Sikandar Lodi

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Sikandar Lodi
Sultan of Delhi
Reign 17 July 1489 – 21 November 1517
Coronation 17 July 1489
Predecessor Bahlul Lodi
Successor Ibrahim Lodi
Died 21 November 1517
Burial Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Issue Ibrahim Lodi
Dynasty Lodi dynasty
Father Bahlul Lodi
Religion Islam

Sikandar Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 and 1517.[1] He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489.[citation needed] The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses.[2]

Of the three Lodi Sultans namely Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1489), Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526), Sikandar Lodi is regarded as the ablest, the greatest and the most successful Sultan. As compared with these two Sultans, Sikandar Lodi gave ample evidence of his qualities as a general, as an administrator, a consolidator of the empire and a man of letters.[citation needed]


The top two storeys of the Qutub Minar were reconstructed in marble by Sikandar Lodi

Sikandar was the second son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha,[citation needed] the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. He was of Afghan origin through his father.[3]

He became Sultan upon the death of his father on 17 July 1489 under the full name Abu Al-Muzzafar Ghazi Sultan Sikandar Lodi. His rise to power was troubled, as his older brother, Barbak Shah, the viceroy of Jaunpur, also laid claim to the throne, even though their father had nominated Sikandar. However, he was able to ascend to the throne without massive bloodshed, and even allowed his brother to continue ruling Jaunpur. He also settled differences with an uncle, Alam Khan, who was also suspected of seeking to seize power.[citation needed]

Sikandar was a capable ruler who encouraged trade across his territory, but discriminated against Hindu subjects. He expanded Lodi territory into the regions of Gwalior and Bihar. He made a treaty with Alauddin Hussain Shah and his kingdom of Bengal. In 1503, he commissioned the building of the present-day city of Agra. Agra was founded by him.[4]

He has a reputation for religious intolerance, and is said to have burned Bodhan, a Hindu sadhu alive for saying that Islam and Hinduism were equally acceptable to God.[citation needed]

Coin of Sikandar Lodi

He wrote poetry in Persian using the pen name Gulrukhi. He introduced auditing in accounts. He took good care of justice and agriculture for the welfare of people. He introduced a system of Gaz-i-sikandari, means 32 digit of measuring system of cultivated lands.[citation needed]

Among the administrative changes made by Sikandar Lodi was the installation of Persian language as the official language for the accountancy in India in 1514.[citation needed]


First of all Sikandar Lodi defeated his elder brother and seized Jaunpur and brought it under his direct control. He afterwards led his attack on Bihar, defeated its ruler and annexed it. He conquered the states of Dholpur, Bidar, Chanderi and other nearby kingdoms. But defeated by the ruler of Gawilor Man Singh Tomar. He entered into a friendship treaty with the ruler of Bengal. Sikandar’s empire extended from the Punjab to the borders of Bengal and included the territories between Sutlej and Bundelkhand.[citation needed]

Occasional tours in disguise[edit]

Sikandar Lodi's tomb

Very often the Sultan toured in disguise to have the first hand information about the condition of the people and the activities of the Amirs and the Ulemas.[citation needed]

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardens, Delhi.


  1. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–125. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  2. ^ Ram Nath Sharma, History Of Education In India, Atlantic (1996), p. 61
  3. ^ Lodī dynasty - Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ Kishori Saran Lal (1963). Twilight of the Sultanate. Asia Publishing House. p. 176. OCLC 500687579. 
Preceded by
Bahlul Khan Lodi
Sultan of Delhi
Succeeded by
Ibrahim Lodi