Straits of Johor
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The Straits of Johore, (also known as the Tebrau Strait, Johore Strait, Selat Johor, Selat Tebrau, and Tebrau Reach), is an international strait in Southeast Asia, between Singapore and mainland Malaysia.
The strait separates the Malaysian state of Johor on the mainland Malay Peninsula to the north, from Singapore and its islands on the south. It connects to the Strait of Malacca on the west, and the Singapore Strait on the southeast.
The mouth and delta of the Johur River is on its northeast side in Malaysia.
There are currently two bridges crossing the strait. The Johor-Singapore Causeway, known simply as "The Causeway", links Johor Bahru and Woodlands in Singapore. The Malaysia-Singapore Second Link bridge is further west over the strait, links Gelang Patah in Malaysia and Tuas in Singapore.
In 2003, Malaysia wanted to build a bridge across the strait to replace the existing causeway, but negotiations with Singapore were not successful. The main reasons cited for the change were:
- a bridge would allow free flow of water across both sides of the strait which were artificially cut in two with the building of the causeway before (this would allow ships to bypass the port of Singapore).
- a bridge would help ease congestion in Johor Bahru.
In August 2003, Malaysia announced that it was going ahead with a plan to build a gently sloping, curved bridge that would join up with Singapore's half of the existing causeway. The plans included a swing bridge for the railway line. However, plans to build the bridge have been called off as of 2006.
Major tributaries which empty into the Strait of Johore include:
- Sungai Tebrau
- Sungai Segget
- Johor River
- Sungai Sengkuang
- Sungai Haji Rahmat
- Sungai Kempas
- Sungai Sri Buntan
- Sungai Abd Samad
- Sungai Air Molek
- Sungai Stulang
- Sungai Setanggong
- Sungai Tampoi
- Sungai Sebulong
- Sungai Bala
- Sungai Pandan
- Sungai Tengkorak
- Sungai Plentong
- Sungai Senibong
- Sungai Pulai
In the Malay language, Sungai is the word for river.
Pollution along the Strait of Johore is notable.
The area is also a source of environmental contention between Malaysia and Singapore, due to land reclamation projects on both sides of the Causeway.  There have been suggestions that the ongoing land reclamation projects may impact the maritime boundary, shipping lanes, and water ecology of the Malaysian side. Environmental Impact Assessments are requested before any reclamation is carried out such as the Forest City project.
Reclamation projects may also endanger the habitat and food source of dugongs, which are native to the strait.
The Strait of Johore is the location of two Victoria Cross deeds. The award was for Lieutenant Ian Edward Fraser and Acting Leading Seaman James Joseph Magennis for the sinking of the 9,850-tonne Japanese cruiser Takao on 31 July 1945.
Former Wakefield professional heavyweight boxer Paul Sykes claims to be the only person to have swum across the straits to avoid arrest.
Places of interest
A well known tourist attraction of the Strait of Johore's most is Lido Beach, located on the Malaysian side in Johor Bahru.  Here, visitors can walk or cycle along the 2 km stretch of the beach. There are numerous restaurants and food stalls.
- Singapore objected to bridge to replace Causeway
- "Clean-up of Johor Straits to begin in September". AsiaOne. 16 Jun 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- Chong, Zi Liang. "Singapore concerned over Johor Strait projects". AsiaOne. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- "Press Releases". MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND WATER RESOURCES. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- "Reclaimed land in JB caves in". The Star. 14 Nov 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- "Malaysian workers use risky shortcut to evade Causeway jam". Sin Chew Daily. 21 Jun 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
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