National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality
The National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH), also known as the NARTH Institute, is a US organization that offers conversion therapy and other regimens that purport to change the sexual orientation of people with same-sex attraction. NARTH has been described by a Christian ministry group as a ministry partner that is "a multi-disciplinary professional and scientific organization dedicated to the service of persons who experience unwanted homosexual (same-sex) attractions (SSA)". NARTH was founded in 1992 by Joseph Nicolosi, Benjamin Kaufman, and Charles Socarides. Its headquarters are in Encino, California, at the Thomas Aquinas Psychological Clinic and has operated under the Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity (ATCSI) since 2014. NARTH's leaders disagree with the view of the world's major mental health organizations that homosexuality is not a disorder and that conversion therapy is pseudoscience.
NARTH was founded in 1992 by Benjamin Kaufman, Charles Socarides, and Joseph Nicolosi. In an article titled "In Defense of the Need for Honest Dialogue", Kaufman wrote that the three of them founded NARTH because the American Psychiatric Association and similar professional organizations "had totally stifled the scientific inquiry that would be necessary to stimulate a discussion" about homosexuality. NARTH's leaders argue that the political atmosphere had changed, making it politically incorrect even to suggest the need for a dialogue that considers the question of the normality of homosexuality. Kaufman states that NARTH was formed in response to censorship of scientific investigation of politically unpopular views.
NARTH claims to be a secular organization, differentiating it from other ex-gay groups that are primarily religious in nature. Nevertheless, NARTH often partners with religious groups, such as Jews Offering New Alternatives for Healing, Joel 2:25 International, and Evergreen International in Positive Alternatives to Homosexuality. The NARTH website contains a resource list of theological articles.
In July 2011, NARTH failed to pay its dues to the California Board for Behavioral Sciences and was removed from the list of groups that provide continuing education credits to therapists in California. NARTH had been an approved continuing education provider since 1998.
Sigmund Freud Award/President's Award
Beginning in 1996, NARTH has given an award in recognition of a researcher's outstanding work, called the NARTH Sigmund Freud Award. In some years, the award is called the NARTH President's Award. The award is presented at NARTH's annual conference.
|Recipients of the Sigmund Freud Award/President's Award|
|Abraham Freedman||1996||Therapeutic Attitude in the Treatment of Male Homosexuals||—|
|Harold Voth||1998||—||One of the founders of NARTH|
|Loretta Loeb||1999||—||Member of NARTH Scientific Advisory Board|
|George Rekers||2000||clinical works on childhood gender-identity disorder||Ex-NARTH member, Resigned 2010 from the board of NARTH after discovered hiring a male escort from a gay escort service for two weeks, according to Rekers, to help him with carrying the luggage, and converting the escort to heterosexuality. According to the male escort, for sex.|
|Richard Fitzgibbons||2001||for his prolific writings and work in the field of reorientation therapy||Member of NARTH Scientific Advisory Board|
|Warren Throckmorton||2002||—||Broke with NARTH 2006 due to perceived racism, and has become a strong critic of them and many of their claims|
|Christopher Rosik||2003||—||Member of NARTH Scientific Advisory Board|
|Robert L. Spitzer||2004||research on the ability of gay people to modify sexual orientation||declined to accept the prize, and has apologized for his previous claims NARTH awarded him for.|
|Nicholas Cummings (APA president 1979)||2005||—||—|
|Benjamin Kaufman||2006||—||One of the founders of NARTH|
|Stanton L. Jones||2007||—||—|
|Robert Perloff, (APA President 1985)||2008||—||—|
|Joseph Nicolosi||2009||—||One of the founders of NARTH|
|Michel Lizotte (Canadian journalist)||2011||—||—|
Notable members of the Scientific Advisory Committee include Hillel Goldberg, Nathaniel S. Lehrman and Jeffrey Satinover. Robert Perloff, former president of the American Psychological Association, was a notable supporter of NARTH.
NARTH had several connections to Evergreen International and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Evergreen website referenced the therapeutic methods of NARTH founder Joseph Nicolosi as "beneficial". Nicolosi worked with A. Dean Byrd (an Evergreen Board member, Director of Clinical Training for LDS Social Services, and Brigham Young University professor) to author several papers on reparative therapy. Byrd also served as president of NARTH and also published an article in the LDS church's September 1999 Ensign. Additionally, David C. Pruden served as director of Evergreen and as an officer for NARTH. Likewise, Director of LDS Family Services Jerry Harris served in NARTH leadership.
In 2003, the leaders of Positive Alternatives to Homosexuality (PATH) made NARTH a member.
Stances on the etiology and mutability of homosexuality
The founders held that homosexuality is a treatable mental illness and that a person's sexual orientation can be changed through therapy. Socarides in particular said in the mid-1990's that he had treated about a thousand homosexual patients, and "cured" over a third by dealing with the parental causes of an absent father and overbearing mother. On their current website NARTH states that changes in sexual orientation through therapy are possible for individuals who report unwanted same-sex attractions and pursue psychological care, reporting that "many [are] able to achieve sustained shifts in the direction and intensity of their sexual attractions, fantasy, and arousal that they consider to be satisfying and meaningful."
Claims that pathologize homosexuality and state that it can be changed through therapy have been denounced by almost every major US medical association, including the American Medical Association and the American Psychiatric Association. In 2006 the American Psychological Association declared that NARTH created "an environment in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish". The Southern Poverty Law Center has singled the group out as a main source of anti-gay junk science used by hate groups to justify anti-gay rhetoric.
In 2010 it was revealed that NARTH’s executive secretary, Abba Goldberg, was a con man who had served 18 months in prison.
NARTH received criticism from the Southern Poverty Law Center for an essay titled "Gay Rights and Political Correctness: A Brief History", written by Gerald Schoenewolf, a member of NARTH's Science Advisory Committee. SPLC called it an angry polemic that made outrageous historical claims. The article had drawn a letter of protest from the National Black Justice Coalition a year after its publication. A month later, NARTH removed the article from its website and posted a statement of apology. A later statement from NARTH said that SPLC had mis-labeled Schoenewolf as "ex-gay" and had made other erroneous claims about his essay.
- "Recommended Friends". desertstream.org. Desert Streams. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- "The Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity". The Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Sutton, Philip M. (November 2015). "Professional care for unwanted same-sex attraction: What does the research say?". The Linacre Quarterly. 82 (4): 351–363. doi:10.1179/0024363915Z.000000000147. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Quandt, Katie Rose (8 August 2014). ""Ex-Gay" Conversion Therapy Group Rebrands, Stresses "Rights of Clients"". Mother Jones. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- R. L. Spitzer, "The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: a reformulation of the issues", American Journal of Psychiatry 138 (1981): 210–15. doi:10.1176/ajp.138.2.210
- "An Instant Cure", Time; April 1, 1974.
- "The A.P.A. Normalization of Homosexuality, and the Research Study of Irving Bieber". narth.com.
- "Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts". www.apa.org.
- "In Defense of the Need for Honest Dialogue". NARTH.
- "narth" (PDF). narth. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
- "narth". narth. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
- "Exempt Organizations Select Check". apps.irs.gov.
- Ariel Shidlo; Michael Schroeder; Jack Drescher (2001). Sexual Conversion Therapy: Ethical, Clinical, and Research Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7890-1911-0.
- Theological Issues. NARTH. Accessed July 27, 2011.
- NARTH No Longer Providing Continuing Education to California Therapists. San Francisco Chronicle, July 2011
- "Introduction, Joseph Nicolosi, PhD". narth.com. NARTH. 1996. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- "Therapeutic Attitude in the Treatment of Male Homosexuals". narth.com. NARTH. 1996. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- Jim Lewis (2000). "Report: 2000 NARTH Conference Washington, D.C.". narth.com. NARTH. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- Jeff Muskus (7 May 2010). "George Rekers, Anti-Gay Activist, Caught With Male Escort 'Rentboy' [UPDATE: Escort Says Rekers Is Gay]". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Penn Bullock; Brandon K. Thorp (6 May 2010). "George Rekers Is a Homosexual, Escort Says". Miami New Times. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Therapists, Ex-Gays Gather for NARTH Annual Conference". narth.com. NARTH. 2001. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- "New and Improved: Clinical Members Discussion List". narth.com. NARTH. 2005. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- Matthew Cullinan Hoffman (28 July 2011). "Grove City College Psychologist Warren Throckmorton Blasted for Backpedaling on Homosexuality". LifeSiteNews.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
-  postings about NARTH
- "Spitzer Declines NARTH’s Sigmund Freud Award" (PDF). NARTH BULLETIN. NARTH. 13 (3): 14. December 2004.
- John M. Becker (April 25, 2012). "EXCLUSIVE: Dr. Robert Spitzer Apologizes to Gay Community for Infamous ‘Ex-Gay’ Study". www.truthwinsout.org.
- "NARTH Scientific Advisory Committee". narth.com.
- "narth". narth. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
- "narth". narth. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
- Airhart, Mike (2004-12-01). "Former APA Chief Defends Exgay Therapy". Ex-Gay Watch. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
- Park, Jason. "Therapy". Evergreen International. Archived from the original on 15 April 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Nicolosi, Joseph; Byrd, A. Dean; Potts, Richard W. (June 2000). "Retrospective self-reports of changes in homosexual orientation: A consumer survey of conversion therapy clients". 86. Psychological Reports: 1071–1088.
- Byrd, A. Dean. "When a Loved One Struggles with Same-Sex Attraction". lds.org. LDS Church. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Controversial Leader of 'Ex-Gay' Therapy Group Steps Down as Criticism Mounts". NBC29 News WVIR Charlottesville, VA. 7 Dec 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "Narth Officers". narth.com. NARTH. Archived from the original on 3 August 2004. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "Charles Socarides Dies; Said He 'Cured' Gays". Washington Post. Los Angeles Times. 2 January 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "NARTH Institute Statement on Sexual Orientation Change". narth.com. NARTH. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Lenz, Ryan. "NARTH Becomes Main Source for Anti-Gay 'Junk Science'". splcenter.org. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Butterworth, Benjamin (10 March 2017). "The man behind the lie of ‘gay cure’ therapy has died". Pink News. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Gass-Poore, Jordan (10 March 2017). "The father of gay conversion therapy dies aged 70 after decades of condemnation for trying to 'cure' homosexual men". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Gabriel Arana. "My So-Called Ex-Gay Life". American Prospect.
- "Gay Rights and Political Correctness: A Brief History". NARTH. April 4, 2005. Archived from the original on 19 Jun 2006. Retrieved 24 Feb 2017.
- "Intelligence Report". splcenter.org.
- "Political Correctness Gone Amok: The Latest Controversy". archive.org. February 6, 2013.
- National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality, Official Website
- The Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity, Official Website
- COPP Position Statement on Therapies Focused on Attempts to Change Sexual Orientation (Reparative or Conversion Therapies)
- NARTH position statements