QRICH1

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QRICH1, also known as Glutamine-rich protein 1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the QRICH1 gene.[1] One notable feature of this protein is that it contains a Caspase Activation Recruitment Domain, also known as a CARD domain.[2] As a result of having this domain, QRICH1 is believed to be involved in apoptotic, inflammatory, and host-immune response pathways.[3]

Accession Numbers Location Identifiers M.W. pI
mRNA: NM_017730.2

protein: NP_060200.2

3p21.31 FLJ20259, MFC131838[1] 86.4 kDa 5.59

Gene[edit]

The QRICH1 gene is 64,363 base pairs long, encoding an mRNA transcript that is 3331 bp in length.[4] QRICH1 is located on chromosome 3p21.31 and contains 11 exons.[5] The genomic sequence begins at base pair 49,057,531 and ends at base pair 49,141,201.[4]

The gene neighborhood of QRICH1 constructed by NCBI Gene.[6]

Function[edit]

The exact function of QRICH1 is not well understood by the scientific community. It is, however, thought to be involved in processes such as inflammation and apoptosis due to the presence of a CARD domain near the beginning of the protein sequence.[3] This protein is predicted to localize to the nucleus and is known to interact with the ATXN1 and ATF7IP proteins shown in the image below.[7]

Protein[edit]

The glutamine-rich protein 1 is 776 amino acids in length. Glutamine residues are abundant, comprising 109 of the amino acids or 14% of the protein.[8] The protein contains three distinct domains. The first, a CARD domain, is a member of the death fold superfamily and is involved in apoptosis signaling pathways, immune signaling, inflammation, and host-defense mechanisms.[2] The second domain is a glutamine-rich domain which comprises a majority of the protein and is highly conserved among orthologs.[2] The final domain is a Domain of Unknown Function (DUF3504) found near the end of the protein sequence.[2] All three of these domains are well conserved throughout strict orthologs.


Predicted Features[edit]

Properties of QRICH1 that were predicted using Bioinformatics tools:

  • Molecular Weight: 86.5 KDa[9]
  • Isoelectric Point: 5.59[10]
  • Post-translational modification: Multiple phosphorylation sites are reported or predicted. PhosphoSitePlus contains three annotated phosphorylated serines at residues 343, 345, and 659.[11] The NetPhos program on ExPASy predicted 45 phosphorylation sites on multiple serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues.[12] There is one predicted sulfinated tyrosine at amino acid 725.[13]
  • No predicted Signal Peptide or signal peptide cleavage.[14]
  • Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ATF7IP, activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1.[15] ATXN1 is involved in binding RNA in vitro and may be involved in RNA metabolism.[16] ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating transcription regulation and chromatin formation.[17]

Expression[edit]

QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene.[18] It is expressed ubiquitously throughout the human body, although EST Profile data reveal that QRICH1 is expressed particularly high in tissues such as the thymus, testis, cerebellar cortex and other areas of the brain, trachea, and in embryonic tissue. Health states such as germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, and chondrosarcoma have also reported high QRICH1 expression.

Homology[edit]

Orthologs[edit]

QRICH1 is highly conserved among mammalian orthologs, along with other chordates such as fish, birds, and amphibians. The gene has some conservation among insects, but there were no orthologs found in plants, fungi, or yeast.[19]

Genus/species Organism common name Accession number Sequence identity Sequence similarity Length (AAs)
Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee XP_001161499.1 99% 99% 766
Macaca mulatta Rhesus macaque XP_001110386.2 99% 99% 659
Pongo abelii Orangutan XP_002813809.1 99% 99% 777
Mus musculus House mouse NP_780352.2 99% 99% 777
Rattus norvegicus Norway rat NP_001128004.1 99% 99% 687
Canis familiaris Dog XP_850904.1 99% 99% 780
Bos taurus Cow NP_001091484.1 99% 99% 779
Sus scrofa Wild boar XP_003132250.1 99% 99% 781
Oryctolagus cuniculus European rabbit XP_002713458.1 99% 99% 777
Ailuropoda melanoleuca Giant panda XP_002920598.1 99% 99% 780
Callithrix jacchus Marmoset XP_002758378.1 99% 99% 777
Equus caballus Horse XP_001498380.2 98% 98% 780
Monodelphis domestica Opossum XP_001367745.1 95% 97% 776
Gallus gallus Chicken XP_001233527.1 94% 96% 773
Ornithorhynchus anatinus Platypus XP_001505372.1 94% 95% 741
Taeniopygia guttata Zebra finch XP_002187824.1 93% 97% 772
Xenopus laevis African clawed frog NP_001083416.1 79% 85% 755
Tetraodon nigroviridis Pufferfish CAG11318.1 71% 80% 729
Danio rerio Zebra fish NP_001020633.1 63% 73% 717
Apis mellifera Bee XP_624959.2 47% 64% 1356
Camponotus floridanus Carpenter ant EFN71787.1 45% 63% 1724

Paralogs[edit]

QRICH1 has five paralogs all of which encode a zinc finger protein.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: QRICH1 glutamine-rich 1". Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d "UniprotKB". Retrieved 3 March 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "The Pawson Lab: CARD Domain". Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Gene: 54780". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  5. ^ "GenBank: Homo Sapiens glutamine-rich 1 (QRICH1), transcript variant 1, mRNA". Retrieved 29 January 2011. 
  6. ^ "NCBI Gene: 54870". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  7. ^ db.org/newstring_cgi/show_network_section.pl "Predicted Functional Partners" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  8. ^ "SAPS: Biology Workbench". Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  9. ^ Brendel V, Bucher P, Nourbakhsh IR, Blaisdell BE, Karlin S (March 1992). "Methods and algorithms for statistical analysis of protein sequences". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 89 (6): 2002–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.6.2002. PMC 48584Freely accessible. PMID 1549558. 
  10. ^ "Computer pI/Mw". Retrieved 11 April 2011. 
  11. ^ "PhosphoSitePlus". Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  12. ^ "NetPhos". Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  13. ^ "Sulfinator". Retrieved 11 April 2011. 
  14. ^ Bendtsen JD, Nielsen H, von Heijne G, Brunak S (July 2004). "Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0". Journal of Molecular Biology. 340 (4): 783–95. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.05.028. PMID 15223320. 
  15. ^ "STRING8.3". Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  16. ^ "Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1". Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  17. ^ "Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  18. ^ "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, encoding glutamine-rich 1". Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  19. ^ "BLAST". Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  20. ^ "GeneCards". Retrieved 18 April 2011. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.