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Unfurled fern leaf of Diplazium esculentum

Pohole, also known as hō'i'o is an edible fiddlehead fern eaten in Hawaiian cuisine salad. The salads are made the unfurled fronds of a Diplazium esculentum fern (also known as Athyrium esculentum). The ferns grow in wet areas of shady valleys.[1][2] The fern species Diplazium esculentum is believed to have been introduced and naturalized in Hawaii and was first reported collected in 1910.[2] The fern also has medicinal uses.[3]


  1. ^ N_ Kua'_ina: Living Hawaiian Culture by Davianna McGrego pages 110, 133
  2. ^ a b [1] Hawai_i's Ferns and Fern Allies by Daniel Dooley Palmer page 125
  3. ^ CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology (5 Volume Set) by Umberto Quattrocchi CRC Press, May 3, 2012 – Science – 3960 pages page 1439