Solar storm of 1859
The solar storm of 1859 (also known as the Carrington Event) was a powerful geomagnetic storm during solar cycle 10 (1855–1867). A solar coronal mass ejection (CME) hit Earth's magnetosphere and induced one of the largest geomagnetic storms on record, September 1–2, 1859. The associated "white light flare" in the solar photosphere was observed and recorded by British astronomers Richard C. Carrington (1826–1875) and Richard Hodgson (1804–1872). The now-standard unique IAU identifier for this flare is SOL1859-09-01.
A solar storm of this magnitude occurring today would cause widespread electrical disruptions, blackouts and damage due to extended outages of the electrical grid. The solar storm of 2012 was of similar magnitude, but it passed Earth's orbit without striking the planet, missing by 9 days.
From August 28 to September 2, 1859, many sunspots appeared on the Sun. On August 29, southern auroras were observed as far north as Queensland, Australia. Just before noon on September 1, the English amateur astronomers Richard Carrington and Richard Hodgson independently recorded the earliest observations of a solar flare. Carrington and Hodgson compiled independent reports which were published side-by-side in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, and exhibited their drawings of the event at the November 1859 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society.
The flare was associated with a major coronal mass ejection (CME) that travelled directly toward Earth, taking 17.6 hours to make the 150 million kilometre (93 million mile) journey. It is believed that the relatively high speed of this CME (typical CMEs take several days to arrive at Earth) was made possible by a prior CME, perhaps the cause of the large aurora event on August 29 that "cleared the way" of ambient solar wind plasma for the Carrington event.
Because of a geomagnetic solar flare effect ("magnetic crochet") observed in the Kew Observatory magnetometer record by Scottish physicist Balfour Stewart and a geomagnetic storm observed the following day, Carrington suspected a solar-terrestrial connection. Worldwide reports on the effects of the geomagnetic storm of 1859 were compiled and published by American mathematician Elias Loomis, which support the observations of Carrington and Stewart.
On September 1–2, 1859, one of the largest recorded geomagnetic storms (as recorded by ground-based magnetometers) occurred. Auroras were seen around the world, those in the northern hemisphere as far south as the Caribbean; those over the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. were so bright that the glow woke gold miners, who began preparing breakfast because they thought it was morning. People in the northeastern United States could read a newspaper by the aurora's light. The aurora was visible from the poles to the low latitude area, such as south-central Mexico, Queensland, Cuba, Hawaii, southern Japan and China, and even at lower latitudes very close to the equator, such as in Colombia. Estimates of the storm strength range from −800 nT to −1750 nT.
Telegraph systems all over Europe and North America failed, in some cases giving telegraph operators electric shocks. Telegraph pylons threw sparks. Some telegraph operators could continue to send and receive messages despite having disconnected their power supplies.
On Saturday, September 3, 1859, the Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser reported:
Those who happened to be out late on Thursday night had an opportunity of witnessing another magnificent display of the auroral lights. The phenomenon was very similar to the display on Sunday night, though at times the light was, if possible, more brilliant, and the prismatic hues more varied and gorgeous. The light appeared to cover the whole firmament, apparently like a luminous cloud, through which the stars of the larger magnitude indistinctly shone. The light was greater than that of the moon at its full, but had an indescribable softness and delicacy that seemed to envelop everything upon which it rested. Between 12 and 1 o'clock, when the display was at its full brilliancy, the quiet streets of the city resting under this strange light, presented a beautiful as well as singular appearance.
In 1909, an Australian gold miner C.F. Herbert retold his observations in a letter to The Daily News in Perth:
I was gold-digging at Rokewood, about four miles from Rokewood township (Victoria). Myself and two mates looking out of the tent saw a great reflection in the southern heavens at about 7 o'clock p.m., and in about half an hour, a scene of almost unspeakable beauty presented itself, lights of every imaginable color were issuing from the southern heavens, one color fading away only to give place to another if possible more beautiful than the last, the streams mounting to the zenith, but always becoming a rich purple when reaching there, and always curling round, leaving a clear strip of sky, which may be described as four fingers held at arm's length. The northern side from the zenith was also illuminated with beautiful colors, always curling round at the zenith, but were considered to be merely a reproduction of the southern display, as all colors south and north always corresponded. It was a sight never to be forgotten, and was considered at the time to be the greatest aurora recorded... The rationalist and pantheist saw nature in her most exquisite robes, recognising, the divine immanence, immutable law, cause, and effect. The superstitious and the fanatical had dire forebodings, and thought it a foreshadowing of Armageddon and final dissolution.
In June 2013, a joint venture from researchers at Lloyd's of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) in the United States used data from the Carrington Event to estimate the current cost of a similar event to the U.S. alone at $0.6–2.6 trillion.
Other evidence and similar events
Ice cores containing thin nitrate-rich layers have been analysed to reconstruct a history of past solar storms predating reliable observations. Some researchers have stated that data from Greenland ice cores show evidence of individual solar-proton events, including the Carrington event. More recent work by the ice core community casts significant doubt on this interpretation, and shows that nitrate spikes are not a result of solar energetic particle events. Indeed, no consistency is found in cores from Greenland and Antarctica, and nitrate events can be due to terrestrial events such as burnings, so use of this technique is now in doubt.
Less severe storms have occurred in 1921 and 1960, when widespread radio disruption was reported. The March 1989 geomagnetic storm knocked out power across large sections of Quebec. On July 23, 2012 a "Carrington-class" solar superstorm (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, solar EMP) was observed; its trajectory missed Earth in orbit. Information about these observations was first shared publicly by NASA on April 28, 2014.
- Philips, Tony (January 21, 2009). "Severe Space Weather—Social and Economic Impacts". NASA Science: Science News. science.nasa.gov. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "Solar storm risk to the north American electric grid" (PDF).
- Baker, D. N.; et al. (2008). Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts. The National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
- Phillips, Dr. Tony (July 23, 2014). "Near Miss: The Solar Superstorm of July 2012". NASA. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
- "SOUTHERN AURORA". The Moreton Bay Courier. Brisbane: National Library of Australia. September 7, 1859. p. 2. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
- Odenwald, Sten F.; Green, James L. (July 28, 2008). "Bracing the Satellite Infrastructure for a Solar Superstorm". Scientific American. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- Carrington, R. C. (1859). "Description of a Singular Appearance seen in the Sun on September 1, 1859". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 20: 13. Bibcode:1859MNRAS..20...13C. doi:10.1093/mnras/20.1.13.
- Hodgson, R. (1859). "On a curious Appearance seen in the Sun". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 20: 15. Bibcode:1859MNRAS..20...15H. doi:10.1093/mnras/20.1.15.
- Thompson, Richard. "A Solar Flare Effect". Australian Government: Space Weather Services. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- Clark, Stuart (2007). The Sun Kings: The Unexpected Tragedy of Richard Carrington and the Tale of How Modern Astronomy Began. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12660-7.
- Richard A. Lovett (March 2, 2011). "What If the Biggest Solar Storm on Record Happened Today?". National Geographic News. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- Hayakawa, H. (2018). "Low-latitude Aurorae during the Extreme Space Weather Events in 1859". The Astrophysical Journal. 869 (1): 57. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aae47c.
- González‐Esparza, J. A.; M. C. Cuevas‐Cardona (2018). "Observations of Low Latitude Red Aurora in Mexico During the 1859 Carrington Geomagnetic Storm". Space Weather. Bibcode:2018SpWea..16..593G. doi:10.1029/2017SW001789.
- Green, J. (2006). "Duration and extent of the great auroral storm of 1859". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2). pp. 130–135. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..130G. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.054.
- Hayakawa, H. (2016). "East Asian observations of low-latitude aurora during the Carrington magnetic storm". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 68 (6). p. 99. arXiv:1608.07702. Bibcode:2016PASJ...68...99H. doi:10.1093/pasj/psw097.
- "The grand aurorae borealis seen in Colombia in 1859". Advances in Space Research. 57 (1). 2016. pp. 257–267. arXiv:1508.06365. Bibcode:2016AdSpR..57..257M. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.08.026.
- "Near Miss: The Solar Superstorm of July 2012 – NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
- Committee on the Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events: A Workshop, National Research Council (2008). Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report. National Academies Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-309-12769-6.
- Odenwald, Sten F. (2002). The 23rd Cycle. Columbia University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-231-12079-6.
- Carlowicz, Michael J.; Lopez, Ramon E. (2002). Storms from the Sun: The Emerging Science of Space Weather. National Academies Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-309-07642-0.
- "The Aurora Borealis". Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser. September 3, 1859. p. 2; Column 2. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- Herbert, Count Frank (8 October 1909). "The Great Aurora of 1859". The Daily News. Perth, WA. p. 9. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- McCracken, K. G.; Dreschhoff, G. A. M.; Zeller, E. J.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A. (2001). "Solar cosmic ray events for the period 1561–1994 1. Identification in polar ice, 1561–1950". Journal of Geophysical Research. 106 (A10): 21, 585–21, 598. Bibcode:2001JGR...10621585M. doi:10.1029/2000JA000237.
- Wolff, E. W.; Bigler, M.; Curran, M. A. J.; Dibb, J.; Frey, M. M.; Legrand, M. (2012). "The Carrington event not observed in most ice core nitrate records". Geophysical Research Letters. 39 (8): 21, 585–21, 598. Bibcode:2012GeoRL..39.8503W. doi:10.1029/2012GL051603.
- Duderstadt, K. A.; et al. (2014). "Nitrate deposition to surface snow at Summit, Greenland, following the 9 November 2000 solar proton event". J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres. 119 (11): 6938–6957. Bibcode:2014JGRD..119.6938D. doi:10.1002/2013JD021389.
- Mekhaldi, F.; et al. (November 2017), "No Coincident Nitrate Enhancement Events in Polar Ice Cores Following the Largest Known Solar Storms", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122 (21): 11, 900–11, 913, Bibcode:2017JGRD..12211900M, doi:10.1002/2017JD027325
- "Video (04:03) – Carrington-class coronal mass ejection narrowly misses Earth". NASA. April 28, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
- Cliver, E. W.; Svalgaard, L. (2004). "The 1859 Solar–Terrestrial Disturbance and the Current Limits of Extreme Space Weather Activity" (PDF). Solar Physics. 224: 407. Bibcode:2004SoPh..224..407C. doi:10.1007/s11207-005-4980-z.
- Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Lakhina, G. S.; Alex, S. (2003). "The extreme magnetic storm of 1–2 September 1859". Journal of Geophysical Research. 108: 1268. Bibcode:2003JGRA..108.1268T. doi:10.1029/2002JA009504.
- Issue 2 of Volume 38, Pages 115–388 (2006), of Advances in Space Research, an issue entitled "The Great Historical Geomagnetic Storm of 1859: A Modern Look"
- Robertclauer, C.; Siscoe, G. (2006). "The great historical geomagnetic storm of 1859: A modern look". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 117–118. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..117R. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2006.09.001.
- Cliver, E. (2006). "The 1859 space weather event: Then and now". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 119–129. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..119C. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.07.077.
- Green, J.; Boardsen, S. (2006). "Duration and extent of the great auroral storm of 1859". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 130–135. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..130G. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.054. PMC 5215858. PMID 28066122.
- Silverman, S. (2006). "Comparison of the aurora of September 1/2, 1859 with other great auroras". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 136–144. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..136S. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.157.
- Green, J.; Boardsen, S.; Odenwald, S.; Humble, J.; Pazamickas, K. (2006). "Eyewitness reports of the great auroral storm of 1859". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 145–154. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..145G. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.12.021.
- Hayakawa, H. (2016). "East Asian observations of low-latitude aurora during the Carrington magnetic storm". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 68 (6): 99. arXiv:1608.07702. Bibcode:2016PASJ...68...99H. doi:10.1093/pasj/psw097.
- Humble, J. (2006). "The solar events of August/September 1859 – Surviving Australian observations". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 155–158. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..155H. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.053.
- Boteler, D. (2006). "The super storms of August/September 1859 and their effects on the telegraph system". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 159–172. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..159B. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2006.01.013.
- Siscoe, G.; Crooker, N.; Clauer, C. (2006). "Dst of the Carrington storm of 1859". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 173–179. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..173S. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.02.102.
- Nevanlinna, H. (2006). "A study on the great geomagnetic storm of 1859: Comparisons with other storms in the 19th century". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 180–187. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..180N. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.07.076.
- Kappenman, J. (2006). "Great geomagnetic storms and extreme impulsive geomagnetic field disturbance events – An analysis of observational evidence including the great storm of May 1921". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 188–199. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..188K. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.08.055.
- Silverman, S. (2006). "Low latitude auroras prior to 1200 C.E. and Ezekiel's vision". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 200–208. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..200S. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.158.
- Shea, M.; Smart, D. (2006). "Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities and geomagnetic coordinates appropriate for the Carrington flare Epoch". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 209–214. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..209S. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.03.156.
- Smart, D.; Shea, M.; McCracken, K. (2006). "The Carrington event: Possible solar proton intensity–time profile". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 215–225. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..215S. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.04.116.
- Townsend, L. W.; Stephens, D. L.; Hoff, J. L.; Zapp, E. N.; Moussa, H. M.; Miller, T. M.; Campbell, C. E.; Nichols, T. F. (2006). "The Carrington event: Possible doses to crews in space from a comparable event". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 226–231. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..226T. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.01.111.
- Shea, M.; Smart, D.; McCracken, K.; Dreschhoff, G.; Spence, H. (2006). "Solar proton events for 450 years: The Carrington event in perspective". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 232–238. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..232S. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.02.100.
- Burke, W.; Huang, C.; Rich, F. (2006). "Energetics of the April 2000 magnetic superstorm observed by DMSP". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 239–252. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..239B. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.07.085.
- Manchester IV, W. B.; Ridley, A. J.; Gombosi, T. I.; De Zeeuw, D. L. (2006). "Modeling the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a very fast CME". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 253–262. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..253M. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.09.044.
- Ridley, A. J.; De Zeeuw, D. L.; Manchester, W. B.; Hansen, K. C. (2006). "The magnetospheric and ionospheric response to a very strong interplanetary shock and coronal mass ejection". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 263–272. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..263R. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2006.06.010.
- Li, X.; Temerin, M.; Tsurutani, B.; Alex, S. (2006). "Modeling of 1–2 September 1859 super magnetic storm". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 273–279. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..273L. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.06.070.
- Odenwald, S.; Green, J.; Taylor, W. (2006). "Forecasting the impact of an 1859-calibre superstorm on satellite resources". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 280–297. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..280O. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.10.046.
- Boteler, D. (2006). "Comment on time conventions in the recordings of 1859". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 301–303. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..301B. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2006.07.006.
- Wilson, L. (2006). "Excerpts from and Comments on the Wochenschrift für Astronomie, Meteorologie und Geographie, Neue Folge, zweiter Jahrgang (new series 2)". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 304–312. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..304W. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2006.07.004.
- Shea, M.; Smart, D. (2006). "Compendium of the eight articles on the "Carrington Event" attributed to or written by Elias Loomis in the American Journal of Science, 1859–1861". Advances in Space Research. 38 (2): 313–385. Bibcode:2006AdSpR..38..313S. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2006.07.005.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Solar activity.|
- Carrington, R. C. (1859). "Description of a Singular Appearance seen in the Sun on September 1, 1859". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 20: 13–5. Bibcode:1859MNRAS..20...13C. doi:10.1093/mnras/20.1.13.
- Bell, Trudy E.; Phillips, Tony (May 6, 2008). "A Super Solar Flare". Science@NASA. science.nasa.gov.
- Brooks, Michael (March 23, 2009). "Space storm alert: 90 seconds from catastrophe". New Scientist. www.newscientist.com. Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2009.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "The Largest Magnetic Storm on Record, The "Carrington Event" of August 27 to September 7, 1859". British Geological Survey. National Environment Research Council. 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
- Clark, Stuart (2007). The Sun Kings: The Unexpected Tragedy of Richard Carrington and the Tale of How Modern Astronomy Began. ISBN 978-0-691-12660-9. Archived from the original on April 19, 2010.
- Excerpts of Articles from Newspapers concerning the Carrington Event.
- Solar superstorm awed locals in 1859 – Pantagraph (Bloomington, Illinois newspaper)