Pulvinar nuclei

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pulvinar nuclei
Gray719.png
Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view. (Pulvinar visible near top.)
ThalamicNuclei.svg
Details
Part of thalamus
Identifiers
Latin nuclei pulvinaris (the nuclei plurally); pulvinar thalami (the set of nuclei singularly)
MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.485.600
NeuroNames hier-311
NeuroLex ID Pulvinar
Dorlands
/Elsevier
p_42/12680162
TA A14.1.08.104
A14.1.08.610
FMA 62178
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The pulvinar nuclei or nuclei of the pulvinar (nuclei pulvinares) are the nuclei (cell bodies of neurons) located in the thalamus (a part of the vertebrate brain). As a group they make up the collection called the pulvinar of the thalamus (pulvinar thalami), usually just called the pulvinar.

The pulvinar is usually grouped as one of the lateral thalamic nuclei in rodents and carnivores, and stands as an independent complex in primates.

Structure[edit]

By convention, the pulvinar is divided into four nuclei:

TA alphanumeric identifier TA name English translation
A14.1.08.611 nucleus pulvinaris anterior anterior pulvinar nucleus
A14.1.08.612 nucleus pulvinaris inferior inferior pulvinar nucleus
A14.1.08.613 nucleus pulvinaris lateralis lateral pulvinar nucleus
A14.1.08.614 nucleus pulvinaris medialis medial pulvinar nucleus

Their connectomic details are as follows:

Clinical significance[edit]

Lesions of the pulvinar can result in neglect syndromes and attentional deficits.[6]

Other animals[edit]

The pulvinar varies in importance in different animals: it is virtually nonexistent in the rat, and grouped as the lateral posterior-pulvinar complex with the lateral posterior thalamic nucleus due to its small size in cats. In humans it makes up roughly 40% of the thalamus making it the largest of its nuclei.[7] Significant research has been undertaken in the marmoset examining the role of the retinorecipient region of the inferior pulvinar (medial subdivision), which projects to visual cortical area MT, in the early development of MT and the dorsal stream, as well as following early-life lesions of the primary visual cortex (V1).[8][9][10]

Etymology and pronunciation[edit]

The word pulvinar (English /pəlˈvnər/) comes to scientific English vocabulary via New Latin from classical Latin pulvinus, "cushion". In the religion of ancient Rome, a pulvinar was an empty throne, a cushioned couch for occupation by a deity. Like the cervix uteri is usually just called the cervix (with "which cervix" being implicit), the pulvinar thalami (pulvinar of the thalamus) is usually just called the pulvinar (with "which pulvinar" being implicit); no other anatomic structure in today's Terminologia Anatomica is called a pulvinar,[11] although in older terminology a part of the glomus body was called the pulvinar tunicae internae segmenti arterialis anastomosis arteriovenae glomeriformis. Each pulvinar nucleus (nucleus pulvinaris) has its own set of cortical connections.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cappe C.; Morel A.; Barone P.; Rouiller E.M. (2009). "The thalamocortical projection systems in primate: an anatomical support for multisensory and sensorimotor interplay". Cerebral Cortex 19 (9): 2025–2037. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn228. 
  2. ^ Berman R.; Wurtz R. (2011). "Signals conveyed in the pulvinar pathway from superior colliculus to cortical area mt". The Journal of Neuroscience 31 (2): 373–384. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4738-10.2011. 
  3. ^ Robinson D.; Petersen S. (1985). "Responses of pulvinar neurons to real and self-induced stimulus movement". Brain Research 338 (2): 392–394. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(85)90176-3. 
  4. ^ Petersen S.; Robinson D.; Morris J. (1987). "Contributions of the pulvinar to visual spatial attention". Neuropsychologia 25 (1): 97–105. doi:10.1016/0028-3932(87)90046-7. 
  5. ^ Chalupa, L. (1991). Visual function of the pulvinar. The Neural Basis of Visual Function. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 140-159.
  6. ^ Arend I.; Rafal R.; Ward R. (2008). "Spatial and temporal deficits are regionally dissociable in patients with pulvinar lesions". Brain 131 (8): 2140–2152. doi:10.1093/brain/awn135. 
  7. ^ LaBerge, D. (1999). Attention pp. 44-98. In Cognitive science (Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Second Edition), Bly BM, Rumelhart DE. (edits). Academic Press ISBN 978-0-12-601730-4 p. 73
  8. ^ Warner CE, Kwan WC, Bourne JA (2012). "The early maturation of visual cortical area MT is dependent on input from the retinorecipient medial portion of the inferior pulvinar". Journal of Neuroscience 32 (48): 17073–17085. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3269-12.2012. PMID 23197701. 
  9. ^ Warner CE, Goldshmit Y, Bourne JA (2010). "Retinal afferents synapse with relay cells targeting the middle temporal area in the pulvinar and lateral geniculate nuclei". Front Neuroanat 12 (8): 4–24. doi:10.3389/neuro.05.008.2010. PMC 2826187. PMID 20179789. 
  10. ^ Warner CE, Kwan WC, Wright D, Johnston LA, Egan GF, Bourne JA (2015). "Preservation of vision by the pulvinar following early-life primary visual cortex lesions". Curr Biol 25 (4): 424–434. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.12.028. PMID 25601551. 
  11. ^ Baud, RH; et al., "Latin index of TA98, Terminologia Anatomica version 1998", Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT), International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA), hosted by the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) 

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External links[edit]