Prozostrodontia

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Prozostrodontia
Temporal range: Late Triassic–Recent
Non-mammalian synapsids died out 17.5 million years ago
Kayentatherium wellesi.jpg
Skull of Kayentatherium wellesi
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Therapsida
Suborder: Cynodontia
Clade: Chiniquodontoidea
Clade: Prozostrodontia
Liu and Olsen, 2010
Subgroups

Prozostrodontia is a clade of cynodonts including mammals and their closest non-mammaliform relatives such as Tritheledontidae and Tritylodontidae. It was erected as a node-based taxon by Liu and Olsen (2010) and defined as the least inclusive clade containing Prozostrodon brasiliensis, Tritylodon langaevus, Pachygenelus monus, and Mus musculus (the house mouse). Prozostrodontia is diagnosed by several characters, including:

Prozostrodontia includes tritylodontids, which have traditionally been placed within the more primitive cynodont group Cynognathia as distant mammal relatives. It also includes Tritheledontidae, which has long been placed close to mammals. Most previous studies considered Tritheledontidae a valid monophyletic grouping, meaning it was a true clade including all the descendants of a single common ancestor, but Liu and Olsen (2010) found Tritheledontidae to be a paraphyletic series of basal prozostrodontians. Below is a cladogram from Liu and Olsen (2010) showing the phylogenetic position of Prozostrodontia:[1]


Cynodontia 

Procynosuchus

Galesaurus

Thrinaxodon

Platycraniellus

Eucynodontia
Cynognathia

Cynognathus

Gomphodontia

Diademodon

Langbergia

Trirachodon

Sinognathus

Traversodontidae

Pascualgnathus

Luangwa

Scalenodon angustifrons

Scalenodon hirschoni

Massetognathus

Exaeretodon

Probainognathia

Ecteninion

Chiniquodon

Probainognathus

Prozostrodontia

Prozostrodon

Therioherpeton

Riograndia

Pachygenelus

Tritylodontidae

Oligokyphus

Kayentatherium

Tritylodon

Bienotherium

Brasilodon

Mammalia

Adelobasileus

Sinoconodon

Morganucodon

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Liu, J.; Olsen, P. (2010). "The Phylogenetic Relationships of Eucynodontia (Amniota: Synapsida)". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 17 (3): 151. doi:10.1007/s10914-010-9136-8.