Ropivacaine

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Ropivacaine
Ropivacaine.png
Ropivacaine ball-and-stick.png
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Consumer Drug Information
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
Parenteral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 87%–98% (epidural)
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP1A2-mediated)
Biological half-life 1.6–6 hours (varies with administration route)
Excretion Renal 86%
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.128.244
Chemical and physical data
Formula C17H26N2O
Molar mass 274.4 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point 144 to 146 °C (291 to 295 °F)
  (verify)

Ropivacaine (rINN) /rˈpɪvəkn/ is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. The name ropivacaine refers to both the racemate and the marketed S-enantiomer. Ropivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Naropin.

History[edit]

Ropivacaine was developed after bupivacaine was noted to be associated with cardiac arrest, particularly in pregnant women. Ropivacaine was found to have less cardiotoxicity than bupivacaine in animal models.

Clinical use[edit]

Contraindications[edit]

Ropivacaine is contraindicated for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). However, new data suggested both ropivacaine (1.2-1.8 mg/kg in 40ml) and levobupivacaine (40 ml of 0.125% solution) be used, because they have less cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity than racemic bupivacaine.[1]

Adverse effects[edit]

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur.

Systemic exposure to excessive quantities of ropivacaine mainly result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects – CNS effects usually occur at lower blood plasma concentrations and additional cardiovascular effects present at higher concentrations, though cardiovascular collapse may also occur with low concentrations. CNS effects may include CNS excitation (nervousness, tingling around the mouth, tinnitus, tremor, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures followed by depression (drowsiness, loss of consciousness), respiratory depression and apnea). Cardiovascular effects include hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, and/or cardiac arrest – some of which may be due to hypoxemia secondary to respiratory depression.[2]

Treatment of overdose[edit]

As for bupivacaine, Celepid, a commonly available intravenous lipid emulsion, can be effective in treating severe cardiotoxicity secondary to local anaesthetic overdose in animal experiments[3] and in humans in a process called lipid rescue.[4][5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Basic of Anesthesia, Robert Stoelting, page 289)
  2. ^ Rossi S, editor. Australian Medicines Handbook 2006. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook; 2006. ISBN 0-9757919-2-3
  3. ^ Weinberg, G; Ripper, R; Feinstein, DL; Hoffman, W (2003). "Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity". Reg Anesth Pain Med. 28 (3): 198–202. PMID 12772136. doi:10.1053/rapm.2003.50041. 
  4. ^ Picard, J; Meek, T (2006). "Lipid emulsion to treat overdose of local anaesthetic: the gift of the glob". Anaesthesia. 61 (2): 107–9. PMID 16430560. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2005.04494.x. 
  5. ^ Rosenblatt, MA; Abel, M; Fischer, GW; Itzkovich, CJ; Eisenkraft, JB (2006). "Successful Use of a 20% lipid emulsion to resuscitate a patient after a presumed bupivacaine-related cardiac arrest". Anesthesiology. 105 (1): 217–8. PMID 16810015. doi:10.1097/00000542-200607000-00033. 
  6. ^ Litz, RJ; Popp, M; Stehr, S N; Koch, T (2006). "Successful resuscitation of a patient with ropivacaine-induced asystole after axillary plexus block using lipid infusion". Anaesthesia. 61: 800–1. PMID 16867094. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2006.04740.x. 

External links[edit]