Peñamellera Baja

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Peñamellera Baja
Flag of Peñamellera Baja
Coat of arms of Peñamellera Baja
Coat of arms
Peñamellera Baja.png
Peñamellera Baja is located in Spain
Peñamellera Baja
Peñamellera Baja
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 43°18′36″N 4°35′24″W / 43.31000°N 4.59000°W / 43.31000; -4.59000Coordinates: 43°18′36″N 4°35′24″W / 43.31000°N 4.59000°W / 43.31000; -4.59000
Country  Spain
Autonomous community  Asturias
Province Asturias
Comarca Oriente
Judicial district Llanes
Capital Panes
 • Alcalde José Manuel Fernández Díaz (PP)
 • Total 83.85 km2 (32.37 sq mi)
Highest elevation 1,560 m (5,120 ft)
 • Total 1,442
 • Density 17/km2 (45/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website Official website

Peñamellera Baja is a municipality in the Autonomous Community of the Principality of Asturias, Spain. It is borderered on the north by Llanes and Ribadedeva, to the west by Peñamellera Alta, and to the east and south by the Autonomous Community of Cantabria.


The history of Peñamellera Baja[1] is basically the same as that of its neighbor Alta until their split was made in 1869. However, we must comment on some things concerning the previously named only under cueto and mention they spent together.

There have been found some manifestations of Palolithic art in Peñamellera Baja. La Loja cave shows various stone tools deparándonos an important set of cave art corresponding to the Magdalenian age and where we can enjoy engravings of animals such as horses and bison.

The first documentary evidence of Peñamellera dates from 1032: Piniolo and Aldonza and the leonine king Bermudo III territories were exchanged, giving the first half of Peñamellera. After complete incorporation into the realm of King Ferdinand II territory he dispossessed Asturias in these areas for inclusion in the kingdom of Leon although ecclesiastically still depended on the bishopric of Oviedo.

In 1340 King Alfonso XI gave the people of Peñamellera the jurisdiction, having representation without having to visit the sites of the Merindad of Asturias de Santillana. Then appeared various stately powers such as Aguilar, who also flaunted the lordship of Peñamellera. This measure brought the appearance of stately towers and patrimonial of public office. As an example Colosia towers and Siejo are. It is during this time of the Middle Ages under the intention to divide the valley into two administrative units, the high valley and the low first appears (their separation was not effective until 1889)

In the modern age the valley of Peñamellera part of the Commonwealth of the five valleys of the region of Burgos. Between 1514 and 1522 he joined together with San Vicente de la Barquera of an independent jurisdiction. In 1749 it was added to Intendance of Burgos and Cane of Laredo, and was present at the formation of the province of Cantabria, 1778.

Always livestock and agriculture were present in the life of the valley, its people being exempted from taxes from the sale of cattle thanks to a privilege that was granted by King Charles II.

The capital of the valley in its low cueto established in Abándames. Each cueto, high and low had a ruler, a noble for each judge and one for the valley in general. The population was a mixture of country gentry and nobility minimal illustrious family lines.

The valley also suffered from the war of independence being occupied by French troops in 1809 when Colonel Gauthier broke surveillance of River and invaded the council back in 1810.

The most important historical event of this century is the Asturian land back to the territories of Peñamellera Baja in 1833, thanks to the new territorial distribution in Spain; a year later the valley of Peñamellera ordered along Rivadedeva re-entry into the Province of Santander4 request be denied disassociating of Cantabria and becoming part of the province of Oviedo.5 Then they start discussions for the capital of the same show between Alles and Abándames. In 1869 cuetos administratively separate the two remaining capital Abándames as low valley. This situation lasted until 1890, at which time the capital is transferred to Panes, a town that experienced a progressive increase in the population.

The emigration to America was popular between young people: they travelled abroad and went back years later to spend their fortunes building houses, palaces, schools and other services that benefit all the people, as were improvements in roads and water brought . During the Spanish civil war noted that the low cueto had the strength of republican army under orders Manolin Alvarez, being conquered the area on September 9, 1937 by Navarre troops using the Condor Legion.


Like its neighbor Peñamellera Alta and most of the municipalities in the district, Peñamellera Baja has been characterized by a progressive population loss over the last century. In the first part of the 20th century, most emigration from Peñamellera Baja was directed overseas. In the second half of the century, people began to emigrate to other parts of Europe and the industrial centers of Asturias. Since the population peaked in 1930 at 4,910 inhabitants, there has been a significant decline in population, leaving the current population at 1,579.

Population loss has made demographic structures in the area quite unbalanced in terms of aging, and Peñamellera Baja now has a relatively high median age for the region. The same is not true for the sex ratio; Peñamellera Baja presents one of the most equal sex ratios in the whole region of the Picos de Europa. Currently, the majority of the population is concentrated around the Deva River in the north of the municipality while the southern part is quite depopulated except for the parishes of San Esteban Cuñaba.

In regard to economic activity, the agricultural sector remains the most important of the region, generating 46.52% of the jobs. Land used for crops represents a total of 2.21% of the territory, and more than 60% is used for livestock. The predominant vaccine cottage is oriented mainly to milk production. They are also surveyed in the council heads of horses, goats and sheep.

The secondary sector 16.40% creates local employment, mainly concentrated in the construction sector and public works with 16.22%. Also important is the cheese industry, resulting in San Esteban Peñamellera cheese through a cooperative society, cheese and breads Monk Buelles the chivita cheese.

The tertiary sector of services is rooted almost entirely in the city council, Breads, generating a total of 37.08% of jobs. This capital city has a lot of services, their needs being pretty well covered. Lately review is the boom that is taking the rural tourism and active thanks to the natural attraction of the area.

The population of the fact that according to the tables published by the National Statistics Institute from 10 to 10 years had the November 1, 2011 amounted to 1322 people, 653 men and 669 women.

From: INE Archiv



  • April Fair (a tradition taken from a popular Andalusian parade - 12 April)
  • San Isidro Labrador (15 May)
  • San Roque (16 August)
  • San Cipriano (15 September)



  1. ^ Sánchez-Albornoz, C. (1985). Orígenes de la nación española: el Reino de Asturias: estudios críticos sobre la historia del Reino de Asturias: selección.
  2. ^ González, J. M. (1968). El Paleolítico Inferior y Medio en Asturias-Nuevos hallazgos. Archivum, 18(18).
  • Sánchez-Albornoz, C. (1985). Orígenes de la nación española: el Reino de Asturias: estudios críticos sobre la historia del Reino de Asturias: selección.
  • González, J. M. (1968). El Paleolítico Inferior y Medio en Asturias-Nuevos hallazgos. Archivum, 18(18).
  • Casal, G., & Garcia, J. J. (1762). Historia natural, y medica de el principado de Asturias. Martin.

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