Nawab of Awadh

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Flag of Nawabs of Awadh, introduced during the reign of Ghazi-ud-Din Haider (1814–1827).
Short seal of Nawabs of Awadh, introduced during the reign of Ghazi-ud-Din Haider (1814–1827).
Other Seal, introduced during the reign of Ghazi-ud-Din Haider (1814–1827).

The Nawab of Awadh or the Nawab of Oudh (IPA: /ˈaʊd/) was the title of the rulers who governed the state of Oudh or Awadh in India during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Nawabs of Awadh belonged to a dynasty of Persian origin from Nishapur.[1][2][3] In 1724, Nawab Sa'adat Khan established the Oudh State.


Establishment of the Nawab of Oudh[edit]

As the Mughal Empire declined, the emperors lost their power and became puppets and prisoners of their new overlords. Awadh thus grew stronger and more independent. The capital city at the time was Faizabad.

Oudh's importance for the Mughal Empire began during the Later Mughal-Maratha Wars during which Saadat Ali Khan I was unable to relieve his companions during the Battle of Bhopal.

His son Safdarjung had tried to overthrow the Eunuch Vizier, but later had to confront Feroze Jung III and the remaining followers of the Sayyid Brothers and the Regents of Rohilkhand, he was unable to aid his sovereign, Ahmad Shah Bahadur during the First Battle of Sikandarabad.

Shuja-ud-Daula had succeeded his father during an unstable period in the Indian subcontinent the Mughal Empire's capital Delhi was under Maratha control and the emperor Alamgir II assassinated along other members of the imperial Timurids, his son Shah Alam II managed to escape from the carnage and seek refuge with Shuja (who was thenceforth declared "Nawab Wazir of the Mughal Empire". Shuja reconciled with the Regents of Rohilkhand and joined Ahmad Shah Durrani and helped secure a decisive victory during the Third Battle of Panipat.

Shuja later joined Mir Qasim and Shah Alam II during the Battle of Buxar losing much territory after the confrontation. Which Shah Alam II managed to return to him by granting Diwani rights to Robert Clive.

Establishment of Oudh State[edit]

Main article: Oudh State

Ghazi-ud-Din Haider (1814–1827) declared independence from the Mughal emperor Akbar Shah II with the support of the British East India Company, he raised his own flag and coat of arms.

List of rulers[edit]

All of these rulers used the title of Nawab.

Nawabs of Awadh (1722–1856)[edit]

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Saadat Ali Khan I.jpg Burhan ul Mulk Sa'adat Khan
برہان الملک سعادت خان
Mir Muhammad Amin Musawi 1680 Nishapur, Khurasan, Safavid dynasty, Persia 1722 – 19 March 1739 1739
Safdarjung, second Nawab of Awadh, Mughal dynasty. India. early 18th century.jpg Abul-Mansur Khan Safdar Jung
ابو المنصور خان صفدرجنگ
Muhammad Muqim 1708 1737 – 5 October 1754 1754
अवध के नवाब शुजाउद्दौला.jpg Shuja-ud-Daula
شجاع الدولہ
Jalal-ud-din Haider Abul-Mansur Khan 1732 1754 – 26 January 1775 1775
Asifportrait2 - Asuf ud Daula.jpg Asaf-ud-Daula
آصف الدولہ
Muhammad Yahya Mirza Amani 1748 26 January 1775 – 21 September 1797 1797
WazirAliKhan.jpg Asif Jah Mirza Wazir Ali Khan
وزیر علی خان
1780 21 September 1797 – 21 January 1798 1817
Saadat Ali Khan II.jpg Yamin-ud-Daula Saadat Ali Khan II
سعادت علی خان
1752 21 January 1798 – 11 July 1814 1814
Ghazi-ud-Din Haider Robert Home 1820.jpg Rafa'at-ud-Daula
Abul-Muzaffar Ghazi-ud-din Haydar Khan
غازی الدیں حیدر
1769 11 July 1814 – 19 October 1827 1827
Nasir ud din haidar.jpg Nasir-ud-din Haidar Shah Jahan
ناصر الدیں حیدر شاہ ‌جہاں
Abul-Mansur Qutb-ud-din Sulaiman Jah 1827 19 October 1827 – 7 July 1837 1837
MuhammadAliShah.jpg Abul Fateh Moin-ud-din Muhammad Ali Shah
محمّد علی شاہ
1777 7 July 1837 – 7 May 1842 1842
AmjadAliShah.jpg Najm-ud-Daula Abul-Muzaffar Musleh-ud-din Amjad Ali Shah
امجد علی شاہ
1801 7 May 1842 – 13 February 1847 1847
Washah1.jpg Abul-Mansur Mirza Wajid Ali Shah
واجد علی شاہ
1822 13 February 1847 – 11 February 1856 21 September 1887
Begum hazrat mahal.jpg Begum Hazrat Mahal
بیگم حضرت محل
Muhammadi Khanum - May 1857 – 1858
Wife of Wajid Ali Shah and mother of Birjis Qadra
7 April 1879
Birjis Qadra.jpg Birjis Qadr
برجیس قدر
Ramzan Ali
رمضان علی
1845 1857–1858
(in rebellion)
14 August 1893

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sacred space and holy war: the politics, culture and history of Shi'ite Islam By Juan Ricardo Cole
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica, "Avadh", E. Yarshater
  3. ^ Art and culture: endeavours in interpretation by Ahsan Jan Qaisar, Som Prakash Verma, Mohammad Habib

External links[edit]