Stanisława P.

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Stanisława P. with ectoplasm.

Stanisława Popielska (born c. 1893) most well known as Stanisława P. was a Polish spiritualist medium who was alleged to have produced ectoplasm and the psychokinetic movement of objects.[1]

In 1913, Stanisława was investigated by the psychical researcher Albert von Schrenck-Notzing. During the séances a number of flashlight photographs were taken, he published a book on the subject of materializations and declared her ectoplasm to be genuine.[2] Schrenck-Notzing's experiments with the medium were criticized for their poor controls and he was accused by scientists of being the victim of fraud after his book was published.[3][4]

Mathilde Ludendorff who attended a séance stated she had observed the ectoplasm to be made of gauze and it was attached to a secret thread that was pinned to the cabinet.[5]

In 1930, Stanisława was discredited at the Institut Métapsychique by Eugéne Osty as she was caught cheating. Secret flashlight photographs that were taken revealed that her hand was free and she had moved objects on the séance table.[6] Osty concluded that she was a comedic medium, and her psychokinetic phenomena was fraudulent.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tabori, Paul. (1972). Pioneers of the Unseen. Souvenir Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-285-62042-8
  2. ^ Schrenck-Notzing, Albert von. (1923). Phenomena of Materialisation: A Contribution to the Investigation of Mediumistic Teleplastics. trans. E. E. Fournier d'Albe. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.; New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. pp. 259-260
  3. ^ Ludendorff, Mathilde. (1914). Moderne Mediumforschung: Kritische Betrachtungen zu Dr von Schrenck-Notzing’s Materialisationsphaenomene [Modern Mediumship Research: Critical Considerations Regarding Dr von Schrenck-Notzing’s ‘Phenomena of Materialisation’]. Munich: Lehmann.
  4. ^ Krauss, Rolf H. (1995). Beyond Light and Shadow: The Role of Photography in Certain Paranormal Phenomena: An Historical Survey. Nazraeli Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-3923922383
  5. ^ Mulholland, John. (1938). Beware Familiar Spirits. C. Scribner's Sons. p. 142. ISBN 978-1111354879
  6. ^ Spence, Lewis. (2003). Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Kessinger Publishing. p. 880
  7. ^ Osty, Eugene. (1930). Le medium Stanislawa P. a f'Jnstitui metapsychique dc Paris: Comedic mediumniquc. Revue meuspiyebique, no. 6 (Paris: Alcan): pp. 515-528.