Optimus Maximus keyboard
The Optimus Maximus keyboard, previously just "Optimus keyboard", is a keyboard developed by the Art. Lebedev Studio, a Russian design studio headed by Artemy Lebedev. Each of its keys is a display which can dynamically change to adapt to the keyboard layout in use or to show the function of the key. It was launched initially in 2008 and is no longer available to new orders.
The design featured on the studio's website received attention on the web when it was featured on Slashdot on July 14, 2005, and afterwards for a few weeks on other technology websites. The original release date was "end of 2006", however production issues caused the Optimus mini three to be developed first, with the full keyboard delayed until the end of 2007. The keyboard was number 10 in the Wired Magazine 2006 Vaporware Awards and number 4 on the list in 2007 due to its numerous delays and feature reductions.
The Optimus allows for greater user interaction, by dynamically displaying the current function of the keys. For example, when the user presses the shift key, the pictures would change to upper-case versions. It would also make switching between different keyboard layouts (such as English and Cyrillic) rapid, and could make the switch to alternative layouts such as Dvorak easier for people who only have a QWERTY keyboard with no possibility of rearranging the keys. To demonstrate this concept, there are computer renderings showing example layouts for Quake III Arena and Adobe Photoshop.
Optimus mini three
Art. Lebedev Studio released a smaller three-key version of their keyboard, named Optimus mini three. Each of the keys is larger than a standard key. The mini three can be adjusted, through the configuration software, to either a horizontal or vertical orientation.
Initial reviews were mixed. The keyboard functions as advertised, but it has been criticized for inordinately high CPU usage, slow response time, and buggy configuration software.
On July 21, 2008, Engadget posted about a new version of the keyboard, originally named Optimus Pultius. It features 15 OLED keys in a three-by-five arrangement and a USB port. Engadget also reported that the Pultius had been renamed to the Aux and included a new rendering of the rear side showing that there would be two USB ports instead of one.
In 2014, the existing models in the Optimus range were discontinued and superseded by the "Optimus Popularis" model which uses a single large LCD screen under the transparent keyboard instead of individual OLED displays for each key.
The patent for this "Display Keyboard" (U.S. Patent 5,818,361, filed 1996, published 1998) is held by inventor Elkin Acevedo. However, the first programmable LCD keyboard  was developed in the mid-1980s in Germany. This keyboard, sold under the LCBoard name in the U.S. until 1999, contained many of the features of the Optimus keyboard including monochrome graphic icons on each keyboard key, macro programming, context sensitive and application dependent switching between functions. S. Bigbie et. al. published related ideas in an IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin (Vol. 21 No. 2 July 1978) , as did Alan Bagley of Hewlett-Packard in (U.S. Patent 4,078,257).
A concept design using E Ink technology was created by Maxim Mezentsev and Aleksander Suhih in 2013.  A similar design by Jaasta was also created in 2014 but was never built since they used Sonder Design's prior art.
Art. Lebedev Studio manufactured the keyboard with these features:
- A plastic body (width: 537 mm, depth: 173 mm, height: 38 mm)
- Extra-durable polymer plastic keys (20.2×20.2 mm, visible area 10.1×10.1 mm)
- 48×48 pixel screens, Highcolor mode (65 536 colors, 10 frame/s)
- Organic light-emitting diode screen for keys
- USB 2.0 (or 1.1) connectivity
- 4-5 year lifetime
- A key-saver mode
- Support for animation on keys at 10 frame/s minimum
- Ability to form a mosaic using a combination of key images
- Compatibility with Windows XP, Windows Vista and Mac OS X 10.5.1 (and higher).
- An SDK for complete display customization
- Swappable keys and support for keys without displays
- 32 MB SD card for storing basic layouts
- Non-stop glow time at nominal brightness of 20,000 hours, after which display quality will diminish
- An ambient light sensor which can be used to automatically adjust display brightness
- A viewing angle of 160°
Engadget published an early impression of the keyboard, approving of the quality of the displays, the build quality of the keyboard, and the customisation software. However, they note that the keys' high resistance means that it is tiring to type on (exhausting the author in "30 seconds to a minute"), and therefore "it's better off used as an absurdly configurable Swiss army knife".
- Fenlon, Wesley (9 December 2011). "The Tragic Tale of Art Lebedev's Optimus Popularis Keyboard". Tested. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
- "Optimus". Art. Lebedev Studio. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
- Calore, Michael. "Vaporware '06: Return of the King". wired.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Calore, Michael. "Vaporware 2007: Long Live the King". wired.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "HugeDomains.com - Hrmpf.com is for sale (Hrmpf)". hrmpf.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Kim, Arnold (3 January 2008). "Optimus-like OLED Apple Keyboard?". MacRumors. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
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- Melanson, Donald (19 September 2008). "Optimus Pultius becomes Optimus Aux, new prototype shows up". Engadget. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Miller, Paul (19 September 2008). "New Optimus Aux shots show a sexier vision". Engadget. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Optimus Keyboard, July 14, 2005, Gadgetopia
- "LCD Key History". lcd-keys.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "Sonder". Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- Seth, Radhika (January 29, 2013). "Best Keyboard Ever". Yanko Design. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- Dunne, Sam (4 February 2015). "Jaasta: Is This E-Ink Keyboard (Finally) The End for Time-Honored Design Tradition?". Core77. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- Liszewski, Andrew (23 December 2014). "The Morphing E-Ink Keyboard May (Almost) Finally Be Here". Gizmodo. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- "Frequently given answers about Optimus Maximus keyboard". Art. Lebedev Studio. Archived from the original on 2007-07-08. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- Block, Ryan (22 February 2008). "Optimus Maximus: at long last, we bring one home to test". Engadget. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- Brown, Rich (16 July 2008). "Optimus Maximus review: Optimus Maximus". CNET. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
- Fermoso, Jose (2008-04-23). "The Optimus Maximus Keyboard Is Now Available For Purchase, If You're Filthy Rich". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
- Mokey, Nick (13 August 2008). "Optimus Maximus Review". Digital Trends. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
- Optimus Maximus - The studio's page on the keyboard
- Life and Incredible Adventures of Optimus Keyboards - Official LiveJournal
- Optimus Keyboard With OLED Display Keys - Slashdot article
- Long before Optimus - A Brief History of the LCD Key Technology
- Episode 38 Episode of Tekzilla from June 20, 2008 featuring the keyboard.