Medial forebrain bundle

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Medial forebrain bundle
Details
Latin fasciculus medialis telencephali
Identifiers
MeSH Medial+Forebrain+Bundle
NeuroNames hier-416
NeuroLex ID Medial forebrain bundle
Dorlands
/Elsevier
f_03/12356134
TA A14.1.08.955
FMA 62064
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The medial forebrain bundle (MFB), is a tract containing fibers from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region and the septal nuclei, as well as fibers from brainstem regions, including the ventral tegmental area.

Anatomy[edit]

The MFB passes through the lateral hypothalamus and the basal forebrain in a rostral-caudal direction. It contains both ascending and descending fibers. It also represents a part of the mesolimbic pathway, carrying information between the ventral tegmentum and the nucleus accumbens.

Function[edit]

It is commonly accepted that the MFB is a part of the reward system, involved in the integration of reward and pleasure.[1]

Electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle is believed to cause sensations of pleasure. This hypothesis is based upon intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) studies. Animals will work for MFB ICSS, and humans report that MFB ICSS is intensely pleasurable.[2] It is possible that the medial forebrain bundle carries some of the input from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc or Acb). The NAcc is a recognized reward center, and activation of the pathway from the VTA to the NAcc is believed to be rewarding, which is why it is sometimes referred to as the hedonic highway.[3] The MFB also contains serotonergic and noradrenergic fibers.

Another research technique that was used in determining the function of the MFB was microdialysis.[4] Reinforcing electrical stimulation of the MFB using this method has shown to cause a release in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Other microdialysis studies that have been performed have shown that the presence of natural reinforcers such as food, water, and a sex partner, have found to cause a release in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. This shows that the electrical stimulation of the MFB causes a similar effect compared to natural reinforcers.

The medial forebrain bundle has been shown to be linked to the an individual's grief/sadness system through regulation of the individual's seeking/pleasure system.[5] Regulation of either system will affect the other system like a balance scale would work. An individual with a balance heavily on the grief/sadness side, as one would see in major depressive disorder, would even out the balance scale by bringing down the seeking/pleasure side through applying weight to the seeking/pleasure side.

Potential Role in Diagnosis/Treatment[edit]

The medial forebrain bundle may serve as a target in treating treatment-resistant depression.[6] Since the MFB connects areas of the brain which are involved with motivated behavior, mood regulation, and antidepressant response the stimulation of the MFB through deep brain stimulation could be an effective form of treatment. Subjects that receive the deep brain stimulation treatment in the medial forebrain bundle have been reported to have high remission rates with normative functioning and no adverse side effects.

The medial forebrain bundle may also serve to study abuse-related drug effects through intracranial self-stimulation.[7] ICSS targets the MRB at the level of the lateral hypothalamus and elicits a range of responses from the subject through stimulation to acquire a baseline of responses. From this baseline the subject is then exposed to varying levels of stimuli in that are high/low in amplitude and frequency. These responses are then compared to the baseline of the subject to detect for sensitivity to the stimuli. Based on the sensitivity of the response from the subject, a level of inference on the drug abuse potential can be made.

Animal Research[edit]

In animal studies studying the effects of Levodopa-induced dyskinesia, a major complication in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, lesions in the medial forebrain bundle show a maximum level of severity and sensitivity to levodopa and provide insight into the mechanisms of Levodopa-induced dyskinesia.[8] Other lesions in the mouse, particularly in the striatum 6-OHDA, show a variable sensitivity to levodopa and shows the difference in lesion severity based on location.

In a study with rats, using intracranial self-stimulation implanted in the medial forebrain bundle, rats treated with nicotine and methamphetamine showed an increased speed at which they pressed a lever to induce self-stimulation.[9] The study indicates that the medial forebrain bundle may be directly linked to motivational behavior that is induced by drugs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hernandez G, Hamdani S, Rajabi H et al. (August 2006). "Prolonged rewarding stimulation of the rat medial forebrain bundle: neurochemical and behavioral consequences". Behav. Neurosci. 120 (4): 888–904. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.120.4.888. PMID 16893295. 
  2. ^ http://www.salon.com/2013/03/23/science_fiction_turns_real_genetically_engineering_animals_for_war/
  3. ^ The Owner's Manual for the Brain: Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research, 3rd ed. 2006. Austin: Bard Press. ISBN 1-885167-64-4
  4. ^ Carlson. Neil. Physiology of Behavior (11th Edition). Pearson, 2012. Online.
  5. ^ Coenen VA, Schlaepfer TE, Maedler B, Panksepp J. Cross-species affective functions of the medial forebrain bundle-implications for the treatment of affective pain and depression in humans. "Neurosci Biobehav Rev." 35.9 (2011):1971-1981. Online
  6. ^ Galvez J.F, Keser G, Ghouse AA, "et al." The Medial Forebrain Bundle as a Deep Brain Stimulation Target for Treatment Resistant Depression: A Review of Published Data. "Prog Neuropharmacol Biol Psychiatry." 58 (2015):59-70. Online.
  7. ^ Negus SS, Miller LL. Intracranial self-stimulation to evaluate potential abuse of drugs. "Pharmocol Rev." 66.3 (2014):869-917. Online
  8. ^ Francardo V, Cenci MA. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the mouse. "Parkinsonism Relat Disord." 20.2 (2013). Online.
  9. ^ Sagara H, Sendo T, Gomita Y. Evaluation of motivational effects induced by intracranial self-stimulation behavior. "Acta Med Okayama." 64.5 (2010):267-275. Online.

External links[edit]