NZR D class (1874)

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NZR D class
D Class No 140 at Ferrymead Railway.jpg
D 140, preserved and in operation at the Ferrymead Railway
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
BuilderUnited Kingdom Dübs and Company (5),
United Kingdom Neilson and Company (19),
New Zealand Scott Brothers (11)
Build date1874–1890
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte2-4-0T
 • UIC1B nt
Gauge3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
Driver dia.36 in (914 mm)
Length21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)
Adhesive weight11 long tons 10 cwt (25,800 lb or 11.7 t)
Loco weight14 long tons 14 cwt (32,900 lb or 14.9 t)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity0 long tons 11 cwt (1,200 lb or 0.6 t)
Water cap300 imp gal (1,400 l; 360 US gal)
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
7.3 sq ft (0.68 m2)
Boiler pressure130 psi (0.90 MPa)
Heating surface392 sq ft (36.4 m2)
CylindersTwo, outside
Cylinder size9.5 in × 18 in (241 mm × 457 mm)
Performance figures
Tractive effort4,693 lbf (20.88 kN)
Career
OperatorsPublic Works Department
New Zealand Railways Department
Number in class35
Numbers6, 16, 18, 46-51, 108-9, 130-1, 137-145, 149, 169-171, 195-98, 221-2, 240, 315, 578
First runMay 1874
Last runMarch 1927
DispositionSeven preserved, one converted into diesel-mechanical, remainder scrapped

NZR D class steam tank locomotives operated on New Zealand's national railway network. The first entered service in 1874 all had been withdrawn by the end of 1927, which allowed the D classification to be used again in 1929.

Introduction[edit]

The boiler and cylinders were the same as the slightly earlier C class,[1] but its driving wheels had a larger diameter[2] and it was aesthetically different from the C. The class was ordered in a number of batches:[3] eight from Neilson and Company in 1874, five from Dübs and Company and four from Neilson in 1878, seven from Neilson in 1880, ten from Scott Brothers in 1887, and the final D from Scott Brothers in 1890. The order with Scott Brothers, placed in 1884, was the first large-scale construction of locomotives in New Zealand.[4]

Names[edit]

Four of the 1874 locomotives were named:

  • D 143: Trout
  • D 144: Kingfisher
  • D 169: Possum
  • D 240: Snapper

Operation[edit]

The class was not particularly powerful and was employed on light duties, sometimes achieving speeds of 72.4 km/h (45 mph) on a level grade.[5] They often saw service on commuter trains between Christchurch and Lyttelton until superior locomotives took their place,[6] and they were utilised at other major locations on the South Island's east coast.[7] In the North Island, D 137 was used in 1905 as part of a "railcar" trial service between Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt,[8] hauling a carriage that seated 24 first class passengers, 48 second class passengers, and had a guard's compartment. It was inspired by locomotive/carriage combinations the General Manager of NZR witnessed in the eastern United States. The combination was overpowered and uneconomic and did not last long in service.[9]

Withdrawal[edit]

The first D to leave NZR's service went to the Public Works Department in 1899, and three more followed in the next two years, one to the PWD and the other two to private businesses. The rest of the class continued to operate for over a decade. Withdrawal began during World War I; the class had long since been superseded by newer and more powerful engines, but they were ideally sized for private sidings and bush tramways, so many were sold rather than scrapped.[10] Only eight remained in service at the start of 1920, and the last left NZR in May 1927. The PWD and private industries continued to use them for decades - a few examples survived into the 1960s. This included D 137, which operated until 1963 on the truncated portion of the Hutt Valley Line that remained as an industrial rail siding for the Gear Meat Preserving and Freezing Company.[11]

Class Roster[edit]

Key: In service On lease Out of service Preserved Overhaul or repair Scrapped
Original Name 1890 Number Builder Builders Number Introduced Withdrawn Notes
6 Neilson 2564 1881 1917 Industrial use 1917-1964. Preserved Ocean Beach Railway, Dunedin.
16 Neilson 2306 1878 1918 Industrial use 1918-1985 (last 12 years as static display). Preserved at Pleasant Point Museum and Railway.
18 Neilson 2308 1878 1920 Industrial use 1920-1941.
46 Dübs 1168 1-1879 1920 Industrial use 1920-1939. Scrapped 1953.
47 Dübs 1166 1-1879 1917 Industrial use 1917-1952. Derelict at Ruru, 1972.
48 Dübs 1167 1-1879 1925 Industrial use 1925-1950.
49 Dübs 1165 2-1879 1919 Industrial use 1919-1935.
50 Dübs 1164 2-1879 1900 Industrial use 1900-1950. Converted to diesel-mechanical 1950. Further use 1950-1980. 1980 to Stratford museum.
108 Scott Bros. 30 12-1887 10-1920 To Public Works Department as PWD 519, 1920-1930.
109 Scott Bros. 34 12-1887 1-1916 Industrial use 1916-1956.
130 Scott Bros. 35 6-1888 3-1927 Industrial use 1927-1940. Scrapped 1964.
131 Scott Bros. 38 1-1888 11-1916 Industrial use 1916-1930.
137 Scott Bros. 31 2-1888 1901
D Class steam locomotive, Gear Company locomotive no. 2 (D 137), 2-4-0T. ATLIB 276433.png
Industrial use 1901-1963. Preserved at Silver Stream Railway.
138 Scott Bros. 32 2-1888 12-1916 Industrial use 1916-1955.
139 Scott Bros. 33 1-1888 10-1919 Industrial use 1919-1953.
140 Scott Bros. 36 1-1888 7-1920
D Class locomotive decorated with flags ATLIB 274142.png
Made by Scott Brothers Ltd., Christchurch in 1887, with maker's number 36, it went into service in 1888, with the NZR road number 140.Industrial use 1920-1960. Preserved Ferrymead Railway.
141 Scott Bros. 37 2-1888 8-1919 Industrial use 1919-1927.
142 Scott Bros 39 3-1888 10-1920 To Public Works Department as PWD 520, 1920.
Trout 143 Neilson 1847 4-1875 3-1916 Industrial use 1916-1968. Preserved at Silver Stream Railway.
Kingfisher 144 Neilson 1849 6-1875 1915 D 144 at Hokitika 20-11-1955 Unknown Photographer, Wally Derbyshire Collection, Royce Flynn Restoration at Kanieri-Hokitika Sawmilling Co. 1928-1951.jpg Industrial use 1915-1928. 1928-1951 at Hokitika & Kanieri Tramway.
145 Neilson 2309 1879 9-1919 To Public Works Department as PWD 517, 1919-1955.
149 Neilson 2307 1879 1920 Industrial use 1920-1931.
Possum 169 Neilson 1848 1-1875 10-1914 Industrial use 1914-1928.
170 Neilson 2563 5-1881 8-1922 Renumbered as D576, 1912. Industrial service 1922-1960. On display at Helensville Railway Station.
171 Neilson 2562 5-1881 5-1915 Industrial use 1915-1957.
195 Neilson 1846 11-1874 1919 Industrial use 1919-1931
196 Neilson 1845 11-1874 1914 To Public Works Department as PWD 513, 1914-1955.
Eel 197 Neilson 1844 12-1874 1916
D class steam Neilson locomotive, New Zealand Railways number 197 (2-4-0T). ATLIB 195851.png
Industrial use 1916-1951. Engine unit stored at Ocean Beach Railway.
198 Neilson 2561 3-1881 1899 To Public Works Department as PWD 506, 1899-1930.
221 Neilson 2565 5-1881 11-1918 Industrial use 1918-1928. On display at Centennial Park, Kaitaia.
222 Neilson 2566 6-1881 5-1915 Industrial use 1915-1932.
Schnapper 240 Neilson 1843 9-1874 1919 Industrial use 1919-1939.
315 Scott Bros. 40 1900 1901 Purchased from New Zealand Midland Railway Company, no. 6, 1890. To Public Works Department as PWD 510, 1901-1930.
Neilson Built for Kaitangata Railway & Coal Co.. Never owned by NZR.
D Class no 197 at Lower Hutt, 1906 with a motor train

Preservation[edit]

Seven locomotives have been preserved, with two operational. The first to be returned to operational condition was D 16, owned by the Pleasant Point Museum and Railway,[12] followed by D 140 at the Ferrymead Railway. D 6 is unrestored at the Ocean Beach Railway, D 137 and D 143 are awaiting restoration at the Silver Stream Railway, D 170 is on static display at Helensville station, and D 221 is on static display in Centennial Park in Kaitaia and its sister (number unknown) is in a paddock in Kaingaroa.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eric Heath and Bob Stott, Classic Steam Locomotives of New Zealand (Wellington: Grantham House, 1993), 22.
  2. ^ New Zealand Steam Locomotives, "D class 2-4-0T"
  3. ^ New Zealand Steam Locomotives, "D class 2-4-0T register"
  4. ^ D. B. Leitch, Railways of New Zealand (Melbourne: Lothian Publishing, 1972), 160.
  5. ^ Heath and Stott, Classic Steam Locomotives of New Zealand, 22.
  6. ^ Canterbury Railway Society, "D class no. 140"
  7. ^ Pleasant Point Railway, "Locomotives"
  8. ^ David Jones, Where Railcars Roamed (Wellington: Wellington Tramway Museum, 1999), 4.
  9. ^ Leitch, Railways of New Zealand, 192.
  10. ^ Heath and Stott, Classic Steam Locomotives of New Zealand, 22.
  11. ^ Tony Hurst, Farewell to Steam: Four Decades of Change on New Zealand Railways (Auckland: HarperCollins, 1995), 131.
  12. ^ Pleasant Point Railway, "Locomotives".
  13. ^ . Weka Pass Railway's pages on the seven preserved D locomotives: D 6's page, with links at the bottom of the page to the other six locomotives