The province of Ravenna (Italian: provincia di Ravenna) is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Ravenna. As of 2015, it has a population of 391,997 inhabitants over an area of 1,859.44 square kilometres (717.93 sq mi), giving it a population density of 210.81 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its provincial president is Claudio Casadio.
Ravenna was first inhabited by Italic tribes from northern regions, and was conquered in 191 BCE by the Roman Empire. A port was constructed near Classe, and the Adriatic fleet was based in Ravenna. In 402 CE, Ravenna became the capital of the Western Roman Empire, which endured until the collapse of the empire and the fall of Rome in 476. Following this, the Barbarian Kings Odoacer and then Theodoric controlled Ravenna until it was conquered by the Byzantine Empire in 540; the Byzantines announced it to be their Exarchate.
It continued to be under Byzantine rule until it was invaded by the Lombards in 751, and it was then annexed by King of the Franks Pippin the Younger. It was placed under papal rule by Pippin the Younger in 756 or 757. Ravenna was subsequently ruled by the Holy See until it was given independence in the 12th century. The papacy gained control again in 1278 and was led by papal vicars until it was invaded by Venice in 1441. The War of the League of Cambrai took place near Ravenna in 1512, in which the papal forces were defeated, but the French forces were almost entirely killed and were driven from Italy. It remained under the rule of the Holy See until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy.
In 1921, uprisings in Ravenna triggered a rapid advance of the Fascist movement in the region. Buildings belonging to the Republicans and socialists were seized or burnt down by Italo Balbo, and on July 29, he and his men moved throughout the provinces of Ravenna and Forli, burning every socialist organisation headquarters in a night of terror which was later called the "column of fire". This was a pivotal moment in the advance of Fascism in northern Italy.