Panicoideae

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Panicoideae
Tonomine highland Kamikawa Hyogo pref Japan07n.jpg
Miscanthus sinensis in Tonomine Highlands, Japan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
A. Braun (1864)
Tribes

12 tribes, see text

Synonyms[1]

Panicoideae is the second-largest subfamily of the grasses with over 3,500 species, mainly distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions.[1] It comprises some important agricultural crops, including sugarcane, maize (or corn), sorghum, and switchgrass.

C4 photosynthesis evolved independently a number of times in the subfamily, which presumably had a C3 ancestor.[2]

Systematics and taxonomy[edit]

Within the PACMAD clade of grasses, the Panicoideae are sister to a clade made of the four subfamilies Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae, Danthonioideae, and Micrairoideae.[2] A modern phylogenetic classification divides the Panicoideae in twelve tribes corresponding to monophyletic clades; two genera, Chandrasekharania and Jansenella, are unplaced (incertae sedis) but probably belong to tribe Tristachyideae.[1] The three largest tribes, Paniceae, Paspaleae, and Andropogoneae, together with the small Arundinelleae, form the core of the subfamily. The Gynerieae were formerly placed in Arundinoideae, and the basal lineage, the "centothecoid clade" with seven tribes, was formerly seen as separate subfamily, Centothecoideae.[1]

Phylogeny based on chloroplast DNA analyses, showing relationships of tribes within the subfamily (dashed lines indicate uncertain positions; C4 clades flagged):[1][2][3][4]

Panicoideae
"centothecoid clade"


Chasmanthieae



Zeugiteae






Steyermarkochloeae



Tristachyideae C4





Centotheceae




Cyperochloeae



Thysanolaeneae








Gynerieae




Paniceae C3 & C4




Lecomtelleae




Paspaleae C3 & C4


Andropogonodae

Andropogoneae C4



Arundinelleae C4








Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Romschenko, Konstantin; Davidse, Gerrit; Zuloaga, Fernando O.; Judziewicz, Emmet J.; Filgueiras, Tarciso S.; Davis, Jerrold I.; Morrone, Osvaldo (2015). "A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae)". Journal of Systematics and Evolution 53 (2): 117–137. doi:10.1111/jse.12150. ISSN 1674-4918.  open access publication - free to read
  2. ^ a b c Grass Phylogeny Working Group II (2012). "New grass phylogeny resolves deep evolutionary relationships and discovers C4 origins". New Phytologist 193 (2): 304–312. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03972.x. ISSN 0028-646X.  open access publication - free to read
  3. ^ Morrone, Osvaldo; Aagesen, Lone; Scataglini, Maria A.; Salariato, Diego L.; Denham, Silvia S.; Chemisquy, Maria A.; Sede, Silvana M.; Giussani, Liliana M.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Zuloaga, Fernando O. (2012). "Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification". Cladistics 28 (4): 333–356. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00384.x. ISSN 0748-3007. 
  4. ^ Besnard, G.; Christin, P.-A.; Male, P.-J. G.; Coissac, E.; Ralimanana, H.; Vorontsova, M. S. (2013). "Phylogenomics and taxonomy of Lecomtelleae (Poaceae), an isolated panicoid lineage from Madagascar". Annals of Botany 112 (6): 1057–1066. doi:10.1093/aob/mct174. ISSN 0305-7364.  open access publication - free to read