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Temporal range: 65–0 Ma
Danian to Present[1]
Myliobatis californica monterey bay aquarium.jpg
Myliobatis californica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Myliobatiformes
Family: Myliobatidae
Genus: Myliobatis
Cuvier, 1816

See text

Myliobatis is a genus of eagle rays in the family Myliobatidae.


Myliobatis species can reach a length of about 150 centimetres (59 in). Body consist of a rhomboidal disc, wider than long, with a one dorsal fin. The head is broad and short, with eyes and spiracles on the sides. The tail is slender, with 1-2 large spines at the base, without tail fin.[2]

The teeth are arranged in the lower and upper jaw in flat tooth plates called pavement teeth, each consisting of about 7 series of plates. Said mouth plates are useful to crush clam shells and crustaceans.[2]


Myliobatis species are ovoviviparous. Their gestation last about 6 months and a female produces 4-7 embryos. Myliobatis species mainly feed on molluscs, bottom-living crustaceans and small fishes.[3]


Mylobatis species live in warm, shallow waters. Adults prefer sandy shores while juveniles can usually be encountered offshore.[2][3]


Extant Species[edit]

There are currently 11 recognized species in this genus:[4]

Extinct Species[edit]

Fossil tooth or plate of Myliobatis dixoni from Khouribga (Morocco), 55-45 mya

Extinct species within this genus include:[7]

These eagle rays lived from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary periods (from 70.6 to 0.012 Ma). Fossils of these fishes have been found worldwide.[7]

The extinct species Myliobatis dixoni is known from Tertiary deposits along the Atlantic seaboards of the United States, Brazil, Nigeria, England, and Germany.[7]



  • Aguiar, A.A.; Gallo, V.; Valentin, J.L. (2004). "Using the size independent discriminant analysis to distinguish the species of Myliobatis Cuvier (Batoidea: Myliobatidae) from Brazil". Zootaxa. 464: 1–7. 
  • Compagno, L.J.V. (1999): Checklist of living elasmobranchs. A: Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The Johns Hopkins University Press: 471-498.
  • Garman, S (1913). "The Plagiostomia (Sharks, Skates and Rays)". Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 36: 1–515. 
  • Gill, T.N. (1865). "Note on the family of myliobatoids, and on a new species of Aetobatis". Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 8: 135–138. 
  • Walker, C. & Ward, D. (1993): - Fossielen: Sesam Natuur Handboeken, Bosch & Keuning, Baarn. ISBN 90-246-4924-2

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sepkoski, J. (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera (Chondrichthyes entry)". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. 
  2. ^ a b c Discover life
  3. ^ a b World Register of Marine Species
  4. ^ White, W.T. (2014). "A revised generic arrangement for the eagle ray family Myliobatidae, with definitions for the valid genera". Zootaxa. 3860 (2): 149–166. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3860.2.3. 
  5. ^ a b White, W.T.; Kawauchi, J.; Corrigan, S.; Rochel, E.; Naylor, G.J.P. (2015). "Redescription of the eagle rays Myliobatis hamlyni Ogilby, 1911 and M. tobijei Bleeker, 1854 (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from the East Indo-West Pacific". Zootaxa. 3948 (3): 521–548. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3948.3.7. 
  6. ^ Ruocco, N.L.; Lucifora, L.O.; de Astarloa, J.M.D.; Mabragaña, E.; Delpiani, S.M. (2012). "Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal a new species of eagle ray from the Southwestern Atlantic: Myliobatis ridens sp. nov. (Chondrichthyes, Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae)" (PDF). Zoological Studies. 51 (6): 862–873. 
  7. ^ a b c Shark References