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Spīn Ghar (Pashto: سپين غر), "white mountain", also known as Safēd Kōh (Persian/Urdu: سفید کوه), Speen Ghar, or the Indian Caucasus as late as the 19th century, and as the Morga Range, is a mountain range in eastern Afghanistan, which expands into the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.
Its highest peak, straight and rigid Mount Sikaram, towers above all surrounding hills to 4,761 m (15,620 ft) above mean sea level. The Kabul River cuts a narrow trough through the Spīn Ghar mountains to flow eastward into the Indus River; otherwise, the range connects directly with the Shandur Top offshoot of the Hindu Kush mountain system.
The Khyber Pass crosses a spur of the Spīn Ghar. The second cross is near Mount Sikaram which is called Piewar-Kotal or Gawi Pass, which connects Parachinar city in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with the Aryob Valley of Paktia, Afghanistan. From the highest peak Mount Sikaram (Sikaram Sar) towards eastward, it passes on the north of Piewar, Alizai, Tari Mengal, Khewas, Shilawzan, Luqman Khel, Maikay, Chappri Rest House, Zeran, Parachamkani and Upper Khyber Agency. The closest cities near the Spīn Ghar are Parachinar and Gardez.
Above the nearly barren lower slopes, forests of pine and deodar cedar thrived on the main range, but devastation during the Afghan civil war reduced timber resources. The valleys still support some agriculture.
According to the United States's military intelligence, many al-Qaeda fighters, including Osama Bin Laden had used the Spīn Ghar to escape to Pakistan during the Tora Bora offensive in 2001. Since 2004, the Spīn Ghar mountain range had been a pivotal place and theater of many battles fought by the foreign fighters of al-Qaeda and the joint-warfare command of Pakistan Armed Forces to prevent the foreign fighters incursion into Pakistan.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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