Peter II of Aragon
Engraving of a sealing of Peter II, ca 1196 to 1213
|King of Aragon
Count of Barcelona
|Reign||25 April 1196 – 12 September 1213|
|Coronation||1205 in Rome|
|Died||12 September 1213
|Burial||priory of San Juan de Sijena|
|Spouse||Marie of Montpellier|
|Issue||James I of Aragon|
|Father||Alfonso II of Aragon|
|Mother||Sancha of Castile|
He was born in Huesca, the son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile. In 1205 he acknowledged the feudal supremacy of the papacy and was crowned in Rome by Pope Innocent III, swearing to defend the Catholic faith (hence his surname, "the Catholic"). He was the first king of Aragon to be crowned by the pope.
On June 15, 1204 he married (as her third husband) Marie of Montpellier, daughter and heiress of William VIII of Montpellier by Eudocia Comnena. She gave him a son, James, but Peter soon repudiated her. Marie was popularly venerated as a saint for her piety and marital suffering, but was never canonized; she died in Rome in 1213.
The Crown of Aragon was widespread in the area that is now southernwestern France, but which at that time was under the control of vassal local princes, such as the Counts of Toulouse. The Cathars or Albingenses rejected the authority and the teachings of the Catholic Church. Innocent called upon Louis VIII of France to suppress the Albigenses. Under the leadership of Simon of Montfort a campaign was launched. The Albigensian Crusade, begun in 1209, led to the slaughter of approximately 20,000 men, women and children, Cathar and Catholic alike. Over the course of twenty years military campaigns essentially destroyed the previously flourishing civilization of Occitania and by 1229 brought the region firmly under the control of the King of France, and the Capetian dynasty from the north of France.
Peter returned from Las Navas in autumn 1212 to find that Simon de Montfort had conquered Toulouse, exiling Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, who was Peter's brother-in-law and vassal.Peter crossed the Pyrenees and arrived at Muret in September 1213 to confront Montfort's army. He was accompanied by Raymond of Toulouse, who tried to persuade Peter to avoid battle and instead starve out Montfort's forces. This suggestion was rejected.
The Battle of Muret began on September 12, 1213. The Aragonese forces were disorganized and disintegrated under the assault of Montfort's squadrons. Peter himself was caught in the thick of fighting, and died as a result of a foolhardy act of bravado. He was thrown to the ground and killed. The Aragonese forces broke in panic when their king was slain and Montfort's crusaders won a crushing victory.
The nobility of Toulouse, vassals of the Crown of Aragon, were defeated. The conflict culminated in the Treaty of Meaux-Paris in 1229, in which the integration of the Occitan territory into the French crown was agreed upon.
Upon Peter's death, the kingdom passed to his only son by Marie of Montpellier, the future James the Conqueror.
|Ancestors of Peter II of Aragon|
- From Louis Blancard, Iconographie des sceaux et bulles, 1860.
- Antonio Ubieto Arteta, Creación y desarrollo de la Corona de Aragón, Zaragoza, Anubar (Historia de Aragón), 1987, págs. 187-188. ISBN 84-7013-227-X.
- Damian J. Smith, Crusade, Heresy and Inquisition in the Lands of the Crown of Aragon (c.1167-1276), (Brill, 2010), 31.
- A Global Chronology of Conflict, Vol. I, ed. Spencer Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 269.
- Raymond VI had married Eleanor, sister of Perer II
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peter II of Aragon.|
- Sumption, Jonathan. The Albigensian Crusade. 2000.
- (Spanish) Martín Alvira-Cabrer, 12 de Septiembre de 1213: El Jueves de Muret, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2002.
- (Spanish) Martín Alvira-Cabrer, Muret 1213. La batalla decisiva de la Cruzada contra los Cátaros, Ariel, Barcelona, 2008 and 2013.
- (Spanish) Martín Alvira-Cabrer, Pedro el Católico, Rey de Aragón y Conde de Barcelona (1196-1213). Documentos, Testimonios y Memoria Histórica, 6 vols., Zaragoza, Institución Fernando el Católico (CSIC), 2010 (on line).
Alfonso the Troubadour
|King of Aragon
Count of Barcelona
James the Conqueror