NSP1, the product of rotavirus gene 5, is a nonstructural RNA-binding protein that contains a cysteine-rich region and is a component of early replication intermediates. RNA-folding predictions suggest that this region of the NSP1 mRNA can interact with itself, producing a stem-loop structure similar to that found near the 5'-terminus of the NSP1 mRNA.
NSP1 could play a role in host range restriction.
The cysteine-rich region of NSP1 is not considered essential for genome segment reassortment with heterologous virus.
Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a key transcription factor involved in the induction of interferon (IFN) in response to viral infection. NSP1 binds to and targets IRF3 for proteasome degradation early post-infection. IRF3 degradation is dependent on the presence of NSP1 and the integrity of the N-terminal zinc-binding domain, coupled with the regulated stability of IRF3 and NSP1 by the proteasome, collectively support the hypothesis that NSP1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase.
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