Nesterov

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Nesterov

Нестеров
Leningradskaya Street in Nesterov
Leningradskaya Street in Nesterov
Coat of arms of Nesterov
Coat of arms
Location of Nesterov
Nesterov is located in Russia
Nesterov
Nesterov
Location of Nesterov
Nesterov is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Nesterov
Nesterov
Nesterov (Kaliningrad Oblast)
Coordinates: 54°37′50″N 22°34′24″E / 54.63056°N 22.57333°E / 54.63056; 22.57333Coordinates: 54°37′50″N 22°34′24″E / 54.63056°N 22.57333°E / 54.63056; 22.57333
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKaliningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative districtNesterovsky District[1]
Town of district significanceNesterov[1]
First mentioned1539
Town status since1722[2]
Area
 • Total8 km2 (3 sq mi)
Elevation
65 m (213 ft)
Population
 • Total4,595
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
4,001 (-12.9%)
 • Density570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
 • Capital ofNesterovsky District[1], town of district significance of Nesterov[1]
 • Municipal districtNesterovsky Municipal District[5]
 • Urban settlementNesterovskoye Urban Settlement[5]
 • Capital ofNesterovsky Municipal District[5], Nesterovskoye Urban Settlement[5]
Time zoneUTC+2 (MSK–1 Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
238010
Dialing code(s)+7 40144
OKTMO ID27624101001

Nesterov (Russian: Не́стеров), until 1938 known by its German name Stallupönen (Lithuanian: Stalupėnai; Polish: Stołupiany) and in 1938-1946 as Ebenrode, is a town and the administrative center of Nesterovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located 140 kilometers (87 mi) east of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast, near the Russian-Lithuanian border on the railway connecting Kaliningrad Oblast with Moscow. Population: 4,595 (2010 Census);[3] 5,049 (2002 Census);[8] 4,826 (1989 Census).[9]

History[edit]

In the Middle Ages, the area in Old Prussia had been settled by the Nadruvian tribe of the Baltic Prussians. It was conquered by the Teutonic Knights in about 1276 and incorporated into the State of the Teutonic Order. From the 15th century onwards, the Knights largely resettled the lands with Samogitian and Lithuanian colonists.

The settlement itself was first mentioned as Stallupoenen, or Stallupönen, in 1539, named after a nearby river called Stalupė in Lithuanian.[citation needed] At that time, with the secularization of the Order's Prussian lands in 1525, Stallupönen had already become part of the Duchy of Prussia, a Polish fief which in 1618 was inherited by the Hohenzollern margraves of Brandenburg. Stallupönen then belonged to Brandenburg-Prussia and in 1701 became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. King Frederick William I granted it town privileges in 1722.[2] Like other cities in East Prussia during the Seven Years' War between 1757 and 1762, it was occupied by the Russian forces. It was administered in the Province of East Prussia beginning in 1773. During the Prussian-led unification of Germany, Stallupönen became a part of the German Empire in 1871. With the construction of railways, the town became well-acquainted to travelers, as it was the last stop on the German-Russian frontier. Here, travelers made the transfer from standard gauge railway carriages of western Europe to the broad gauge carriages of Russia.

Stallupönen in 1906
Devastated Stallupönen, 1914

In August 1914, the city and the surrounding area were a focal point of Battle of Stallupönen between Russian and Imperial German armies, an opening battle on the Eastern Front of World War I. It was occupied by the Russian army between August 18, 1914 and February 18, 1915.

Because of the Lithuanian minority living there, the Republic of Lithuania tried unsuccessfully to obtain the town from Germany after World War I. Because "Stallupönen" sounded too "un-German", the Nazi regime renamed the town Ebenrode in 1938.[citation needed]

The town was overrun by the Soviet Red Army during World War II on January 13, 1945. The region was transferred from Germany to the Russian SFSR in 1945 and made a part of Kaliningrad Oblast. In 1946, the town, whose German inhabitants had been largely evacuated or expelled, was renamed Nesterov after Sergey Nesterov, a Soviet war hero who was killed in the vicinity.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Nesterov serves as the administrative center of Nesterovsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Nesterovsky District as the town of district significance of Nesterov.[1] As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Nesterov is incorporated within Nesterovsky Municipal District as Nesterovskoye Urban Settlement.[5]

Culture[edit]

Today Nesterov is one of the cultural centers of the Lithuanian minority in Russia.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Resolution #640
  2. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 295. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d e Law #258
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast #640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №258 от 30 июня 2008 г. «Об организации местного самоуправления на территории муниципального образования "Нестеровский городской округ"», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №124, 11 июля 2008 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #258 of June 30, 2008 On the Organization of the Local Self-Government on the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Nesterovsky Urban Okrug", as amended by the Law #370 of July 1, 2009 On the Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formations of Kaliningrad Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).