibition for cases of serious crime, most notably, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This instead has, in common with several other treaties, an optional protocol prohibiting capital punishment and promoting its wider abolition.
Several international organizations have made the abolition of the death penalty (during time of peace) a requirement of membership, most notably the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe. The EU and the Council of Europe are willing to accept a moratorium as an interim measure. Thus, while Russia is a member of the Council of Europe, and the death penalty remains codified in its law, it has not made use of it since becoming a member of the Council – Russia has not executed anyone since 1996. With the exception of Russia (abolitionist in practice), Kazakhstan (abolitionist for ordinary crimes only), and Belarus (retentionist), all European countries are classified as abolitionist.
The Protocol no.13 calls for the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances (including for war crimes). The majority of European countries have signed and ratified it. Some European countries have not done this, but all of them except Belarus and Kazakhstan have now abolished the death penalty in all circumstances (de jure, and Russia de facto). Poland is the most recent country to ratify the protocol, on 28 August 2013.
The Protocol no.6 which prohibits the death penalty during peacetime has been ratified by all members of the European Council, except Russia (which has signed, but not ratified).
There are also other international abolitionist instruments, such as the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which has 81 parties; and the Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty (for the Americas; ratified by 13 states).
Turkey has recently, as a move towards EU membership, undergone a reform of its legal system. Previously there was a de facto moratorium on the death penalty in Turkey as the last execution took place in 1984. The death penalty was removed from peacetime law in August 2002, and in May 2004 Turkey amended its constitution in order to remove capital punishment in all circumstances. It ratified Protocol no. 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights in February 2006. As a result, Europe is a continent free of the death penalty in practice, all states but Russia, which has entered a moratorium, having ratified the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, with the sole exception of Belarus, which is not a member of the Council of Europe. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has been lobbying for Council of Europe observer states who practise the death penalty, the U.S. and Japan, to abolish it or lose their observer status. In addition to banning capital punishment for EU member states, the EU has also banned detainee transfers in cases where the receiving party may seek the death penalty.
Sub-Saharan African countries that have recently abolished the death penalty include Burundi, which abolished the death penalty for all crimes in 2009, and Gabon which did the same in 2010. On 5 July 2012, Benin became part of the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which prohibits the use of the death penalty.
The newly created South Sudan is among the 111 UN member states that supported the resolution passed by the United Nations General Assembly that called for the removal of the death penalty, therefore affirming its opposition to the practice. South Sudan, however, has not yet abolished the death penalty and stated that it must first amend its Constitution, and until that happens it will continue to use the death penalty.
Among non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch are noted for their opposition to capital punishment. A number of such NGOs, as well as trade unions, local councils and bar associations formed a World Coalition Against the Death Penalty in 2002.
The world's major religions have mixed opinions on the death penalty, depending on the sect, the individual believer, and the time period.
There is disagreement among Buddhists as to whether or not Buddhism forbids the death penalty. The first of the Five Precepts (Panca-sila) is to abstain from destruction of life. Chapter 10 of the Dhammapada states:
Everyone fears punishment; everyone fears death, just as you do. Therefore you do not kill or cause to be killed.
Chapter 26, the final chapter of the Dhammapada, states, "Him I call a brahmin who has put aside weapons and renounced violence toward all creatures. He neither kills nor helps others to kill." These sentences are interpreted by many Buddhists (especially in the West) as an injunction against supporting any legal measure which might lead to the death penalty. However, as is often the case with the interpretation of scripture, there is dispute on this matter. Historically, most states where the official religion is Buddhism have imposed capital punishment for some offenses. One notable exception is the abolition of the death penalty by the Emperor Saga of Japan in 818. This lasted until 1165, although in private manors executions continued to be conducted as a form of retaliation. Japan still imposes the death penalty, although some recent justice ministers have refused to sign death warrants, citing their Buddhist beliefs as their reason. Other Buddhist-majority states vary in their policy. For example, Bhutan has abolished the death penalty, but Thailand still retains it, although Buddhism is the official religion in both. Mongolia abolished the death penalty in 2012.
Many stories in Buddhist scripture stress the superior power of the Buddha's teaching to rehabilitate murderers and other criminals. The most well-known example is Angulimala in the Theravadan Pali canon who had killed 999 people and then attempted to kill his own mother and the Buddha, but under the influence of the Buddha he repented and entered the monkhood. The Buddha succeeded when the King and all his soldiers failed to eliminate the murderer by force.
Without one official teaching on the death penalty, Thai monks are typically divided on the issue, with some favoring abolition of the death penalty while others see it as bad karma stemming from bad actions in the past. 
In the edicts of the great Buddhist king Ashoka (ca. 304–232 BC) inscribed on great pillars around his kingdom, the King showed reverence for all life by giving up the slaughtering of animals, and many of his subjects followed his example. King Ashoka also extended the period before execution of those condemned to death so they could make a final appeal for their lives.
A close reading of texts in the Pali canon reveals different attitudes towards violence and capital punishment. The Pali scholar Steven Collins finds Dhamma in the Pali canon divided into two categories according to the attitude taken towards violence. In Mode 1 Dhamma the use of violence is "context-dependent and negotiable". A King should not pass judgement in haste or anger, but the punishment should fit the crime, with warfare and capital punishment acceptable in certain situations. In Mode 2 Dhamma the use of violence is "context-independent and non-negotiable" and the only advice to kings is to abdicate, renounce the world and leave everything to the law of karma. Buddhism is incompatible with any form of violence especially warfare and capital punishment. 
In the world that humans inhabit there is a continual tension between these two modes of Dhamma. This tension is best exhibited in the Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta (Digha Nikaya 26 of the Sutta Pitaka of the Pāli Canon), the story of humanity's decline from a golden age in the past. A critical turning point comes when the King decides not to give money to a man who has committed theft, but instead to cut off his head and also to carry out this punishment in a particularly cruel and humiliating manner, parading him in public to the sound of drums as he is taken to the execution ground outside the city. In the wake of this decision by the king, thieves take to imitating the King's actions and murder the people from whom they steal to avoid detection. Thieves turn to highway robbery and attacking small villages and towns far away from the royal capital where they won't be detected. A downwards spiral towards social disorder and chaos has begun. 
Views on the death penalty in Christianity run a spectrum of opinions, from complete condemnation of the punishment, seeing it as a form of revenge and as contrary to Christ's message of forgiveness, to enthusiastic support based primarily on Old Testament law.
Among the teachings of Jesus Christ in the Gospel of Luke and the Gospel of Matthew, the message to his followers that one should "Turn the other cheek" and his example in the story Pericope Adulterae, in which Jesus intervenes in the stoning of an adulteress, are generally accepted as his condemnation of physical retaliation (though most scholars agree that the latter passage was "certainly not part of the original text of St John's Gospel"). More militant Christians consider Romans 13:3–4 to support the death penalty. Many Christians have believed that Jesus' doctrine of peace speaks only to personal ethics and is distinct from civil government's duty to punish crime.
In the Old Testament, Leviticus Leviticus 20:2–27 provides a list of transgressions in which execution is recommended. Christian positions on these passages vary. The sixth commandment (fifth in the Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches) is translated as "Thou shalt not kill" by some denominations and as "Thou shalt not murder" by others. As some denominations do not have a hard-line stance on the subject, Christians of such denominations are free to make a personal decision.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity does not officially condemn or endorse capital punishment. It states that it is not a totally objectionable thing, but also that its abolition can be driven by genuine Christian values, especially stressing the need for mercy.
Roman Catholic Church
St. Thomas Aquinas, a Doctor of the Church, accepted the death penalty as a deterrent and prevention method but not as a means of vengeance. (See Aquinas on the death penalty.) The Roman Catechism stated this teaching thus:
Another kind of lawful slaying belongs to the civil authorities, to whom is entrusted power of life and death, by the legal and judicious exercise of which they punish the guilty and protect the innocent. The just use of this power, far from involving the crime of murder, is an act of paramount obedience to this Commandment which prohibits murder. The end of the Commandment is the preservation and security of human life. Now the punishments inflicted by the civil authority, which is the legitimate avenger of crime, naturally tend to this end, since they give security to life by repressing outrage and violence. Hence these words of David: In the morning I put to death all the wicked of the land, that I might cut off all the workers of iniquity from the city of the Lord.
In Evangelium Vitae, Pope John Paul II suggested that capital punishment should be avoided unless it is the only way to defend society from the offender in question, opining that punishment "ought not go to the extreme of executing the offender except in cases of absolute necessity: in other words, when it would not be possible otherwise to defend society. Today however, as a result of steady improvements in the organization of the penal system, such cases are very rare, if not practically non-existent." The most recent edition of the Catechism of the Catholic Church restates this view. That the assessment of the contemporary situation advanced by John Paul II is not binding on the faithful was confirmed by Cardinal Ratzinger when he wrote in 2004 that,
if a Catholic were to be at odds with the Holy Father on the application of capital punishment or on the decision to wage war, he would not for that reason be considered unworthy to present himself to receive Holy Communion. While the Church exhorts civil authorities to seek peace, not war, and to exercise discretion and mercy in imposing punishment on criminals, it may still be permissible to take up arms to repel an aggressor or to have recourse to capital punishment. There may be a legitimate diversity of opinion even among Catholics about waging war and applying the death penalty, but not however with regard to abortion and euthanasia.
The 1911 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia suggested that Catholics must hold that "the infliction of capital punishment is not contrary to the teaching of the Catholic Church, and the power of the State to visit upon culprits the penalty of death derives much authority from revelation and from the writings of theologians", but that the matter of "the advisability of exercising that power is, of course, an affair to be determined upon other and various considerations."
Southern Baptists support the fair and equitable use of capital punishment for those guilty of murder or treasonous acts, so long as it does not constitute as an act of personal revenge or discrimination.
This Conference: ... 3. Urges the Church to speak out against: ... (b) all governments who practise capital punishment, and encourages them to find alternative ways of sentencing offenders so that the divine dignity of every human being is respected and yet justice is pursued;....
The United Methodist Church, along with other Methodist churches, also condemns capital punishment, saying that it cannot accept retribution or social vengeance as a reason for taking human life. The Church also holds that the death penalty falls unfairly and unequally upon marginalised persons including the poor, the uneducated, ethnic and religious minorities, and persons with mental and emotional illnesses. The General Conference of the United Methodist Church calls for its bishops to uphold opposition to capital punishment and for governments to enact an immediate moratorium on carrying out the death penalty sentence.
In a 1991 social policy statement, the ELCA officially took a stand to oppose the death penalty. It states that revenge is a primary motivation for capital punishment policy and that true healing can only take place through repentance and forgiveness.
Community of Christ, the former Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS), is opposed to capital punishment. The first stand against capital punishment was taken by the church's Presiding High Council in 1995. This was followed by a resolution of the World Conference in 2000. This resolution, WC 1273, states:
[W]e stand in opposition to the use of the death penalty; and ... as a peace church we seek ways to achieve healing and restorative justice. Church members are encouraged to work for the abolition of the death penalty in those states and nations that still practise this form of punishment.
Several key leaders early in the Protestant Reformation, including Martin Luther and John Calvin, followed the traditional reasoning in favour of capital punishment, and the Lutheran Church's Augsburg Confession explicitly defended it. Some Protestant groups have cited Genesis 9:5–6, Romans 13:3–4, and Leviticus 20:1–27 as the basis for permitting the death penalty.
Mennonites, Church of the Brethren and Friends have opposed the death penalty since their founding, and continue to be strongly opposed to it today. These groups, along with other Christians opposed to capital punishment, have cited Christ's Sermon on the Mount (transcribed in Matthew Chapter 5–7) and Sermon on the Plain (transcribed in Luke 6:17–49). In both sermons, Christ tells his followers to turn the other cheek and to love their enemies, which these groups believe mandates nonviolence, including opposition to the death penalty.
In 2015, a large association representing over 30 U.S. Protestant denominations ceased promoting a pro-death penalty stance and announced its affirmation of Christians who oppose the death penalty as well as those who support it, and also affirmed both sides' ethical reasoning in doing so.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints neither supports nor opposes capital punishment, although the church's founder, Joseph Smith, supported it. However, today the church officially states that it is a "matter to be decided solely by the prescribed processes of civil law."
A basis can be found in Hindu teachings both for permitting and forbidding the death penalty. Hinduism preaches ahimsa (or ahinsa, non-violence), but also teaches that the soul cannot be killed and death is limited only to the physical body. The soul is reborn into another body upon death (until Moksha), akin to a human changing clothes. The religious, civil and criminal law of Hindus is encoded in the Dharmaśāstras and the Arthasastra. The Dharmasastras describe many crimes and their punishments and call for the death penalty in several instances, including murder and righteous warfare.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.
Similarly, capital punishment by stoning for zina (extramarital sex) is prescribed in the Hadiths, the most trusted books in Islam after the official text called the Quran, particularly in Kitab Al-Hudud.
'Ubada b. as-Samit reported: Allah's Messenger as saying: Receive teaching from me, receive teaching from me. Allah has ordained a way for those women. When an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried female, they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married male committing adultery with a married female, they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death.
Allah's Messenger awarded the punishment of stoning to death to the married adulterer and adulteress and, after him, we also awarded the punishment of stoning, I am afraid that with the lapse of time, the people may forget it and may say: We do not find the punishment of stoning in the Book of Allah, and thus go astray by abandoning this duty prescribed by Allah. Stoning is a duty laid down in Allah's Book for married men and women who commit adultery when proof is established, or if there is pregnancy, or a confession.
In the four primary schools of Sunni fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and the two primary schools of Shi'a fiqh, certain types of crimes mandate capital punishment. Certain hudud crimes, for example, are considered crimes against God and require capital punishment in public. These include apostasy (leaving Islam to become an atheist or convert to another religion such as Christianity), fasad (mischief in the land, or moral corruption against Allah, social disturbance and creating disorder within the Muslim state) and zina (consensual heterosexual or homosexual relations not allowed by Islam).
The right to be convinced and to convert from Islam to another religion is held by only a minority of Muslim scholars. This view of religious freedom is, however, not shared by the vast majority of Muslim scholars both past as well as present. Most classical and modern Muslim jurists regard apostasy (riddah), defined by them as an act of rejection of faith committed by a Muslim whose Islam had been affirmed without coercion, as a crime deserving the death penalty.— Abdul Rashied Omar
Qisas is another category of sentencing where sharia permits capital punishment, for intentional or unintentional murder. In the case of death, sharia gives the murder victim's nearest relative or Wali (ولي) a right to, if the court approves, take the life of the killer.
O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.
Further, in case of Qisas-related capital punishment, sharia offers the victim's guardian the option of Diyya (monetary compensation). In several Islamic countries such as the Sunni Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, as well as the Shiite Islamic Republic of Iran, both hudud and qisas type capital punishment is part of the legal system and in use. In others, there is variation in the use of capital punishment. Some Islamic or Muslim-majority nations like the Republic of Turkey have abolished the death penalty.
Capital punishment for apostasy in Islam and stoning to death in Islam are controversial topics. Similarly, the discriminatory option between capital punishment and monetary compensation for crimes such as murder is controversial, where jurists have asked if poor offenders face trial and capital punishment while wealthy offenders are able to avoid a trial by paying off the Qisas compensation money. Another historic and continuing controversy is the perceived discrimination between the death of a Muslim and a non-Muslim dhimmi, as well as discrimination between the death of a male and a female, used in sharia-ruled states. A woman's life is considered half the worth of a man, while Christians and Jews are worth half of a Muslim, and the life of Buddhist, Hindu, folk religion or atheist is considered 1/16th the worth of a Muslim by some Islamist governments. This has reporedly led certain Islamic nations to discriminate between Muslims and non-Muslims while imposing capital punishment and compensation, for both intentional murder and manslaughter, depending on whether the victim is Muslim or non-Muslim, as well as based on the religion of the individual who has committed the crime.
Lethal stoning and beheading in public under sharia is controversial for being a perceived as a strict form of capital punishment. These forms of execution remain part of the religious law enforced in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Pakistan and Mauritania.
The official teachings of Judaism approve the death penalty in principle but the standard of proof required for application of death penalty is extremely stringent. In practice, it has been abolished by various Talmudic decisions, making the situations in which a death sentence could be passed effectively impossible and hypothetical. A capital case could not be tried by a normal Beit Din of three judges, it can only be adjudicated by a Sanhedrin of a minimum of 23 judges. Forty years before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in approximately the year 70 CE, i.e. in approximately 30 CE, the Sanhedrin effectively abolished capital punishment, making it a hypothetical upper limit on the severity of punishment, fitting in finality for God alone to use, not fallible people.
The 12th-century Jewish legal scholar, Maimonides said:
- "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death."
Maimonides argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice". Maimonides was concerned about the need for the law to guard itself in public perceptions, to preserve its majesty and retain the people's respect.
One of the only two executions in Israeli history occurred in 1961, when Adolf Eichmann, one of the principal organizers of the Holocaust, was hanged after his trial in Jerusalem. It is the last judicial execution carried out by the country.
- Death in custody
- Mandatory death sentence
- UN moratorium on the death penalty
- World Coalition Against the Death Penalty
- The Death Penalty: Opposing Viewpoints (2002) (book)
- Kronenwetter 2001, p. 202
- "Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union" (PDF). Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "117 countries vote for a global moratorium on executions". World Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
- "moratorium on the death penalty". United Nations. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Asia Times Online – The best news coverage from South Asia". Asia Times. 13 August 2004. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Coalition mondiale contre la peine de mort – Indonesian activists face upward death penalty trend – Asia – Pacific – Actualités". Worldcoalition.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "No serious chance of repeal in those states that are actually using the death penalty". Egovmonitor.com. 25 March 2009. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- AG Brown says he'll follow law on death penalty Archived August 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Lawmakers Cite Economic Crisis in Effort to Ban Death Penalty". Fox News Channel. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "death penalty is not likely to end soon in US". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Death penalty repeal unlikely says anti-death penalty activist". Axisoflogic.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "A new Texas? Ohio's death penalty examined – Campus". Media.www.thelantern.com. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "THE DEATH PENALTY IN JAPAN-FIDH – Human Rights for All / Les Droits de l'Homme pour Tous". Fidh.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Shot at Dawn, campaign for pardons for British and Commonwealth soldiers executed in World War I". Shot at Dawn Pardons Campaign. Archived from the original on 3 July 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2006.
- So common was the practice of compensation that the word murder is derived from the French word mordre (bite) a reference to the heavy compensation one must pay for causing an unjust death. The "bite" one had to pay was used as a term for the crime itself: "Mordre wol out; that se we day by day." – Geoffrey Chaucer (1340–1400), The Canterbury Tales, The Nun's Priest's Tale, l. 4242 (1387–1400), repr. In The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Alfred W. Pollard, et al. (1898).
- Translated from Waldmann, op.cit., p. 147.
- Lindow, op.cit. (primarily discusses Icelandic things).
- Schabas, William (2002). The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81491-X.
- Robert. "Greece, A History of Ancient Greece, Draco and Solon Laws". History-world.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "capital punishment (law) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Benn, p. 8.
- Benn, pp. 209–210
- Benn, p. 210
- "History of the Death Penalty". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Cook, Matt; Mills, Robert; Trumback, Randolph; Cocks, Harry (2007). A Gay History of Britain: Love and Sex Between Men Since the Middle Ages. Greenwood World Publishing. p. 109. ISBN 1846450020.
- Moses Maimonides, The Commandments, Neg. Comm. 290, at 269–71 (Charles B. Chavel trans., 1967).
- "Islam and capital punishment". BBC. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall., William Muir
- Mohamed El-Awa (1993), Punishment in Islamic Law, American Trust Publications, ISBN 978-0892591428, pp 1–68
- Shahid M. Shahidullah, Comparative Criminal Justice Systems: Global and Local Perspectives, ISBN 978-1449604257, pp. 370–374
- John Paul Wright (14 December 2009). "Rational Choice Theories". Oxford Bibliographies. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Franklin E. Zimring (24 September 2004). The Contradictions of American Capital Punishment. Oxford University Press. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-19-029237-9.
- Bedau, Hugo Adam (Autumn 1983). "Bentham's Utilitarian Critique of the Death Penalty". The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern University School of Law) 74 (3): 1033–1065. doi:10.2307/1143143. JSTOR 1143143.
- Mark Jones; Peter Johnstone (22 July 2011). History of Criminal Justice. Routledge. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-1-4377-3491-1.
- Durant, Will and Ariel, The Story of Civilization, Volume IX: The Age of Voltaire New York, 1965, page 71
- Durant, Will and Ariel, The Story of Civilization, Volume IX: The Age of Voltaire New York, 1965, page 72,
- Dando Shigemitsu (1999). The criminal law of Japan: the general part. p. 289.
- "Patriots ignore greatest brutality". The Sydney Morning Herald. 13 August 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Conquest, Robert, The Great Terror: A Reassessment, New York, pages 485–86
- French, Howard (7 June 1995). "South Africa's Supreme Court Abolishes Death Penalty". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- South Africa: Constitutional Court (6 June 1995). "S v Makwanyane and Another (CCT3/94) (1995) ZACC 3; 1995 (6) BCLR 665; 1995 (3) SA 391; (1996) 2 CHRLD 164; 1995 (2) SACR 1". Southern African Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- "Sizeable support for reintroduction of death penalty | The National Business Review". Nbr.co.nz. 2013-08-18. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- "Tough fight remains to halt barbaric death penalty". Canberratimes.com.au. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- "Can Norwegian punishment fit the crime? - USATODAY.com". Usatoday30.usatoday.com. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- "International Polls and Studies | Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- "Troy Davis' execution and the limits of Twitter". BBC News. 23 September 2011.
- "In U.S., 64% Support Death Penalty in Cases of Murder". Gallup.com. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- Keating, Joshua (2014-04-04). "Gang rapists sentenced to death in India: Is capital punishment making a global comeback?". Slate.com. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- "The death penalty: Strike less hard". The Economist. 2013-08-03. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- Location Settings (2013-02-22). "Youth 'want death penalty reinstated'". News24. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- "• Travel & Exploration • A Ride to India across Persia and Baluchistan • CHAPTER VII. ISPAHAN – SHIRAZ". Explorion.net. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Borg and Radelet, pp 144-147
- Van Norman p. 287
- "Encyclopedia of Shinto". kokugakuin.ac.jp. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- "Venezuela: A Country Study (The Century of Caudillismo)". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Death Penalty". Newsbatch.com. 1 March 2005. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "History of Capital Punishment". Stephen-stratford.co.uk. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- See Caitlin pp. 420–422
- "Death Penalty: Hands Off Cain Announces Abolition In Gabon". Handsoffcain.info. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Abolish the death penalty". Amnesty International. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
-  Archived April 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- Leigh B. Bienen (201). Murder and Its Consequences: Essays on Capital Punishment in America (2 ed.). Northwestern University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-8101-2697-8.
- Michael H. Tonry (2000). The Handbook of Crime & Punishment. Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-514060-6.
- Elisabeth Reichert (2011). Social Work and Human Rights: A Foundation for Policy and Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-231-52070-6.
- Russil Durrant (2013). An Introduction to Criminal Psychology. Routledge. p. 268. ISBN 978-1-136-23434-7.
- Clifton D. Bryant; Dennis L. Peck (2009). Encyclopedia of Death & Human Experience:. Sage Publications. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-4129-5178-4.
- Cliff Roberson (2015). Constitutional Law and Criminal Justice, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4987-2120-2.
- Martin Luther King, Jr (16 March 2010). "Heroin smuggler challenges Singapore death sentence". Yoursdp.org. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Indonesia: First Execution in 4 Years a Major Setback". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org. Retrieved 17 May 2013. External link in
- "Abolitionist and retentionist countries | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Amnesty International: Death Sentences and Executions 2014.
- "International Polls & Studies". The Death Penalty Information Center. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2008.
- "Death Penalty – Council of Europe". Hub.coe.int. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "HANDS OFF CAIN against death penalty in the world". Handsoffcain.info. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "China Against Death Penalty (CADP)". Cadpnet.com. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "AIUK : Sri Lanka: President urged to prevent return to death penalty after 29-year moratorium". Amnesty.org.uk. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "SURINAME: DEATH PENALTY ABOLISHED". handsoffcain.info.
- "Juvenile executions (except US)". Internationaljusticeproject.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Iran changes law for execution of juveniles". Iranwpd.com. 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "مجازات قصاص برای افراد زیر 18 سال ممنوع شد". Ghanoononline.ir. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Executions of juveniles since 1990". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Stop Child Executions! Ending the death penalty for child offenders". Amnesty International. 2004. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
- "Execution of Juveniles in the U.S. and other Countries". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Archived from the original on 8 July 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- Rob Gallagher, Table of juvenile executions in British America/United States, 1642–1959 at the Wayback Machine (archived 15 June 2006)[dead link]
- "HRW Report" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- UNICEF, Convention of the Rights of the Child – FAQ: "The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely and rapidly ratified human rights treaty in history. Only two countries, Somalia and the United States, have not ratified this celebrated agreement. Somalia is currently unable to proceed to ratification as it has no recognised government. By signing the Convention, the United States has signaled its intention to ratify but has yet to do so."
- Iranian activists fight child executions, Ali Akbar Dareini, Associated Press, 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- O'Toole, Pam (27 June 2007). "Iran rapped over child executions". BBC News. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Iran Does Far Worse Than Ignore Gays, Critics Say". Foxnews.com. 25 September 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Iranian hanged after verdict stay; BBCnews.co.uk; 2007-12-06; Retrieved 2007-12-06
- "Juveniles among five men beheaded in Saudi Arabia | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "BBC News – Saudi Arabia executes seven men for armed robbery". Bbc.co.uk. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "BBC News – Sri Lankan maid Rizana Nafeek beheaded in Saudi Arabia". Bbc.co.uk. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Somali woman executed by stoning". BBC News. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Stoning victim 'begged for mercy'". BBC News. 4 November 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
- "Somalia: Girl stoned was a child of 13". Amnesty International. 31 October 2008. Archived from the original on 9 November 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Somalia to Ratify UN Child Rights Treaty", allAfrica.com, 20 November 2013.
- "UNICEF lauds move by Somalia to ratify child convention". Xinhua News Agency. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Methodes of execution by country". Nutzworld.com. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Methods of execution – Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Death penalty Bulletin No. 4-2010" (in Norwegian). Translate.google.no. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "INFORMATION ON DEATH PENALTY" (in Norwegian). Amnesty International. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "execution methods by country". Executions.justsickshit.com. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Blum, Steven A. (Winter 1992). "Public Executions: Understand the "Cruel and Unusual Punishments" Clause" (PDF). Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 19 (2): 415.
- Cawthorne, Nigel (2006). Public Executions: From Ancient Rome to the Present Day. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-7858-2119-9.
- "Death penalty statistics, country by country". The Guardian. 12 April 2013.
- "Haunting Images Emerge of Hamas Public Execution of 18 Alleged Collaborators". The Algemeiner. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Dan Malone (Fall 2005). "Cruel and Unusual: Executing the mentally ill". Amnesty International Magazine.
- "Abolish the death penalty". Amnesty International. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
- "The Death Penalty and Deterrence". Amnestyusa.org. 22 February 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
- "John W. Lamperti | Capital Punishment". Math.dartmouth.edu. 10 March 1973. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
- "Discussion of Recent Deterrence Studies | Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
- "The High Cost of the Death Penalty". Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
- "Death Penalty Facts" (PDF).
- Brian Evans, "The Death Penalty In 2011: Three Things You Should Know", Amnesty International, 26 March 2012, in particular the map, "Executions and Death Sentences in 2011"
- "ACLU Capital Punishment Project (CPP)". Aclu.org. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- 58 Stan. L. Rev. 703 (2005–2006) Is Capital Punishment Morally Required – Acts, Omissions, and Life-Life Tradeoffs; Sunstein, Cass R.; Vermeule, Adrian
- Does Death Penalty Save Lives? A New Debate
- James Pitkin. ""Killing Time" | January 23rd, 2008". Wweek.com. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- The Death Penalty Needs to Be an Option for Punishment
- Film Robert Blecker want me dead, about retributive justice and capital punishment
- "New York Law School :: Robert Blecker". Nyls.edu. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Immanuel Kant, The Philosophy of Right". American.edu. Archived from the original on 17 February 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "Ethics – Capital punishment: Arguments against capital punishment". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Death Penalty News & Updates". People.smu.edu. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Joel Feinberg: Voluntary Euthanasia and the Inalienable Right to Life The Tanner Lecture on Human Values, 1 April 1977. Archived April 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- "John Stuart Mill, Speech on Capital Punishment". Sandiego.edu. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "Innocence and the Death Penalty". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- Capital Defense Weekly Archived 4 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Executed Innocents". Justicedenied.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Wrongful executions". Mitglied.lycos.de. Retrieved 23 August 2010.[dead link]
- "The Innocence Project – News and Information: Press Releases". Innoccenceproject.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- Lundin, Leigh (10 July 2011). "Casey Anthony Trial– Aftermath". Capital Punishment. Orlando: Criminal Brief.
With 400 condemned on death row, Florida is an extremely aggressive death penalty state, a state that will even execute for drug trafficking.
- Van Norman p. 288
- Amnesty International, "Singapore – The death penalty: A hidden toll of executions" (January 2004) Archived May 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- "KANSAS v. MARSH - Justice Scalia, concurring.". law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "Executed But Possibly Innocent | Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Death Penalty and Race | Amnesty International USA". Amnestyusa.org. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Racial Bias | Equal Justice Initiative". Eji.org. Archived from the original on 1 January 1970. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Racial Bias | National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty". Ncadp.org. 1999-03-18. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- Peffley, Mark; Hurwitz, Jon (2007). "Persuasion and Resistance: Race and the Death Penalty in America" (PDF). American Journal of Political Science 51 (4): 996–1012. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00293.x. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Eberhardt, J. L.; Davies, P. G.; Purdie-Vaughns, V. J.; Johnson, S. L. (1 May 2006). "Looking Deathworthy: Perceived Stereotypicality of Black Defendants Predicts Capital-Sentencing Outcomes". Psychological Science 17 (5): 383–386. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01716.x.
- "The pros and cons of the death penalty in the USA.". capitalpunishmentuk.org. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Thomas Hubert (29 June 2007). "Journée contre la peine de mort : le monde décide!" (in French). Coalition Mondiale.
- "Abolish the death penalty | Amnesty International". Web.amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "UN set for key death penalty vote". Amnesty International. 9 December 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
- "Directorate of Communication – The global campaign against the death penalty is gaining momentum – Statement by Terry Davis, Secretary General of the Council of Europe". Wcd.coe.int. 16 November 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "UN General Assembly – News Stories". Un.org. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "U.N. Assembly calls for moratorium on death penalty". Reuters. 18 December 2007.
- "Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR". Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. Archived from the original on 21 November 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
- "The Death Penalty in 2012 | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. 9 April 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Prezydent podpisał ustawy dot. zniesienia kary śmierci" [The President signed the Bill. the abolition of the death penalty] (in Polish). gazeta.pl. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "UNTC". Treaties.un.org. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Francisco J Montero. ":: Multilateral Treaties – Department of International Law –". OAS. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- New Zealand, South Africa, and most European nations except Belarus, Includes Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom and Vatican City (Belarus is excluded)
- "Burundi abolishes the death penalty but bans homosexuality | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Death Penalty: Hands Off Cain Announces Abolition In Gabon". Handsoffcain.info. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "HANDS OFF CAIN against death penalty in the world". Handsoffcain.info. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "South Sudan says death penalty remains until constitution amended – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "Dhammika Sutta: Dhammika". Accesstoinsight.org. 11 July 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Japan hangs two more on death row (see also paragraph 11)". BBC News. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Thai Buddhist perspective on the death penalty". Seminar of Monks at Mahachulalongkorn Buddhist University, Chiangmai. Death Penalty Thailand.
- "Second Seminar on Buddhist Perspectives on Death Penalty". seminar of monks at Wat Mahasawatnakphutaram in Ubon Ratchathani. Death Penalty in Thailand. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- Collins, Steven (1998). Nirvana and other Buddhist Felicities: Utopias of the Pali imaginaire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 419–420.
- Collins, Steven (1998). Nirvana and other Buddhist Felicities: Utopias of the Pali imaginaire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 486–487.
- "NETBible: John 7". Bible.org. Archived from the original on 28 February 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2009. See note 139 on that page.
- Keith, Chris (2008). "Recent and Previous Research on the Pericope Adulterae (John 7.53—8.11)". Currents in Biblical Research 6 (3): 377–404. doi:10.1177/1476993X07084793.
- 'Pericope adulterae', in FL Cross (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
- "What The Christian Scriptures Say About The Death Penalty – Capital Punishment". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "BBC – Religion & Ethics – Capital punishment: Introduction". BBC. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "The Basis of the Social Concept, IX. 3". Mospat.ru. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- Heindel, Max (1910s), The Rosicrucian Philosophy in Questions and Answers – Volume II: Question no.33: Rosicrucian Viewpoint of Capital Punishment, ISBN 0-911274-90-1
- The Rosicrucian Fellowship: Obsession, Occult Effects of Capital Punishment
- "THE CATECHISM OF TRENT: The Fifth Commandment". Cin.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- Papal encyclical, Evangelium Vitae, 25 March 1995 Archived October 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Assuming that the guilty party's identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor.
- "Abortion – Pro Life – Cardinal Ratzinger on Voting, Abortion, and Worthiness to Receive Holy Communion". Priestsforlife.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Capital Punishment (Death Penalty)". Newadvent.org. 1 June 1911. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "SBC Resolution: On Capital Punishment". Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- "Lambeth Conference of Anglican Bishops, 1988, Resolution 33, paragraph 3. (b)". Lambethconference.org. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "The United Methodist Church: Capital Punishment". Archives.umc.org. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "The United Methodist Church: Official church statements on capital punishment". Archives.umc.org. 6 November 2006. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "ELCA Social Statement on the Death Penalty". Elca.org. 4 September 1991. Archived from the original on 4 August 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- Communication Services of Community of Christ, Independence Mo. (8 April 2000). "RLDS World Conference, Resolution 1273, Adopted 8 April 2000, entitled "Healing Ministry and Capital Punishment"". Cofchrist.org. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Archived 15 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- Archived 14 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- "The Church of Scotland". churchofscotland.org.uk.
- "About NAE". nae.net. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Markoe, Lauren (20 October 2015). "Evangelicals soften death penalty stance". Religion News Service. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- National Association of Evangelicals. "Resolution: Capital Punishment 2015". NAE.net. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Roberts, B. H., ed. (1902). History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1. Salt Lake City: Deseret News. p. 435. OCLC 4890306.. See also: History of the Church (Joseph Smith).
- "Topics and Background", MormonNewsroom.org (LDS Church), retrieved 2014-07-09
- Samuel M. Zwemer, The law of Apostasy, The Muslim World Volume 14, Issue 4, pp. 373–391
- Quran 5:33
- Z. Mir-Hosseini (2011), Criminalizing sexuality: zina laws as violence against women in Muslim contexts, Int'l Journal on Human Rights, 15, 7–16
- Ziba Mir-Hosseini (2001), Marriage on Trial: A Study of Islamic Family Law, ISBN 978-1860646089, pp. 140–223
- Abdul Rashied Omar (2009), "The Right to Religious Conversion: Between Apostasy and Proselytization", in Peace-Building by, between, and beyond Muslim and Evangelical Christians, Editors: Abu-Nimer, Mohammed and David Augsburger, Lexington, pages 179–194
- David Forte, Islam's Trajectory, Revue des Sciences Politiques, No. 29 (2011), pages 92–101
- Oliver Leaman (2013), Controversies in Contemporary Islam, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415676137, Chapter 9
- Marion Katz (2006), Corruption of the Times and the Mutability of the Shari'a, The. Cardozo Law Review, 28:171–188
- Mohamed El-Awa (1993), Punishment in Islamic Law, American Trust Publications, ISBN 978-0892591428
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Qisas (2012)
- Shahid M. Shahidullah, Comparative Criminal Justice Systems: Global and Local Perspectives, ISBN 978-1449604257, pp. 370–377
- "Qisas being used by the wealthy to avoid trial: CJ". The Express Tribune (Pakistan), 3 October 2013 (concerning the murder of Shahzeb Khan).
- I. DISPOSAL OF MORTAL REMAINS (LOCAL BURIAL/DESPATCH TO INDIA), Consulate General of India, Jeddah. Retrieved on 3 September 2010.
- Saudi Arabia U.S. State Department (2012)
- Ebbe, O. N., & Odo, I. (2013), The Islamic Criminal Justice System, in Comparative and International Criminal Justice Systems: Policing, Judiciary, and Corrections, CRC Press, ISBN 978-1466560338, Chapter 16
- Jon Weinberg (2008), Sword of Justice? Beheadings Rise in Saudi Arabia, Harvard International Review, 29(4):15
- R Terman (2007), The Stop Stoning Forever Campaign: A Report WLUM Laws
- Javaid Rehman & Eleni Polymenopoulou (2013), Is Green part of the rainbow – Sharia, Homosexuality, and LGBT Rights in the Muslim World, Fordham Int'l Law Journal, 37:1–501
- Mishnah Sanhedrin 1:4; Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 2a
- "Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai". Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- Babylonian Talmud (Sanhedrin 41a)
- Goldstein, Warren (2006). Defending the human spirit: Jewish law's vision for a moral society. Feldheim Publishers. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-58330-732-8. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- Moses Maimonides, The Commandments, Neg. Comm. 290, at 269–271 (Charles B. Chavel trans., 1967).
- Kronenwetter, Michael (2001). Capital Punishment: A Reference Handbook (2 ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-432-9.
- Marian J. Borg and Michael L. Radelet. (2004). On botched executions. In: Peter Hodgkinson and William A. Schabas (eds.) Capital Punishment. pp. 143–168. [Online]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available from: Cambridge Books Online <http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489273.006> [Accessed 30 April 2016].
- Gail A. Van Norman. (2010). Physician participation in executions. In: Gail A. Van Norman et al. (eds.) Clinical Ethics in Anesthesiology. pp. 285–291. [Online]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available from: Cambridge Books Online <http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841361.051> [Accessed 2 May 2016].
- Curry, Tim. "Cutting the Hangman's Noose: African Initiatives to Abolish the Death Penalty." (Archive) American University Washington College of Law.
- Gaie, Joseph B. R (2004). The ethics of medical involvement in capital punishment : a philosophical discussion. Kluwer Academic. ISBN 1-4020-1764-2.
- Johnson, David T.; Zimring, Franklin E. (2009). The Next Frontier: National Development, Political Change, and the Death Penalty in Asia. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533740-2.
- Kronenwetter, Michael (2001). Capital punishment: a reference handbook (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-432-3.
- MacLean, Colonel French L. The Fifth Field: The Story of the 96 American Soldiers Sentenced to Death and Executed in Europe and North Africa in World War II, 2013, Schiffer Publishing, ISBN 9780764345777.
- McCafferty, James A (2010). Capital Punishment. AldineTransaction. ISBN 978-0-202-36328-8.
- Mandery, Evan J (2005). Capital punishment: a balanced examination. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 0-7637-3308-3.
- Marzilli, Alan (2008). Capital Punishment – Point-counterpoint (2nd ed.). Chelsea House. ISBN 978-0-7910-9796-0.
- Woolf, Alex (2004). World issues – Capital Punishment. Chrysalis Education. ISBN 1-59389-155-5.
- Simon, Rita (2007). A comparative analysis of capital punishment : statutes, policies, frequencies, and public attitudes the world over. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-2091-3.
|Wikinews has news related to:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Death penalty.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Capital punishment|
- About.com's Pros & Cons of the Death Penalty and Capital Punishment
- 1000+ Death Penalty links all in one place
- Updates on the death penalty generally and capital punishment law specifically
- Texas Department of Criminal Justice: list of executed offenders and their last statements
- Death Penalty Worldwide: Academic research database on the laws, practice, and statistics of capital punishment for every death penalty country in the world.
- Answers.com entry on capital punishment
- "How to Kill a Human Being", BBC Horizon TV programme documentary, 2008
- U.S. and 50 State death penalty/capital punishment law and other relevant links Megalaw
- Two audio documentaries covering execution in the United States: Witness to an Execution The Execution Tapes
- World Coalition Against the Death Penalty
- Death Watch International International anti-death penalty campaign group
- Campaign to End the Death Penalty
- Anti-Death Penalty Information: includes a monthly watchlist of upcoming executions and death penalty statistics for the United States.
- The Death Penalty Information Center: Statistical information and studies
- Amnesty International – Abolish the death penalty Campaign: Human Rights organisation
- European Union: Information on anti-death penalty policies
- IPS Inter Press Service International news on capital punishment
- Death Penalty Focus: American group dedicated to abolishing the death penalty
- Reprieve.org: United States based volunteer program for foreign lawyers, students, and others to work at death penalty defense offices
- American Civil Liberties Union: Demanding a Moratorium on the Death Penalty
- National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty
- NSW Council for Civil Liberties: an Australian organisation opposed to the Death Penalty in the Asian region
- Winning a war on terror: eliminating the death penalty
- Electric Chair at Sing Sing, a 1900 photograph by William M. Vander Weyde, accompanied by a poem by Jared Carter.
- Lead prosecutor apologizes for role in sending man to death row Shreveport Times, 2015
- The REAL Death Penalty in the US: A Review
- Studies showing the death penalty saves lives
- Criminal Justice Legal Foundation
- Keep life without parole and death penalty intact
- Why the death penalty is needed
- Pro Death Penalty.com
- Pro Death Penalty Resource Page
- 119 Pro DP Links
- The Death Penalty is Constitutional
- The Paradoxes of a Death Penalty Stance by Charles Lane in the Washington Post
- Clark County, Indiana, Prosecutor's Page on capital punishment
- In Favor of Capital Punishment – Famous Quotes supporting Capital Punishment
- Studies spur new death penalty debate
- The Dalai Lama – Message supporting the moratorium on the death penalty
- Buddhism & Capital Punishment from The Engaged Zen Society
- Orthodox Union website: Rabbi Yosef Edelstein: Parshat Beha'alotcha: A Few Reflections on Capital Punishment
- Priests for Life – Lists several Catholic links
- The Death Penalty: Why the Church Speaks a Countercultural Message by Kenneth R. Overberg, S.J., from AmericanCatholic.org
- Wrestling with the Death Penalty by Andy Prince, from Youth Update on AmericanCatholic.org
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Capital Punishment". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Catholics Against Capital Punishment: offers a Catholic perspective and provides resources and links
- Kashif Shahzada 2010: Why The Death Penalty Is un-Islamic?