Risca

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Risca
Risca- looking up Cotswold Way from the corner of Pentland Close (geograph 2232182).jpg
A view of Risca
Risca is located in Caerphilly
Risca
Risca
Risca shown within Caerphilly
Population 11,455 [1][2]
OS grid reference ST245905
Principal area
Country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town NEWPORT
Postcode district NP11
Dialling code 01633
Police Gwent
Fire South Wales
Ambulance Welsh
EU Parliament Wales
UK Parliament
Welsh Assembly
List of places
UK
Wales
CaerphillyCoordinates: 51°36′29″N 3°05′28″W / 51.608°N 3.091°W / 51.608; -3.091
For alternate meanings: see Risca (disambiguation).

Risca (Welsh: Rhisga) is a town of approximately 11,500 people in south-east Wales, within the Caerphilly County Borough and the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire. It is today part of the Newport conurbation (which as a whole has a population of 140,200), though it is not a Ward of Newport City Council. Risca has a railway station, opened on the Ebbw Valley Railway in February 2008, after a gap of 46 years.

The town lies at the south-eastern edge of the South Wales Coalfield and the town has been shaped by mining, together with other heavy industries, for many centuries.[3]

Risca is home to Ty-Sign, which is a large housing estate built in the early 1960s as a satellite village for the then new Llanwern steelworks. Risca has a rural aspect and is surrounded to the east and west by several extensively wooded hills including Mynydd Machen (1,188 ft/362m) and Twmbarlwm (1,375 ft/419m) which attract tourists for the hillwalking and mountain bikers to Cwmcarn Forest Drive.

History[edit]

There is evidence of human habitation in the Risca area going back thousands of years, such as the Silures hillfort on nearby Twmbarlwm, however the area was rural and sparsely populated until the nineteenth century. As local industries expanded and transport links improved with the building of the canal and railways, the population rapidly increased.

Several arguments have been put forward for the derivation of the name Risca/Rhisga including that it comes from the Welsh yr is cae meaning "the lower field" or yr hesg cae meaning "field or rushes" or rhisgl meaning oak bark.[4]

The earliest known official use of the name Risca for the place was in 1476 when two men from Risca were charged at the Newport Assizes although there are also ecclesiastical documents which go as far back as 1146 which include a man called Kadmore de Risca.[4]

From 1540, Risca is found regularly in land transactions involving the Tredegar estates and in 1747 John Wesley recorded a visit in his diary.[4]

Rapid population increase started around 1820 with the opening of the mines.

These figures include the nearby villages of Crosskeys and Pontymister.

Year Population
1851 2,044[5]
1861 2,744[5]
1871 3,400[6]
1891 7,783[7]
1906 11,200[8]
1911 14,149[9]
1921 16,745[10]
1931 16,605[11]
1951 15,130[12]
1961 13,955[13]
1971 15,835[14]


Industrial Heritage[edit]

From the early nineteenth century, the area around Risca has been dominated by coal mining and transport systems to access the mines,[3] although there is also evidence that lead and coal were being extracted much earlier.[15]

The first large scale mine was known as the Black vein colliery and it was located near to the boundary between Risca and what is now Cross Keys and closed in 1921.[16] The New Risca Colliery, which was between what is now Wattsville and Cross Keys, operated until 1967.[17]

The Black Vein coal seam was very explosive and the mines experienced a series of serious mine accidents. In 1846, 35 and in 1860 more than 140 miners died in explosions at the Black Vein colliery.[16] In 1860, an explosion at the New Risca colliery, which was working the same seam of coal, killed 120 men.[17]

In addition to coal, Risca developed several other industries in the nineteenth century including brickworks, quarries, copper tin and ironworks. [15]

Twentieth century[edit]

Due to the local economic dependence on coal, Risca experienced severe unemployment following the closure of mines in the 1930s and 1940s.[18] One result of this was the establishment of the Oxford House Educational Settlement established in 1931 by the Lord Mayor of Oxford. Oxford House is now an adult education centre.

By the end of the 1970s, most of the local coalmines had closed and the majority of the population were working in other industries.

Governance[edit]

In the UK Parliament, Risca is part of the constituency of Islwyn, a Labour Party stronghold represented since the 2010 general election by Chris Evans. Don Touhig previously represented the constituency following a by-election in 1995, but did not stand for re-election in 2010. The seat and its predecessor was formerly represented for 25 years by the former Labour leader Neil Kinnock.

In the National Assembly for Wales, Risca is part of the constituency of Islwyn, represented since 2003 by Labour's Irene James. At the first Assembly elections in 1999 Brian Hancock, Plaid Cymru, won the seat in a major upset and one of 17 seats in the National Assembly of Wales for Plaid Cymru. The constituency falls within the electoral region of South Wales East, whose four AMs are Conservatives Mohammad Asghar and William Graham, Plaid Cymru's Jocelyn Davies, and Liberal Democrat Veronica German.

Notable landmarks and buildings[edit]

Twmbarlwm, has the remains of an Iron Age hill fort near its summit,[19] and this is believed to have been built by the Silures, the Celtic tribe that inhabited the area before and during Roman times.

The Welsh Oak, a pub on the outskirts of Pontymister, was the meeting place for the Chartists before they marched on Newport during the Newport Rising of 1839.

The local Church in Wales church is dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin [1]. The St Mary and St Mercurius Coptic Orthodox Church in St Mary Street is a grade II listed building [20] and is the first Coptic Orthodox Church in Wales. It was a former Wesleyan Methodist church, founded in 1837, rebuilt on the same site in 1852 and was dedicated to St John. The architect is unknown. The church was designed to seat 600 people. It was later known as "Trinity Methodist Church".[21]

The park 'Tredegar Grounds' was donated to the people of Risca in 1897 by Lord Tredegar to commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee and in return the 'Jubilee' statue was erected by public subscription 'in recognition of Lord Tredegar's generosity to the neighbourhood.' A small bronze statuette of Samson, a bearded figure dressed in a loincloth, stands on a circular stone plinth on a square stepped base.

The town is served by Risca and Pontymister railway station which is served by direct trains between Cardiff Central and Ebbw Vale Town. The Monmouthshire canal passes through the town.[22]

Culture and education[edit]

Risca has an award-winning male voice choir. Risca Community Comprehensive School was opened by Elizabeth II in 1977. It is located on the same site as the town's leisure centre. There are approximately 500 pupils, most of whom have moved up from the local primaries, Risca and Ty Sign.

Sport and leisure[edit]

Risca United F.C. play in the Welsh Football League Division One and are managed by Paul Michael. The club used to play their home games at Ty-Isaf Park.

Risca RFC (The Cuckoos) play in the Welsh Rugby Union Division 3 East, at Stores Field, Risca. An active mini-rugby & junior section with age groups from 6 to 16, provide a steady stream of players, some of them having progressed to the early stages of professional rugby with the Newport Gwent Dragons.

There are some extensive mountain bike trails on the wooded hills just to the north of the town, at Cwmcarn, which are receiving increasing popularity.

Notable people[edit]

See Category:People from Risca

Henry Williams, Landscape Artist/Painter Born in Wegberg West Germany 1963. Former Course Leader: of Foundation Studies Diploma in Art and Design at Coleg Gwent Crosskeys.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics 2001 - Risca East Ward (population 6384)
  2. ^ Office for National Statistics 2001 - Risca West Ward (population 5071)
  3. ^ a b Jukes, Tony. "The development of Risca". Oxford House Industrial History Society. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c Osborne, GO (1989). "Notes on the origin of the place name 'Risca'". Gwent local history (67): 3-10. 
  5. ^ a b Great Britain. Census Office (1862). Census of England and Wales for the Year 1861. pp. 1–. 
  6. ^ "RISCA". Charles Hough. Monmouthshire Merlin. 14 April 1871. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  7. ^ Kelly's Directory of Monmouthshire. Kelly's Directories. 1901. 
  8. ^ "RISCA HOUSING QUESTION". Walter Alfred Pearce. Evening Express. 8 June 1906. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  9. ^ Kelly's Directory of Monmouthshire and South Wales. Kelly's Directory. 1920. p. 204. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  10. ^ "1921 Census of England and Wales". Visions of Britain. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  11. ^ "1931 Census of England and Wales". Visions of Britain. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  12. ^ "1951 Census of England and Wales". Visions of Britain. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  13. ^ "1961 Census of England and Wales". Visions of Britain. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  14. ^ "1971 Census: Aggregate data (Great Britain) w561445 RISCA U.D.". Registrar General for England and Wales, UK Data Service Census Support. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Jones, Alan Victor (1980). Risca - its industrial and social development. Bognor Regis: New Horizon. ISBN 0861164725. 
  16. ^ a b "Black Vein Colliery". Welsh Coal Mines. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "Risca New Pit". Welsh coal mines. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  18. ^ Boucher, Dan. The Big Society in a small country - Wales, social capital, mutualism and self-help (PDF). Institute of Welsh Affairs. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978 1 904773 66 5. 
  19. ^ The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. John Davies, Nigel Jenkins, Menna Baines and Peredur Lynch (2008) pg761 ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6
  20. ^ British listed buildings
  21. ^ Jones, A. V. (1977) Risca, its Industrial and Social Development
  22. ^ http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/351898 Picture of the station

External links[edit]