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Temporal range: 65–0 Ma
Danian to present[1]
Myliobatis californica monterey bay aquarium.jpg
Myliobatis californica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Myliobatiformes
Family: Myliobatidae
Genus: Myliobatis
Cuvier, 1816

See text

Myliobatis is a genus of eagle rays in the family Myliobatidae.


Myliobatis species can reach a width up to about 1.8 m (6 ft).[2] Their bodies consist of a rhomboidal disc, wider than long, with one dorsal fin. The head is broad and short, with eyes and spiracles on the sides. The tail is slender, with one or two large spines at the base, without tail fin.[3]

The teeth are arranged in the lower and upper jaws in flat tooth plates called pavement teeth, each consisting of about seven series of plates, which are used to crush clam shells and crustaceans.[3]


Myliobatis species are ovoviviparous. Their gestation last about 6 months and a female produces four to seven embryos. Myliobatis species mainly feed on molluscs, bottom-living crustaceans, and small fishes.[4]


Mylobatis species live in warm, shallow waters. Adults prefer sandy shores, while juveniles can usually be encountered offshore.[3][4]


Extant species[edit]

Currently, 11 species in this genus are recognized:[2][5]

Extinct species[edit]

Fossil tooth or plate of M. dixoni from Khouribga (Morocco), 55-45 Mya

Extinct species within this genus include:[8]

These eagle rays lived from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary periods (from 70.6 to 0.012 Ma). Fossils of these fishes have been found worldwide.[8]

The extinct species Myliobatis dixoni is known from Tertiary deposits along the Atlantic seaboards of the United States, Brazil, Nigeria, England, and Germany.[8]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sepkoski, J. (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera (Chondrichthyes entry)". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2017). Species of Myliobatis in FishBase. July 2017 version.
  3. ^ a b c Discover life
  4. ^ a b World Register of Marine Species
  5. ^ White, W.T. (2014). "A revised generic arrangement for the eagle ray family Myliobatidae, with definitions for the valid genera". Zootaxa. 3860 (2): 149–166. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3860.2.3.
  6. ^ a b White, W.T.; Kawauchi, J.; Corrigan, S.; Rochel, E.; Naylor, G.J.P. (2015). "Redescription of the eagle rays Myliobatis hamlyni Ogilby, 1911 and M. tobijei Bleeker, 1854 (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from the East Indo-West Pacific". Zootaxa. 3948 (3): 521–548. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3948.3.7.
  7. ^ Ruocco, N.L.; Lucifora, L.O.; de Astarloa, J.M.D.; Mabragaña, E.; Delpiani, S.M. (2012). "Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal a new species of eagle ray from the Southwestern Atlantic: Myliobatis ridens sp. nov. (Chondrichthyes, Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae)" (PDF). Zoological Studies. 51 (6): 862–873.
  8. ^ a b c Shark References

Further reading[edit]

  • Aguiar, A.A.; Gallo, V.; Valentin, J.L. (2004). "Using the size independent discriminant analysis to distinguish the species of Myliobatis Cuvier (Batoidea: Myliobatidae) from Brazil". Zootaxa. 464: 1–7.
  • Compagno, L.J.V. (1999): Checklist of living elasmobranchs. A: Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The Johns Hopkins University Press: 471-498.
  • Garman, S (1913). "The Plagiostomia (Sharks, Skates and Rays)". Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 36: 1–515.
  • Gill, T.N. (1865). "Note on the family of myliobatoids, and on a new species of Aetobatis". Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 8: 135–138.
  • Walker, C. & Ward, D. (1993): - Fossielen: Sesam Natuur Handboeken, Bosch & Keuning, Baarn. ISBN 90-246-4924-2