Philip I, Margrave of Baden
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|Philip I of Baden|
|Born||6 November 1479|
|Died||17 September 1533(aged 53)|
|Spouse||Elisabeth of the Palatinate|
|Issue||6, including Marie Jakobäa|
|Mother||Ottilie of Katzenelnbogen|
Margrave Philip I of Baden (6 November 1479 – 17 September 1533) took over the administration of his father's possessions Baden (Baden-Baden), Durlach, Pforzheim and Altensteig and parts of Eberstein, Lahr and Mahlberg in 1515 and ruled as governor until he inherited the territories in 1527. From 1524 till 1527, he also acted as an imperial governor in the second Imperial Government.
Philip was the fifth son of the Margrave Christopher I of Baden and Ottilie of Katzenelnbogen. His father intended to avoid splitting the inheritance and regarded Philip as his most capable son, so he wanted Philip to inherit the sovereignty over all his territories. He intended Philip to marry with Joan, the heiress of Margrave Philip of Hachberg-Sausenberg — a junior branch of the House of Baden branch line, so that Philip would become sovereign of a considerable territory. The plan failed due to resistance of the French king.
Because of the resistance of Philip's worldly brothers, Christopher later changed his will twice. Philip's brother Bernhard III inherited the holdings on the left bank of the Rhine, his brother Ernest inherited the baronies Hachberg, Usenberg, Sausenburg, Rötteln and Baden Castle in Badenweiler in South Baden.
During his reign, Philip was confronted a wave of rebellions all over southern Germany. In a continuation of the Bundschuh movement and again under the leadership of Joss Fritz the peasants stood up and fought for their rights. This often led to abuse and violence. The rebels marched through Durlach to the monastery Gottesaue, which was looted and completely destroyed — under the eyes of the Margrave. He responded by attacking the homes of the rebels and for example in Berghausen three houses were set on fire. The real aim, however, was the territory of the bishop George of Speyer, who finally escaped to the court of the Elector Palatine in Heidelberg. It wasn't until 1525 that Elector Louis V and his army managed to end the insurgency. On 25 May 1525, Philip I concluded the Treaty of Renchen with his peasants.
He died in 1533 without male heirs. Of his six children only his daughter Maria Jakobäa (1507–1580) survived him. In 1522, she married Duke William IV of Bavaria. His two brothers, Ernest and Bernhard III divided his estate among themselves — the resulting margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden were reunified in 1771.
The grave of the Margrave Philip I of Baden is located in the Collegiate Church in Baden-Baden. His tomb is adorned with a life size sculpture in full armor, but without a helmet. The tomb bears the following Latin is inscription:
- HALLOWED BY THE BELIEF IN GOD
- THE ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE PHILIP, MARGRAVE OF BADEN,
- AN EXCELLENT PRINCE WITH A POWERFUL BODY AND A BEAUTIFUL SHAPE,
- WHO BEGAN HIS CAREER AS KNIGHT WITH CHARLES VIII, KING OF FRANCE;
- AT THE SIEGE OF MILAN
- WHO COMMANDED PART OF THE FLEET AT THE SIEGE OF MITHYLENE
- WHO TRAVELED SPAIN AND FRANCE,
- WHO WAS GOVERNOR OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE DURING THE REIGN OF EMPEROR CHARLES V,
- WHO ACHIEVED GREAT THINGS ON LAND AND ON WATER,
- WHO DESERVED MERIT AT HOME WITH WISDOM AND MODERATION WRT THE CITIZENS
- - TO HIM -
- TO HIS VERY OWN BROTHER,
- THIS WAS MONUMENT DEDICATED BY THE LAST WILL OF PRINCE ERNEST,
- HE LIVED 54 YEARS 10 MONTHS 7 DAYS,
- AND DIED IN 1533 ON SEPTEMBER 17.
The gravestone was created in 1537 by Christoph von Urach.
Marriage and descendants
- Marie Jakobäa (25 June 1507 – 16 November 1580), married in 1522 Duke William IV of Bavaria (1493–1550)
- Philipp (1508–1509).
- Philipp Jakob (born and died 1511).
- Marie Eva (born and died 1513).
- Johann Adam (born and died 1516).
- Max Kaspar (born and died 1519).
|Ancestors of Philip I, Margrave of Baden|
- Albert Krieger (1887), "Philip I (margrave of Baden)", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 25, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 757–759
- Rainer Brüning (2001), "Philip I", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 20, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 372
- Johann Christian Sachs: Introduction to the History of Margraviate and princely House of Baden, Karlsruhe 1769, vol 3, pp. 165–192
- according to August Huber: About Basel's share of the Rötteln succession dispute in 1503, In: Basler Journal of the History and Archaeology, Volume 4 (1905), p. 84, Philip was educated at the court of Philip of Hachberg-Sausenberg and his father Rudolf IV
- four other brothers had chosen a career in the church
Philip I, Margrave of BadenBorn: 6 November 1479 Died: 17 September 1533
| Margrave of Baden
as Margrave of Baden-Durlach
as Margrave of Baden-Baden