|Look up they in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
Singular they is the use in English of the pronoun they, or its inflected or derivative forms, such as them, their, or themselves, as a "pronoun that is neutral between masculine and feminine", to refer to a single person or an antecedent that is grammatically singular. It typically occurs with an antecedent of indeterminate gender, as in sentences such as:
- "Everyone returned to their seats."
- "Somebody left their umbrella in the office. Would they please collect it?"
- "The patient should be told at the outset how much they will be required to pay."
- "But a journalist should not be forced to reveal their sources."
A reason for its use is that English has no dedicated singular personal pronoun of indeterminate gender. In some cases, its use can be explained by notional agreement because words like "everyone", though singular in form, are plural in meaning. Its use in formal English has increased in recent times with the trend toward gender-inclusive language, but it has been used by respected writers for centuries.
Though singular they has a long history of usage and is common in everyday English, its use has been criticized since the late nineteenth century, and acceptance varies.
- 1 Inflected forms and derivative pronouns
- 2 Usage
- 2.1 Older usage by respected authors
- 2.2 Trend to prescription of generic he from 19th century
- 2.3 Contemporary use of he to refer to a generic or indefinite antecedent
- 2.4 Trend to gender-neutral language from the 20th century
- 2.5 Contemporary usage
- 3 Acceptability and prescriptive guidance
- 4 Grammatical and logical analysis
- 5 Cognitive efficiency
- 6 Comparison with other pronouns
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Sources of original examples
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
Inflected forms and derivative pronouns
|He||He laughs.||I hug him.||His hair grows.||I use his.||He feeds himself.|
|She||She laughs.||I hug her.||Her hair grows.||I use hers.||She feeds herself.|
|Prototypical they||When I tell my children a joke they laugh.||Whether they win or lose, I hug them.||As long as people live, their hair grows.||Most of my friends have cell phones, so I use theirs.||The children feed themselves.|
|Singular they||When I tell someone a joke they laugh.||When I greet a friend I hug them.||When someone does not get a haircut, their hair grows long.||If my mobile phone runs out of power, a friend lets me borrow theirs.||Each child feeds themself. (nonstandard)|
|Generic he||When I tell someone a joke he laughs.||When I greet a friend I hug him.||When someone does not get a haircut, his hair grows long.||If my mobile phone runs out of power, a friend lets me borrow his.||Each child feeds himself.|
Singular they has the same inflected forms as the "normal", plural they, i.e. them and their. They are usually both used with the same verb forms, i.e. "when I tell someone a joke they laughs" would be non-standard. In other words, singular they is a grammatically plural pronoun with a singular antecedent.
The reflexive form themselves is sometimes used but there is an alternative reflexive form themself. Although themself has a long history and re-emerged in the 1980s, it is still fairly rare and is accepted only by a minority. It is sometimes used when referring to a single person of indeterminate gender, where the plural form themselves might seem incongruous, as in
- "It is not an actor pretending to be Reagan or Thatcher, it is, in grotesque form, the person themself."—Hislop (1984); quoted in Fowler's
Singular themself is used systematically in Canadian federal legislative texts in opposition to the plural themselves.
- "Where a recipient of an allowance under section 4 absents themself from Canada [...]"—War Veterans Allowance Act, section 14.
- "[...] the following conditions are imposed on a person or group of persons in respect of whom a deposit is required: [...] to present themself or themselves at the time and place that an officer or the Immigration Division requires them to appear to comply with any obligation imposed on them under the Act."—Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations, section 48.
They with a singular antecedent has remained in common use for centuries in spite of its proscription by traditional grammarians. Such use goes back to the Middle English of the 14th century.
- "And whoso fyndeth hym out of swich blame,
- They wol come up . . ."
- —Chaucer, The Pardoner's Prologue (c. 1395); quoted by Jespersen and thence in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage.
- " 'Tis meet that some more audience than a mother, since nature makes them partial, should o'erhear the speech."— Shakespeare, Hamlet (1599); quoted in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage.
- "If a person is born of a . . . gloomy temper . . . they cannot help it."— Chesterfield, Letter to his son (1759); quoted in Fowler's.
- "Now nobody does anything well that they cannot help doing"— Ruskin, The Crown of Wild Olive (1866); quoted in Fowler's.
- "Nobody in their senses would give sixpence on the strength of a promissory note of the kind."— Bagehot, The Liberal Magazine (1910); quoted in Fowler's.
- "I would have every body marry if they can do it properly."— Austen, Mansfield Park (1814); quoted in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage.
- Caesar: "No, Cleopatra. No man goes to battle to be killed."
- Cleopatra: "But they do get killed"
- —Shaw, Caesar and Cleopatra (1901); quoted in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage.
- "A person can't help their birth."— W. M. Thackeray, Vanity Fair (1848); quoted in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage.
Alongside they, however, it was also acceptable to use the pronoun he as a (purportedly) gender-neutral pronoun, as in the following:
- "Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess."— Thomas Huxley, A Liberal Education (1868); quoted by Baskervill.
- "If any one did not know it, it was his own fault."— George Washington Cable, Old Creole Days (1879); quoted by Baskervill.
- "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality."— Article 15, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
In Thackeray's writings, we find both
- "A person can't help their birth."—Rosalind in W. M. Thackeray, Vanity Fair (1848); quoted from the OED by Curzan in Gender Shifts in the History of English.
- "Every person who turns this page has his own little diary."— W. M. Thackeray, On Lett's Diary (1869); quoted in Baskervill, An English Grammar.
And Caxton writes
- "Who of thise wormes shall be byten, He must have triacle; Yf not that, he shall deye."— Caxton, Dialogues in French and English (c. 1483).
Trend to prescription of generic he from 19th century
Preferring he as a purportedly gender-neutral pronoun, nineteenth-century grammarians insisted on a singular pronoun on the grounds of number agreement, though permitting the apparent lack of gender agreement, and rejecting "he or she" as clumsy.
An 1895 grammar (Baskervill, W.M. and Sewell, J.W.: An English Grammar for the Use of High School, Academy and College Class) notes the common use of the singular they but recommends use of the generic he, on the basis of number agreement:
Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun [e.g. everybody] or a noun modified by a distributive adjective [e.g. every], is to use the plural of the pronoun following. This is not considered the best usage, the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case; but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent, and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.— Baskervill, An English Grammar
Baskervill gives a number of examples of recognized authors using the singular they, including
- "Every one must judge according to their own feelings."— Byron, Werner (1823), quoted as "Every one must judge of [sic] their own feelings."
- "Had the Doctor been contented to take my dining tables as any body in their senses would have done …"— Austen, Mansfield Park (1814);
- "If the part deserve any comment, every considering Christian will make it to themselves as they go …"— Defoe, The Family Instructor (1816);
- "Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world …"— Paley,
but prefers the use of he:
[…] when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine, or is a distributive word, taking in each of many persons,—the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular […]
—Baskervill, An English Grammar
It has been argued that the real motivation for promoting the "generic" he was an androcentic world view, with the default sex of humans being male – and the default gender therefore being masculine.
As Wilson wrote in 1560
- "… let us keepe a naturall order, and set the man before the woman for maners sake". — Wilson, The arte of Rhetorique (1560);
- "… the worthier is preferred and set before. As a man is set before a woman …" — Wilson, The arte of Rhetorique (1560);
and Poole wrote in 1646
- "The Masculine gender is more worthy than the Feminine." — Poole The English Accidence (1646);  cited by Bodine
In spite of continuous attempts on the part of educationalists to proscribe singular they in favour of he, its use remained widespread, and the advice was largely ignored, even by writers of the period, though the advice may have been observed more by American writers.
- indeterminate persons of both sexes:
- "the ideal that every boy and girl should be so equipped that he shall not be handicapped in his struggle for social progress …"— C.C. Fries, American English Grammar, (1940).
- known persons of both sexes:
- "She and Louis had a game—who could find the ugliest photograph of himself."— Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin (1971)
Contemporary use of he to refer to a generic or indefinite antecedent
He is still sometimes found in contemporary writing when referring to a generic or indeterminate antecedent. In some cases it is clear from the situation that the persons potentially referred to are likely to be male, as in
- "The patient should be informed of his therapeutic options."— in a text about prostate cancer (2004)
In some cases the antecedent may refer to persons who are only probably male or to occupations traditionally thought of as male:
- "It wouldn't be as if the lone astronaut would be completely by himself." (2008)
- "Kitchen table issues . . . are ones the next president can actually do something about if he actually cares about it. More likely if she cares about it!"— Hillary Rodham Clinton (2008)
In other situations, the antecedent may refer to:
- an indeterminate person of either sex:
- "Now, a writer is entitled to have a Roget on his desk."—Barzun (1985); quoted in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage
- "They're going to appoint a new manager. Well I hope he does a better job than the present one."
- "A Member of Parliament should always live in his constituency."
In 2010, we still find the use of generic he recommended:
- " . . . when indefinite pronouns are used as antecedents, they require singular subject, object, and possessive pronouns . . ."
- "Everyone did as he pleased" . . .
- "In informal spoken English, plural pronouns are often used with indefinite pronoun antecedents. However, this construction is generally not considered appropriate in formal speech or writing.
- INFORMAL: Somebody should let you borrow their book.
- FORMAL: Somebody should let you borrow his book."
- INFORMAL: Somebody should let you borrow their book.
- —Choy, Basic Grammar and Usage
In 2015, Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage calls this "the now outmoded use of he to mean 'anyone'", stating
- "From the earliest times until about the 1960s it was unquestionably acceptable to use the pronoun he (and him, himself, his) with indefinite reference to denote a person of either sex, especially after indefinite pronouns and determiners such as anybody, ... every, etc., after gender-neutral nouns such as person ... [but] alternative devices are now usually resorted to. When a gender-neutral pronoun or determiner ... is needed, the options usually adopted are the plural forms they, their, themselves, etc., or he or she (his or her, etc.)"
- — Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage
Trend to gender-neutral language from the 20th century
In the second half of the 20th century, people expressed concern at the use of sexist and male-oriented language. Such usage included not only the use of man as a false generic but also the use of he as a generic pronoun.
It was argued that he could not sensibly be used as a generic pronoun understood to include men and women. William Safire in his On Language column in The New York Times approved of the use of generic he, mentioning the mnemonic phrase "the male embraces the female. C. Adendyck from Brooklyn wrote to the New York Times in a reply:
"The average American needs the small routines of getting ready for work. As he shaves or blow-dries his hair or pulls on his panty-hose, he is easing himself by small stages into the demands of the day."
By 1980, the movement had gained wide support, and many organizations, including most publishers, had issued guidelines on the use of gender-neutral language.
Use for specific, known people
In some situations, an individual may be known but referred to using the pronoun they because their gender is unknown or because "they" is their preferred pronoun; social media applications, for example, may permit account holders to select a nonbinary gender such as "gender fluid" or "bigender" and a pronoun, including they/them which they wish to be used when referring to them.
The use of masculine generic nouns and pronouns in written and spoken language has decreased since the 1960s. In a corpus of spontaneous speech collected in Australia in the 1990s, singular they had become the most frequently used generic pronoun. Similarly, a study from 2002 looking at a corpus of American and British newspapers showed a preference for they to be used (rather than generic he or he or she) as a singular epicene pronoun. The increased use of singular they may be at least partly due to an increasing desire for gender-neutral language. While writers a hundred years ago might have had no qualm using he with a referent of indeterminate gender, writers today often feel uncomfortable with this. One solution in formal writing has often been to write he or she, or something similar, but this is considered awkward when used excessively, overly politically correct, or both.
In contemporary usage, singular they is used—at least by some—to refer to an indeterminate antecedent, for instance when the notional gender or number of the antecedent is indeterminate or the sex (social gender) of the real-word entity referred to is unknown or unrevealed. Examples include different types of usage.
Use with a pronoun antecedent
The singular antecedent can be a pronoun such as everybody, someone, anybody, or an interrogative pronoun such as "who":
- with everybody, everyone etc.:
- with nobody or no one:
- with somebody or someone:
- "I feel that if someone is not doing their job it should be called to their attention."—An American newspaper (1984); quoted by Fowler.
- with anybody or anyone:
- "If anyone tells you that America's best days are behind her, then they're looking the wrong way." President George Bush, 1991 State of the Union Address; quoted by Garner
- "Anyone can set themselves up as an acupuncturist."—Sarah Lonsdale "Sharp Practice Pricks Reputation of Acupuncture." Observer 15 December 1991, as cited by Garner
- "If anybody calls, take their name and ask them to call again later." Example given by Swan
- even where the gender is known or assumed:
- "Under new rules to be announced tomorrow, it will be illegal for anyone to donate an organ to their wife." Ballantyne, "Transplant Jury to Vet Live Donors", Sunday Times (London) 25 3. 1990, as cited by Garner
- with an interrogative pronoun as antecedent:
- "Who thinks they can solve the problem?". Example given by Huddleston et.al.; The Cambridge Grammar of the English language.
Use with a generic noun as antecedent
The singular antecedent can also be a noun such as person, patient, or student:
- with a noun (e.g. person, student, patient) used generically (e.g. in the sense of any member of that class or a specific member unknown to the speaker or writer)
- ". . . if the child possesses the nationality or citizenship of another country, they may lose this when they get a British passport." From a British passport application form; quoted by Swan.
- "cognitive dissonance: "a concept in psychology [that] describes the condition in which a person's attitudes conflict with their behaviour".—Macmillan Dictionary of Business and management (1988), as cited by Garner.
- "A starting point would be to give more support to the company secretary. They are, or should be, privy to the confidential deliberations and secrets of the board and the company.— Ronald Severn. "Protecting the Secretary Bird". Financial Times, 6 January 1992; quoted by Garner.
- with representatives of a class previously referred to in the singular
- "I had to decide: Is this person being irrational or is he right? Of course, they were often right."—Robert Burchfield in U.S. News & World Report 11 August 1986, as cited in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage
- Even when referring to a class of persons of known sex, they is sometimes used.
- "I swear more when I'm talking to a boy, because I'm not afraid of shocking them". From an interview.
- "No mother should be forced to testify against their child".
- They may also be used with antecedents of mixed genders:
- "Let me know if your father or your mother changes their mind." Example given by Huddleston et al.
- "Either the husband or the wife has perjured themself." Here themself might be acceptable to some, themselves seems less acceptable, and himself is unacceptable. Example given by Huddleston et al.
- Even for a definite known person of known sex, they may be used in order to ignore or conceal the sex.
- "I had a friend in Paris, and they had to go to hospital for a month." (definite person, not identified)
- The word themself is also sometimes used:
- "Someone has apparently locked themself in the office."[acceptability questionable]
Acceptability and prescriptive guidance
Though both generic he and generic they have long histories of use, and both are still used, both are also systematically avoided by particular groups. Style guides that avoid expressing a preference for either approach sometimes recommend recasting a problem sentence, for instance replacing generic expressions with plurals to avoid the criticisms of either party.
Usage guidance in British–American style guides
The Handbook of Non-Sexist Writing by Casey Miller and Kate Swift was first published in the United States but, because of differences in culture and vocabulary, separate British editions have since been published. These authors accept or recommend singular uses of they not just in cases where there is an element of semantic plurality expressed by a word such as "everyone" but also where an indeterminate person is referred to, citing examples of such usage even in formal speech. For instance, they quote Ronald Reagan:
- "You must identify the person who has the power to hire you and show them how your skills can help them with their problems."
In addition to use of singular they, they – and others – also suggest a number of ways to avoid "the pronoun problem" in gender-neutral writing. One strategy is to rewrite the sentence to use a plural they. For instance, in a newspaper story
- "Each candidate [two men and six women] had to write a description of himself . . ."
could have been changed to
- "The candidates had to write a description of themselves . . .".
Another strategy is to eliminate the pronoun; so
- "A handicapped child may be able to feed and dress himself."
- "A handicapped child may be able to eat and get dressed without help."
Other methods of avoiding gender preference include recasting a sentence to use "one", or (for babies) "it".
Usage guidance in American style guides
Garner's Modern American Usage (2003) recommends cautious use of singular they, and avoidance where possible because its use is stigmatized.
- "Where noun–pronoun disagreement can be avoided, avoid it. Where it can't be avoided, resort to it cautiously because some people will doubt your literacy . . .".
Garner suggests that use of singular they is more acceptable in British English:
- "Speakers of AmE resist this development more than speakers of BrE, in which the indeterminate they is already more or less standard."
and apparently regrets the resistance by the American language community:
- "That it sets many literate Americans' teeth on edge is an unfortunate obstacle to what promises to be the ultimate solution to the problem."
He regards the trend toward using singular they with antecedents like everybody, anyone and somebody as inevitable:
- "Disturbing though these developments may be to purists, they're irreversible. And nothing that a grammarian says will change them."
In the 14th edition (1993) of The Chicago Manual of Style, the University of Chicago Press explicitly recommended use of singular use of they and their, noting a "revival" of this usage and citing "its venerable use by such writers as Addison, Austen, Chesterfield, Fielding, Ruskin, Scott, and Shakespeare." From the 15th edition, this was changed. In Chapter 5 of the 16th edition, now written by Bryan A. Garner, the recommendations are:
- "The singular they. A singular antecedent requires a singular referent pronoun. Because he is no longer accepted as a generic pronoun referring to a person of either sex, it has become common in speech and in informal writing to substitute the third-person plural pronouns they, them, their, and themselves, and the nonstandard singular themself. While this usage is accepted in casual context, it is still considered ungrammatical in formal writing."
- "Gender bias. . . . On the one hand, it is unacceptable to a great many reasonable readers to use the generic masculine pronoun (he in reference to no one in particular). On the other hand, it is unacceptable to a great many readers (often different readers) either to resort to non-traditional gimmicks to avoid the generic masculine (by using he/she or s/he, for example) or to use they as a kind of singular pronoun. Either way, credibility is lost with some readers."
According to The American Heritage Book of English Usage, many Americans avoid use of they to refer to a singular antecedent out of respect for a "traditional" grammatical rule, despite use of singular they by modern writers of note and mainstream publications:
- "Most of the Usage Panel rejects the use of they with singular antecedents as ungrammatical, even in informal speech. Eighty-two percent find the sentence The typical student in the program takes about six years to complete their course work unacceptable. . . . panel members seem to make a distinction between singular nouns, such as the typical student and a person, and pronouns that are grammatically singular but semantically plural, such as anyone, everyone and no one. Sixty-four percent of panel members accept the sentence No one is willing to work for those wages anymore, are they?"
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association explicitly reject the use of singular they and gives the following example as "incorrect" usage:
- "Neither the highest scorer nor the lowest scorer in the group had any doubt about their competence."
while also specifically taking the position that generic he is unacceptable. The APA recommends using he or she, recasting the sentence with a plural subject to allow correct use of they, or simply rewriting the sentence to avoid issues with gender or number.
Strunk & White, the authors of The Elements of Style find use of they with a singular antecedent unacceptable:
- "They. Not to be used when the antecedent is a distributive expression, such as each, each one. everybody, every one, many a man. Use the singular pronoun. [. . . ] A similar fault is the use of the plural pronoun with the antecedent anybody, anyone, somebody, someone [. . . ] The use of he as pronoun for nouns embracing both genders is a simple, practical convention rooted in the beginnings of the English language. "
Their assessment, in 1979, was
- "He has lost all suggestion of maleness in these circumstances. [. . .] It has no pejorative connotation; it is never incorrect."
Joseph M. Williams, who wrote a number of books on writing with "clarity and grace", discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various solutions when faced with the problem of referring to an antecedent such as someone, everyone, no one or a noun that does not indicate gender and suggests that this will continue to be a problem for some time. He "suspect[s] that eventually we will accept the plural they as a correct singular" but states that currently "formal usage requires a singular pronoun".
According to The Little, Brown Handbook, most experts—and some teachers and employers—find use of singular they unacceptable:
- "Although some experts accept they, them, and their with singular indefinite words, most do not, and many teachers and employers regard the plural as incorrect. To be safe, work for agreement between singular indefinite words and the pronouns that refer to them [. . . ]"
It recommends using he or she or avoiding the problem by rewriting the sentence to use a plural or omit the pronoun.
The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) maintains that singular they is incorrect:
- "Remember: the words everybody, anybody, anyone, each, neither, nobody, someone, a person, etc. are singular and take singular pronouns."
Usage guidance in British style guides
In the first edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (published in 1926) it is stated that singular they is disapproved of by grammarians and should be avoided in favour of the generic he. Examples of its use by eminent writers are given, but it is suggested that "few good modern writers would flout [grammarians] so conspicuously as Fielding and Thackeray", whose sentences are described as having an "old-fashioned sound".
In the second edition of Fowler's, Fowler's Modern English Usage (edited by Sir Ernest Gowers and published in 1965), it is stated that singular they is disapproved of by grammarians and, while common in colloquial speech, should preferably be avoided in favour of the generic he in prose. Numerous examples of its use by eminent writers are given, but it is still suggested that "few good modern writers would flout [grammarians] so conspicuously as Fielding and Thackeray".
According to the third edition of Fowler's (The New Fowler's Modern English Usage, edited by Burchfield and published in 1996) singular they has not only been widely used by good writers for centuries, but is now generally accepted, except by some conservative grammarians, including the Fowler of 1926, who ignored the evidence:
- "Over the centuries, writers of standing have used they, their, and them with anaphoric reference to a singular noun or pronoun, and the practice has continued in the 20C. to the point that, traditional grammarians aside, such constructions are hardly noticed any more or are not widely felt to lie in a prohibited zone. Fowler (1926) disliked the practice [. . .] and gave a number of unattributed 'faulty' examples [. . . ] The evidence presented in the OED points in another direction altogether."
The Complete Plain Words was originally written in 1948 by Sir Ernest Gowers, a civil servant, in an attempt by the British civil service to improve "official English". A second edition, edited by Sir Bruce Fraser, was published in 1973. It refers to they or them as the "equivalent of a singular pronoun of common sex" as "common in speech and not unknown in serious writing " but "stigmatized by grammarians as usage grammatically indefensible. The book's advice for "official writers" (civil servants) is to avoid its use and not to be tempted by its "greater convenience", though "necessity may eventually force it into the category of accepted idiom".
A new edition of Plain Words, revised and updated by Sir Ernest Gowers' great granddaughter, Rebecca Gowers, was published in 2014. It notes that singular they and them have become much more widespread since Gowers' original comments, but still finds it "safer" to treat a sentence like 'The reader may toss their book aside' as incorrect "in formal English", while rejecting even more strongly sentences like
- "There must be opportunity for the individual boy or girl to go as far as his keennness and ability will take him."
The Times Style and Usage Guide (first published in 2003 by The Times of London) recommends avoiding sentences like
- "If someone loves animals, they should protect them."
by using a plural construction:
- "If people love animals, they should protect them."
The Cambridge Guide to English Usage" (2004) finds singular they "unremarkable":
- "For those listening or reading, it has become unremarkable—an element of common usage.
It expresses several preferences.
- "Generic/universal their provides a gender-free pronoun, avoiding the exclusive his and the clumsy his/her. It avoids gratuitous sexism and gives the statement broadest reference . . . They, them, their are now freely used in agreement with singular indefinite pronouns and determiners, those with universal implications such as any(one), every(one), no(one), as well as each and some(one), whose reference is often more individual . . ."
The Economist Style Guide refers to the use of they in sentences like
- "We can't afford to squander anyone's talents, whatever colour their skin is."
as "scrambled syntax that people adopt because they cannot bring themselves to use a singular pronoun".
The New Hart's Rules is aimed at those engaged in copy editing, and the emphasis is on the formal elements of presentation including punctuation and typeface, rather than on linguistic style but—like The Chicago Manual of Style—makes occasional forays into matters of usage. It advises against use of the purportedly gender-neutral he, and suggests cautious use of they where he or she presents problems.
- ". . . it is now regarded. . . as old-fashioned or sexist to use he in reference to a person of unspecified sex, as in every child needs to know that he is loved. The alternative he or she is often preferred, and in formal contexts probably the best solution, but can become tiresome or long-winded when used frequently. Use of they in this sense (everyone needs to feel that they matter) is becoming generally accepted both in speech and in writing, especially where it occurs after an indefinite pronoun such as everyone or someone, but should not be imposed by an editor if an author has used he or she consistently."
The 2011 edition of the New International Version Bible uses singular they instead of the traditional he when translating pronouns that apply to both genders in the original Greek or Hebrew. This decision was based on research by a commission that studied modern English usage and determined that singular they (them/their) was by far the most common way that English-language speakers and writers today refer back to singular antecedents such as whoever, anyone, somebody, a person, no one, and the like."
Australian usage guidance
The Australian Federation Press Style Guide for use in preparation of book manuscripts recommends "Gender-neutral language should be used", stating that use of they and their as singular pronouns is acceptable.
Usage guidance in English grammars
According to A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (1985):
- "The pronoun they is commonly used as a 3rd person singular pronoun that is neutral between masculine and feminine. . . . At one time restricted to informal usage. it is now increasingly accepted in formal usage, especially in [American English].
The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language discusses the prescriptivist argument that they is a plural pronoun and that the use of they with a singular "antecedent" therefore violates the rule of agreement between antecedent and pronoun, but takes the view that they, though primarily plural, can also be singular in a secondary extended sense, comparable to the purportedly extended sense of he to include female gender.
Use of singular they is stated to be "particularly common", even "stylistically neutral" with antecedents such as everyone, someone, and no one, but more restricted when referring to common nouns as antecedents, as in
- "The patient should be told at the outset how much they will be required to pay."
- "A friend of mine has asked me to go over and help them . . ."
Use of the pronoun themself is described as being "rare" and "acceptable only to a minority of speakers", while use of the morphologically plural themselves is considered problematic when referring to someone rather that everyone (since only the latter implies a plural set).
There are also issues of grammatical acceptability when reflexive pronouns refer to singular noun phrases joined by or, the following all being problematic:
- "Either the husband or the wife has perjured himself." [ungrammatical]
- "Either the husband or the wife has perjured themselves." [of questionable grammaticality]
- "Either the husband or the wife has perjured themself." [typically used by only some speakers of Standard English].
On the motivation for using singular they, A Student's Introduction to English Grammar states
- "this avoidance of he can't be dismissed just as a matter of political correctness. The real problem with using he is that it unquestionably colours the interpretation, sometimes inappropriately. . . he doesn't have a genuinely sex-neutral sense".
The alternative he or she can be "far too cumbersome", as in
- "Everyone agreed that he or she would bring his or her lunch with him or her.
or even "flatly ungrammatical", as in
- "Everyone's here, isn't he or she?
"Among younger speakers", use of singular they even with definite noun-phrase antecedents finds increasing acceptance, "sidestepping any presumption about the sex of the person referred to", as in
- "You should ask your partner what they think."
- "The person I was with said they hated the film." Example given by Huddleston et al.
Grammatical and logical analysis
Steven Pinker suggests that "singular" they and plural they can be regarded as a pair of homonyms — two words with different meanings but the same spelling and sound. However, this analysis is not extended to you, another originally plural pronoun that has come to have singular use.
Distributive constructions apply a single idea to multiple members of a group. They are typically marked in English by words like each, every and any. The simplest examples are applied to groups of two, and use words like either and or—"Would you like tea or coffee?". Since distributive constructions apply an idea relevant to each individual in the group, rather than to the group as a whole, they are most often conceived of as singular, and a singular pronoun is used.
- "England expects that every man will do his duty."—Nelson (1806, referring to a fleet crewed by male sailors)
- "Every dog hath his day." —John Ray A Collection of English Proverbs (1670), originally from Plutarch, Moralia, c. 95 AD, regarding the death of Euripides.
However, many languages, including English, show ambivalence in this regard. Because distribution also requires a group with more than one member, plural forms are sometimes used.[a]
Referential and non-referential anaphors
According to the traditional analysis, English personal pronouns (e.g. his, her, their) are typically used to refer backward (or forward) within a sentence to a noun phrase (which may be a simple noun). This reference is called an anaphoric reference, and the referring pronoun is termed an anaphor.[b]
The so-called singular they is morphologically plural, and is accompanied by a plural verb. However, it is often used in circumstances where an indeterminate antecedent is signified by an indefinite singular antecedent; for example,
- "The person you mentioned, are they coming?"
In some sentences, typically those including words like every or any, the morphologically singular antecedent does not refer to a single entity but is "anaphorically linked" to the associated pronoun to indicate a set of pairwise relationships, as in the sentence:
- "Everyone returned to their seats." (where each person is associated with one seat)
One explanation given for the use of they to refer to a singular antecedent is notional agreement, when the antecedent is seen as semantically plural, as in the Shaw quotation
- "No man goes to battle to be killed." . . . "But they do get killed. [Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage]
In other words, in the Shaw quotation no man is syntactically singular, demonstrated by taking the singular form goes; however, it is semantically plural (all go [to kill] not to be killed), hence idiomatically requiring they.
Linguists like Pinker and Huddleston explain sentences like this (and others) in terms of bound variables, a term borrowed from logic. Pinker prefers the terms quantifier and bound variable to antecedent and pronoun.
The word reference is traditionally used in two different senses:
- the relationship between an anaphor (e.g. a pronoun) and its antecedent;
- the relationship between a noun phrase and the real-world entity (the referen).
With a morphologically singular antecedent, there are a number of possibilities, including the following:
- coreferential, with a definite antecedent (the antecedent and the anaphoric pronoun both refer to the same real-world entity):
- "Your wife phoned but she didn't leave a message."
- coreferential with an indefinite antecedent:
- "One of your girlfriends phoned, but she didn't leave a message."
- "One of your boyfriends phoned, but he didn't leave a message.
- "One of your friends phoned, but they didn't leave a message."
- reference to a hypothetical, indefinite entity
- "If you had an unemployed daughter, what would you think if she wanted to accept work as a pole dancer?"
- "If you had an unemployed child, what would you think if they wanted to accept work as a mercenary or a pole dancer?"
- a bound variable pronoun is anaphorically linked to a quantifier (no single real-world or hypothetical entity is referenced):
- "Nobody knew where they were."
- "Every woman present sat with their heads held high."
In the light of increasing use of the plural pronoun they to refer to morphologically singular antecedents, there have been a few studies that have attempted to determine whether such usage is more "difficult" to understand. One such study, "In Search of Gender Neutrality: Is Singular They a Cognitively Efficient Substitute for Generic He?" by Foertsch and Gernsbacher found that "singular they is a cognitively efficient substitute for generic he or she, particularly when the antecedent is nonreferential" (e.g. anybody or a nurse) rather than referring to a specific person (e.g. a runner I knew or my nurse). Clauses with singular they were read "just as quickly as clauses containing a gendered pronoun that matched the stereotype of the antecedent" (e.g. she for a nurse and he for a truck driver) and "much more quickly than clauses containing a gendered pronoun that went against the gender stereotype of the antecedent".
Comparison with other pronouns
The singular and plural use of they can be compared with the pronoun you, which originally was only plural, but by about 1700 replaced thou for singular referents, while retaining the plural verb form.
- Agreement (linguistics)
- Bound variable pronoun
- English personal pronouns
- Gender neutrality in English
- Gender-specific and gender-neutral pronouns
- Notional agreement
- Spivak pronoun
- "Either the plural or the singular may be acceptable for a true bound pronoun. . . .": "Every student thinks she / they is / are smart."
- The more usual case, where the pronoun follows the antecedent, it is called a retrospective anaphor. The less usual case, where the pronoun precedes the antecedent (as in the sentence "When he saw the damage, the headmaster called the police.") [example from cited source] is called an anticipatory anaphor. Some writers use the term anaphor only for retrospective anaphors and use the term cataphor for anticipatory anaphors. The word endophor may also be used for both.
- Quirk et al. 1985, p. 770.
- Pinker 1995, p. 378.
- Swan 2009, §528.
- Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 493.
- Garner 2003, p. 717.
- Garner 2003, pp. 643–644.
- Merriam-Webster 2002, pp. 734–736.
- Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 494.
- , Huddleston & Pullum 2005, p. 104.
- Fowler 1996, p. 777.
- Hislop 1984, p. 23.
- Fowler 1996, p. 776, themself.
- Canadian government 2013, p. 18.
- Canadian government 2014, p. 48.
- Fowler 2015, p. 814.
- Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 493–494.
- American Heritage Dictionaries 1996, p. 178.
- Chaucer 1395, p. 195.
- Merriam-Webster 2002, p. 734.
- Shakespeare 1599, p. 105.
- Merriam-Webster 2002, p. 735.
- Chesterfield 1759, p. 568.
- Fowler 1996, p. 779.
- Ruskin 1866, p. 44.
- Bagehot 1910.
- Fowler 1926, p. 648.
- Austen 1814, p. 37.
- Shaw 1901, p. 67.
- Thackeray 1868, p. 66.
- Fowler 1996, p. 358.
- Huxley 1868.
- Baskervill 1895, §409.
- Cable 1879.
- UNO 1948.
- Curzan 2003, p. 77.
- Thackeray 1869, p. 189.
- Baskervill 1895, §410.
- Caxton 1489, p. 39.
- Caxton 1483, p. 11.
- Bodine 1975, p. 133.
- Fisher 1750.
- Ostade 2000.
- Baskervill 1895, §411.
- Byron 1823, p. vi.
- Austen 1814, p. 195.
- Defoe 1816, p. 200.
- Paley 1825, p. 200.
- Miller & Swift 1995, p. 46.
- Warenda 1993, p. 101.
- Wilson 1560, p. 167.
- Wilson 1560, p. 208.
- Poole 1646, p. 21.
- Bodine 1975, p. 134.
- Leonard 1929, p. 225.
- Bodine 1975, p. 131.
- Fries 1969, p. 215.
- Lash 1981, p. 454.
- Weiss, Kaplan & Fair 2004, p. 147.
- Atkinson 2008.
- Spillius 2008.
- Barzun 1985.
- Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 492.
- Choy & Clark 2010, p. 213.
- Fowler 2015, p. 367.
- Fowler 2015, p. 372.
- Miller & Swift 1995, pp. 1–9.
- Miller & Swift 1995, pp. 11–61.
- Safire 1985, pp. 46–47.
- Adendyck 1985.
- Miller & Swift 1995, pp. 46–47.
- Teich, Nicholas M. (2012). Transgender 101: A Simple Guide to a Complex Issue. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780231157124.
- CNN 2014.
- Pauwels 2003, p. 563.
- Baranowski, Maciej (2002). "Current usage of the epicene pronoun in written English". Journal of Sociolinguistics 6 (3): 378–397. doi:10.1111/1467-9481.00193.
- Matossian 1997.
- Balhorn, Mark (2009). "The epicene pronoun in contemporary newspaper prose". American Speech 84 (4): 391–413. doi:10.1215/00031283-2009-031.
- Garner 2003, p. 643.
- Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 1458.
- Fowler 1996, p. 776.
- Bush 1991, p. 101.
- Garner 2003, p. 175.
- Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 1473.
- Newman 1998.
- Chicago 2010, §5.222.
- Garner 2003, p. 718.
- Miller & Swift 1995, p. 50.
- Miller & Swift 1995, p. 53.
- Miller & Swift 1995, p. 55.
- Miller & Swift 1995, pp. 57–58.
- Garner 2003, p. 174.
- Chicago 1993, pp. 76–77.
- Chicago 2010, §5.46.
- American Heritage Dictionaries 1996, pp. 178–179.
- APA 2001, p. 47.
- Strunk & White 1979, p. 60.
- Williams 2008, pp. 23–25.
- Fowler 1992, p. 354.
- Purdue OWL.
- Fowler 1965, p. 635.
- Gowers 1973, p. 140.
- Gowers 2014, pp. 210–213.
- Peters 2004, p. 538.
- Economist 2010, p. 117.
- OUP 2012, p. 27.
- Washington Post 2011.
- Federation Press 2014.
- Pinker 1995, pp. 370–403.
- Huang 2009, p. 144.
- Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 1455–1456.
- Merriam-Webster 2002, p. 736.
- Foertsch & Gernsbacher 1997.
Sources of original examples
- Atkinson, Nancy (4 March 2008). "A One Way One Person Mission to Mars". Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Austen, Jane (1833). Mansfield Park. Richard Bentley.
- Bagehot, Walter (1910). "Speech in Portsmouth, 10 November 1910". The Liberal Magazine (Liberal Publication Department (Great Britain), published 1915) 22.
- Barzun, Jacques (1985). Simple and Direct. Harper and Row.
- Cuellar, Jessica (2008). A Study of Presidential State of the Union Addresses: The Sells and Arguments that are Used. Oklahoma State University. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-99288-2.
- Byron, Baron George Gordon Byron (1823). Werner, a Tragedy. A. and W. Galignani.
- Cable, George Washington (1907) . Old Creole Days.
- Canadian government (12 December 2013). "Canadian War Veterans Allowance Act (1985) as amended 12 December 2013" (pdf). Government of Canada. R.S.C., 1985, c. W-3. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- Canadian government (6 February 2014). "Immigration and RefugeeProtection Regulations (2002) as amended 6 February 2014" (pdf). Government of Canada. SOR/2002-227. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- Caxton, William (1884) [c. 1489]. Richardson, Octavia, ed. The right plesaunt and goodly historie of the foure sonnes of Aymon. Early English Text Society. pp. 38f. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- Caxton, William (1890) [c. 1483]. Bradley, Henry, ed. Dialogues in French and English. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd. for the Early English Text Society. p. 11. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- Chaucer, Geoffrey (2008) . "The Pardoner's Prologue". In Benson, Larry Dean. The Riverside Chaucer. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-55209-2.
- Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope Earl of (1759). "Letters to his Son, CCCLV, dated 27 April 27, 1759". The Works of Lord Chesterfield. Harper (published 1845).
- Defoe, Daniel (1816). The Family Instructor. Brightly and Childs.
- Fries, Joseph P. (1969) . "The inflections and syntax of present-day American English with especial reference to social differences or class dialects: the report of an investigation financed by the National Council of Teachers of English and supported by the Modern Language Association and the Linguistic Society of America". In Bolton, W.F.; Crystal. The English Language Volume 2 Essays by Linguistics and Men of Letters 1858-1964. Cambridge University Press Archive. ISBN 978-0-451-14076-0.
- Hislop, Ian (1984). "Ian Hislop". The Listener (British Broadcasting Corporation) 111.
- Huxley, Thomas Henry (2005). A Liberal Education. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-425-35760-3.
- Lash, Joseph P. (1981) . Eleanor and Franklin. Penguin Group (Canada). ISBN 978-0-451-14076-0.; quoted in Reader' Digest, 1983, as an example of its awkwardness when referring to both sexes.
- Paley, William; Paley, Edmund; Paxton, James (1825). The Works of William Paley: The principles of moral and political philosophy. C. and J. Rivington and J. Nunn.
- Ruskin, John (1873) . The Works of John Ruskin: The Crown of Wild Olive. George Allen.
- Shakespeare, , W.; Loffelt, Antonie Cornelis (1867). Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. J. L. Beijers en J. van Boekhoven.
- Shaw, George Bernard (2011). Caesar and Cleopatra. Floating Press. ISBN 978-1-775-45349-9.
- Spillius, Alex (12 May 2008). "US elections: Hillary Clinton 'about to drop out'". The Telegraph.
- Thackeray, William Makepeace (1868). The Works of William Makepeace Thackeray : in 22 Volumes: Vanity fair 2. Smith, Elder.
- Thackeray, William Makepeace (1869). "On Lett's Diary". The Works of William Makepeace Thackeray 20. Smith, Elder.
- UNO (1948). "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations Organization.
- Weiss, R.E.; Kaplan, S.A.; Fair, W.R. (2004). Management of Prostate Diseases. Cambridge; New York: Professional Communications Inc. ISBN 978-1-884-73595-0.
- Adendyck, C. (7 July 1985). "[Letter commenting on] Hypersexism And the Feds". The New York Times.
- The American Heritage Book of English Usage: A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 1996. ISBN 978-0-547-56321-3.
- American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).
- Baskervill, W.M.; Sewell, J.W. (1895). An English Grammar. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- Berry, Chris; Brizee, Allen. "Using Pronouns Clearly". Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Bodine, Ann (August 1975). "Androcentrism in Prescriptive Grammar: Singular They, Sex-Indefinite He, and He or She" (pdf). Language in Society (Cambridge University Press) 4 (2): 129–146. doi:10.1017/s0047404500004607. ISSN 0047-4045.
- University of Chicago Press (1993). The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers (14th ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-10389-1.
- University of Chicago Press (2010). The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-10420-1.
- Choy, Penelope; Clark, Dorothy Goldbart (2010). Basic Grammar and Usage (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-428-21155-1.
- Griggs, Brandon (13 February 2014). "Facebook goes beyond 'male' and 'female' with new gender options". CNN.
- Curzan, Anne (2003). Gender Shifts in the History of English. Studies in English Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-43668-7.
- Economist (2010). Economist Style Guide. Studies in English Language (10th ed.). Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-846-68606-1.
- "Federation Press Style Guide for Use in Preparation of Book Manuscripts" (pdf). Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Fisher, Ann (1750) . A New Grammar (reprinted in facsimile) (2nd ed.). Newcastle upon Tyne: R.C. Alston (published 1974).
- Fowler, Henry Ramsey; Aaron, Jane E. (1992). The Little, Brown Handbook (5th ed.). HarperCollins. pp. 300–301. ISBN 978-0-673-52132-3..
N.B.: This is not the English usage authority Henry Watson Fowler.
- Fowler, H.W.; Crystal, David (2009) . A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-58589-2.
- Fowler, H.W.; Gowers, Sir Ernest (1965). A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press.
- Fowler, H.W.; Burchfield, R.W. (1996). The New Fowler's Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-198-61021-2.
- Fowler, H.W. (2015). Butterfield, Jeremy, ed. Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966135-0.
- Foertsch, Julie; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann (March 1997). "In Search of Gender Neutrality: Is Singular They a Cognitively Efficient Substitute for Generic He?" (pdf). Psychological Science 8 (2): 106–111. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00691.x.
- Garner, Bryan A. (2003). Garner's Modern American Usage. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516191-5.
- Gowers, Ernest; Fraser, Bruce (1973). The Complete Plain Words. H.M. Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-700340-8.
- Gowers, Ernest; Gowers, Rebecca (2014). Plain Words. London: Particular. ISBN 978-0-241-96035-6.
- Huang, C.T.J. (2009). Between Syntax and Semantics. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-87352-6.
- Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43146-8.
- Huddleston, Rodney D.; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2005). A Student's Introduction to English Grammar. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84837-4.
- Leonard, Sterling Andrus (1929). The Doctrine of Correctness in English Usage, 1700-1800. Russell & Russell (published 1962).
- Matossian, Lou Ann (1997). Burglars, Babysitters, and Persons: A Sociolinguistic Study of Generic Pronoun Usage in Philadelphia and Minneapolis (PDF). Institute for Research in Cognitive Science. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 10 June 2006.
- Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage. Penguin. 2002. ISBN 9780877796336.
- Miller, Casey; Swift, Kate (1995) . Kate Mosse, ed. The Handbook of Non-Sexist Writing for Writers, Editors and Speakers (3rd British ed.). The Women's Press. ISBN 07043-44424.
- Newman, Michael (1998). "What Can Pronouns Tell Us? A Case Study of English Epicenes". Studies in language (John Benjamins) 22 (2): 353–389. doi:10.1075/sl.22.2.04new. ISSN 0378-4177.
- Oxford University Press (2012). "New Hart's Rules". New Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-65722-3.
- Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-3-125-33187-7.
- Ostade, Ingrid Tieken-Boon van (28 August 2000). "Female grammarians of the eighteenth century". University of Leiden.
- Pauwels, Anne (2003). "Linguistic sexism and feminist linguistic activism". In Holmes, Janet and Meyerhoff, Miriam (eds.). The Handbook of Language and Gender. Malden, MA: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22502-7.
- Pinker, Steven (1995) . "The Language Mavens". The Language Instinct. Penguin. ISBN 0140175296.
- Poole, Josua (1646). The English Accidence. Scolar Press (published 1967).
- Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; Svartvik, Jan (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Harlow: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-51734-9.
- Safire, William (28 April 1985). "On Language; You Not Tarzan, Me Not Jane". The New York Times.
- Strunk, William; White, E.E.B. (1979). The Elements of Style (3rd ed.). Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-19158-1.
- Swan, Michael (2009). Practical English Usage (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-194-42098-3.
- Warenda, Amy (April 1993). "They" (pdf). The WAC Journal 4. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- "New Bible draws critics of gender-neutral language". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 17 March 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- Williams, Joseph M. (2008). Style: The Basics of Clarity and Grace. Longman. ISBN 978-0205605354.
- Wilson, Thomas (1560). Mair, George Herbert, ed. The arte of Rhetorique. Clarendon (published 1909).
- "Anyone who had a heart (would know their own language)" by Geoff Pullum. Transcript of a radio talk.