List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number: 321.311

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This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 321.311 under that system. These instruments may be known as spike bowl lutes.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
321: Instruments in which the strings run in a plane parallel to the sound table (lutes)
321.3: Instruments in which the string bearer is a plain handle (handle lutes)
321.31: Instruments in which the handle passes diametrically through the resonator (spike lutes)
321.311: Instrument with a resonator made from a bowl, either natural or carved (spike bowl lutes)

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive
Instrument Tradition Hornbostel–Sachs classification Description
guinbri, guimbri, gimbri, ginibri
Moroccan Arab 321.311 Teardrop-shaped, with tuning pegs


  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 14. 14: 3–29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.