Sida acuta

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Common wireweed
Sida acuta (Jangli-methi) in Hyderabad, AP W2 IMG 0084.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Sida
Species: S. acuta
Binomial name
Sida acuta
Burm.f.[1]
Synonyms

Sida carpinifolia L.f.[2]

Sida acuta, the common wireweed,[3] is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is believed to have originated in Central America, but today has a pantropical distribution and is considered a weed in some areas.[4]

In northern Australia, Sida acuta is considered an invasive species, and the beetle Calligrapha pantherina has been introduced as a biological control agent in an attempt to control the plant.[5]

Description[edit]

Plant- Undershrub, with mucilagenous juice, aerial, erect, cylindrical, branched, solid, green.

Leaves- Alternate, simple, lanceolate to linear, rarely ovate to oblong, obtuse at the base, acute at the apex, coarsely and remotely serrate; petiole much shorter than the blade; stipulate, stipules free-lateral, unequally paired at the node, reticulate venation.

Inflorescence- Cymose

Flower- Small, axillary, 2-3 in a cluster; pedicels jointed at the middle, epicalyx absent, complete,

bisexual, regular, actinomorphic, hypogynus, pentamerous, yellow.

Calyx- Sepals 5, gamosepalous, campanulate, slightly accrescent, persistent, valvate.

Corolla- Petals 5, polypetalous but slightly connate below and jointed with the staminal column,twisted.

Androecium- Stamens many,monadelphous, arranged on the staminal column; staminal column is shorter than the petals,divided above into numerous filaments, anthers monothecus, reniform, basifixed, filament short, extrorse.

Gynoecium- Carples 5, syncarpous, ovary superior,penta or multilocular with axile placentation, one ovule in each locule; style 1, passing through the staminal tube; stigma globular,correspond to the number of carples.

Fruit- A schizocarpic mericarp, seed 1 in each mericarp.

Classification and Identification(Bentham and Hooker's system)-

Class- Dicotyledonae

I) Reticulate venation.

II) Flower pentamerous.

Sub Class- Polypetalae

I) Petals free.

Series- Thalamiflorae.

I) Flower hypogynus; ovary superior.

Order- Malvales

I) Stamens indefinite, monadelphous.

II) Ovary 5 carpellary, placentation axile.

Family- Malvaceae

I) Plant- Mucilagenous.

II) Leaves- Simple with free lateral stipule.

III) Flower- Bisexual,; petals 5, twisted; monadelphous stamen, anther one celled, reniformed.

Genus- Sida

I) Staminal column without teeth at apex.

II) Flowers without epicalyx.

III) Ovule 1 in each locule; seed 1 in each mericarp.

Species- S.acuta

I) Leaf base obtuse, apex acute.

Vernacular name[6]-

Sanskrit- Bala; Bengali- Kureta/ Berela[7](in Tripura) ; Hindi- Kareta/ Kharenti ; Oriya- Siobala ; Gujrati- Bala/ Jangli menthi ; Marathi- Chikana ; Malayalam- Malatanni ; Tamil- Malaidangi ; Telegu- Nelabenda ; Kannada- Vishakaddi ; Sinhala- Gasbevila ; Burmese- Katsayna ; Yoruba-Ìsékètu.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sida acuta Burm. f.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1997-05-02. Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  2. ^ "Sida carpinifolia L. f.". ITIS Standard Reports. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  3. ^ "Sida acuta". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  4. ^ Parsons, William Thomas; Eric George Cuthbertson (2001). Noxious weeds of Australia (2 ed.). CSIRO Publishing. pp. 508–509. ISBN 978-0-643-06514-7. 
  5. ^ Julien, M.H.; McFadyen, R.E.; Cullen, Jim (2012). Biological Control of Weeds in Australia. Csiro Publishing. pp. 525–526. ISBN 978-0-643-09993-7. 

5. S. acuta Burm.f.(Fl. ind. 147. 1768) emend. K.Schum. Fl. Bras. 12: 326. 1891. 1: 15. t. 2. 1785; Sub. sp. acuta. Cav. Diss. Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3; 171. 1832; Prain. Beng. Pl. I: 259. 1903; Heinig, Enum. 90. 1907; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 90. 1915; Haines, Bot. Bih. Or. 61. 1925; Borss. in Blumea 14 (1: 187. 1966) S.carpinifolia sensu Masters in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 323. 1874. non L. f. ; Kanjilal et al. Fl. Assam 1(1) : 140. 1934; S.carpinifolia var. acuta (Burm. f) Kurz in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. II. 45(2) : 119. 1876; S. scoparia Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 114. 1790; S. lanceolata Retz. Obs. Bot. 4: 28. 1786; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3: 175. 1832; S. stauntoniana DC. Prodr. 1: 460. 1824; S.paucifolia DC. Prodr. 1: 472. 1824; S. acuta var. intermedia Hu,Fl. China(Fam.153) : 19. 1955; Deb. D.B . Fl. Tripura 1: 306. 1981.

6. Mukherjee H (1981) " Plant Groups" [9 ed]. New Central Book Agency(P) Ltd. pp. 1111. ISBN 81-7381-094-X.

7.Deb D.B (1981) " The Flora Of Tripura State" [vol. I] . pp. 306. Today & Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers. 24-B15, Desh Bandhu Gupta Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-110005