Steven Murdoch

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Dr. Steven Murdoch

Steven James Murdoch
Alma materUniversity of Cambridge
Known forTor project[1][2]
EMV/Chip and PIN[1][3]
Scientific career
Anonymous communication[4][5]
Chip and PIN
Europay, Master and Visa (EMV)[1]
InstitutionsComputer Science Department, University College London
ThesisCovert channel vulnerabilities in anonymity systems (2008)
Doctoral advisorMarkus Kuhn[6][7]

Steven James Murdoch FBCS FIET is a security researcher in the Computer Science Department, University College London.[7] His research covers privacy-enhancing technology, Internet censorship, and anonymous communication, in particular Tor[8][9]. He is also known for discovering several vulnerabilities in the EMV bank chipcard payment system (Chip and PIN).[1][10][11][12]


Murdoch was educated at the University of Cambridge completing a PhD on computer security supervised by Markus Kuhn in 2008.[5]

Awards and honours[edit]

He is a Fellow of the British Computer Society and Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology.[7]


  1. ^ a b c d Grossman, Wendy (23 August 2016). "Steven Murdoch – Privacy and Financial Security". Bentham's Gaze. UCL. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  2. ^ Murdoch, Steven J.; Danezis, George (2005). "Low-Cost Traffic Analysis of Tor" (PDF). 2005 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (S&P'05). p. 183. doi:10.1109/SP.2005.12. ISBN 978-0-7695-2339-2.
  3. ^ Murdoch, Steven J.; Drimer, Saar; Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike (2010). "Chip and PIN is Broken" (PDF). 2010 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. p. 433. doi:10.1109/SP.2010.33. ISBN 978-1-4244-6894-2.
  4. ^ Murdoch, S. J.; Lewis, S. (2005). "Embedding Covert Channels into TCP/IP". Information Hiding. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3727. p. 247. CiteSeerX doi:10.1007/11558859_19. ISBN 978-3-540-29039-1.
  5. ^ a b Murdoch, Steven James (2008). Covert channel vulnerabilities in anonymity systems (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge.
  6. ^ Steven J. Murdoch at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  7. ^ a b c "Institutional Research Information Service". University College London. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  8. ^ Newitz, Annalee (28 December 2006). "Your Computer is Hot -- And I Know Where You Live". Popular Science. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  9. ^ Gallagher, Sean (28 October 2011). "Tor Project patches critical flaw in its anonymizing network". Ars Technica. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  10. ^ Watts, Susan (26 February 2006). "How secure is Chip and PIN?". BBC Newsnight. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  11. ^ Banking security, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge
  12. ^ Threat to chip-and-pin terminals, BBC News, 2 January 2010