2018 Malaysian general election

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2018 Malaysian general election

← 2013 9 May 2018 (2018-05-09) 2022 →

All 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat
112 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Mahathir Mohamad Najib Razak Abdul Hadi Awang
Alliance Pakatan Harapan Barisan Nasional Gagasan Sejahtera
Leader's seat Stood in Langkawi (won) Pekan Marang
Last election 36.10%, 68 seats[a] 47.38%, 133 seats 15.07%, 21 seats[b]
Seats won 113 79 18
Seat change Increase 45 Decrease 54 Decrease 3
Popular vote 5,518,638 4,080,797 2,041,186
Percentage 45.67% 33.77% 16.89%
Swing Increase9.57pp Decrease13.61pp Increase 1.83pp

  Fourth party Fifth party
Leader Shafie Apdal Jeffrey Kitingan
Party Warisan STAR
Alliance Pakatan Harapan United Sabah Alliance
Leader's seat Semporna Stood in Keningau (won)
Last election
Seats won 8 1
Seat change New New
Popular vote 280,520 67,175
Percentage 2.32% 0.56%
Swing New New

Prime Minister before election

Najib Razak

Elected Prime Minister

Mahathir Mohamad

General elections were held in Malaysia on Wednesday, 9 May 2018.[1] At stake were all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of parliament. The 13th Parliament was dissolved by Prime Minister Najib Razak on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013.[2]

In an unprecedented victory, the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition, which had been the country's federal opposition prior to the elections, won a majority in the Dewan Rakyat together with the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN), with PH and WARISAN together winning 121 seats.[3][4] The elections marked the first time in Malaysia's history that the ruling party was voted out of power. The Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition had previously enjoyed an uninterrupted reign over the country since Malaya's independence in 1957, but this came to an end following the elections.[3][5] PH's leader, Mahathir Mohamad, who previously served as Malaysia's Prime Minister from 1981 to 2003, was sworn in for the second time on 10 May, a day after the elections. At 93 years of age, Mahathir was also the world's oldest elected head of government.[6] Barisan Nasional (BN), led by Najib, held onto 79 seats and became the new federal opposition, along with Gagasan Sejahtera (GS), which won 18 seats. The United Sabah Alliance (USA) won one seat, while three seats were won by independent politicians.[7][8] The elections were widely regarded as one of the greatest political upsets worldwide in 2018.[9]

In the simultaneous state elections held for 12 of the state legislative assemblies, PH retained Penang and Selangor with larger majorities, while gaining Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor, Kedah and Perak from BN. WARISAN also seized Sabah from BN, which retained only two states – Perlis and Pahang. GS held onto Kelantan while gaining Terengganu from BN. State-level elections were not held in Sarawak, as the state had held its elections separately in 2016. However, as a consequence of the elections, Sarawak-based BN component parties left the coalition to form Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS), thereby taking over the state from BN.[10]

Following the elections, Mahathir secured a royal pardon for the jailed PH leader, Anwar Ibrahim, and indicated that he would give way to the latter within the next few years.[11] Meanwhile, Najib resigned as BN's chairman on 12 May and was succeeded as Leader of the Opposition by his party colleague, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi.[12] Investigations within Malaysia into the 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB) scandal, which had been halted during Najib's tenure, were resumed in the aftermath of the elections, resulting in several ongoing criminal indictments against the former Prime Minister.[13][14][15] However, PH only ruled for 22 months before collapsing in the 2020 Malaysian political crisis, to be replaced by a new Government named Perikatan Nasional, led by Muhyiddin Yassin. Perikatan Nasional would itself collapse after 17 months, with Barisan Nasional taking power and Ismail Sabri Yaakob becoming prime minister.[16][17]


In the previous general elections in 2013, the incumbent Barisan Nasional government was re-elected for the thirteenth consecutive time, but with a decreased mandate and losing the majority vote. Barisan Nasional chairman, Najib Razak, was re-elected as Prime Minister to a second term. The main opposition, Pakatan Rakyat, led by Anwar Ibrahim, won the majority vote but was unable to win enough seats to form the government due to Malaysia's first-past-the-post voting system and alleged gerrymandering. The elections marked the first time Barisan Nasional lost the majority vote in the party's history.

Electoral system[edit]

Elections in Malaysia exists at two levels: the federal level and the state level. Federal elections are held to elect members of the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament, while state elections are held to elect members of the 13 State Legislative Assemblies of Malaysia. The heads of executive branch at both the federal and state levels, the Prime Minister and Menteri Besar/Chief Ministers respectively, are indirectly elected, usually filled by a member of the majority party/coalition in the respective legislatures

The Dewan Rakyat is made up of 222 members of parliament, elected for a five-year term; these seats are distributed between the thirteen Malaysian states in proportion to the states' voting population. Members are elected from single-member constituencies that each elects one representative to the Dewan Rakyat using the first-past-the-post voting system. If one party obtains a majority of seats, then that party is entitled to form the Government, with its leader as Prime Minister. If the election results in no single party having a majority, there is a hung parliament. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition. Malaysia does not practice compulsory voting and automatic voter registration. The voting age is above 21[18][19] although the age of majority in the country is 18.[20]

The redistribution of electoral boundaries for the entire country had been presented to and passed by the Dewan Rakyat, and subsequently gazetted on 29 March 2018 after obtaining the royal consent of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong ahead of the 14th general election.[21] Elections are conducted by the Election Commission of Malaysia (EC), which is under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister's Department.

Date and cost[edit]

The Constitution of Malaysia requires a general election to be held at the end of five (5) years from the date of the first Parliament of Malaysia proceeding after a general election unless it is dissolved earlier by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong due to a motion of no-confidence or at the request of the Prime Minister. Whenever Parliament (Dewan Rakyat) is dissolved, a general election shall be held within sixty (60) days from the date of the dissolution and Parliament shall be summoned to meet on a date not later than one hundred and twenty (120) days from that date (Article 55 of the Constitution of Malaysia).[22]


The key dates are listed below in Malaysia Standard Time (GMT+8):

28 March Prime Minister Najib Razak tabled the Election Commission's redelineation report in the Dewan Rakyat[23]
6 April Najib Razak announced his intention to dissolve the Malaysian Parliament[24]
7 April Formal dissolution of Parliament[25]
10 April Election Commission chairman Hashim Abdullah announced that the general election would take place on 9 May 2018[1]
28 April Nomination process of candidates for the general election begins, and the deadline (10am) for the delivery of candidate nomination papers[26][27]
28 April Official 11-day campaigning period begins[28]
5-8 May Early voting begins[29]
9 May Polling day
10 May Inauguration of the new Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad at Istana Negara[30]


The cost to the taxpayer of organising the election was RM500 million – RM100 million more than the previous general election.[1]

Part of the spending was spent on indelible ink, which costed around RM4.8 million for a total of 100,000 bottles of 60mL ink imported from Mysore Paints and Varnish Limited in India.[31]

Election spending[edit]

Before the campaign, there were no limits to what a political party, candidate, or third party (corporations, unions, special interest groups, etc.) can spend: Spending rules are only in force after the writs have been dropped and the campaign has begun. Malaysian election law set election spending limit at RM200,000 for each parliamentary candidate and half of the latter for each state legislature candidate.[32]

Dissolution of state legislative assemblies[edit]

While any state may dissolve its assembly independently of the Federal Parliament, the traditional practice is for most state assemblies to be dissolved at the same time as Parliament. In accordance with Malaysian law, the parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of each state (Dewan Undangan Negeri) would automatically dissolve on the fifth anniversary of the first sitting, and elections must be held within sixty days of the dissolution, unless dissolved prior to that date by their respective Heads of State on the advice of their Heads of Government.

Below are the dates of which the legislative assembly of each state dissolved:

State legislatives
First legislative day Expected last legislative day Expected election day
(on or before)
Dissolution day
Kelantan Kelantan 13 June 2013 13 June 2018 13 August 2018 7 April 2018[33]
Terengganu Terengganu 16 June 2013 16 June 2018 16 August 2018 9 April 2018[34]
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan 17 June 2013 17 June 2018 17 August 2018 7 April 2018[35]
Johor Johor 20 June 2013 20 June 2018 20 August 2018 7 April 2018[36]
Selangor Selangor 21 June 2013 21 June 2018 21 August 2018 9 April 2018[37]
Kedah Kedah 23 June 2013 23 June 2018 23 August 2018 7 April 2018[33]
Perlis Perlis 28 June 2013 28 June 2018 28 August 2018 7 April 2018[38]
Penang Penang 28 June 2013 28 June 2018 28 August 2018 10 April 2018[39]
Perak Perak 28 June 2013 28 June 2018 28 August 2018 9 April 2018[40]
Pahang Pahang 1 July 2013 1 July 2018 1 September 2018 7 April 2018[33]
Malacca Malacca 1 July 2013 1 July 2018 1 September 2018 7 April 2018[41]
Sabah Sabah 13 June 2013 13 June 2018 13 September 2018 7 April 2018[42]

The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly was not dissolved as the last elections were held in 2016 and the term of the state assembly is due to end in 2021.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Altogether 53 parties were eligible to contest in the elections and get on the ballot and can therefore elect a representative in the Dewan Rakyat.[43] Furthermore, there are several independent candidates running in single-member constituencies.

The leader of the party commanding a majority of support in the Dewan Rakyat is the person who is called on by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to form a government as Prime Minister, while the leader of the largest party not in government becomes the Leader of the Opposition.

The table below lists parties which were represented in the 13th Dewan Rakyat.

Name Ideology Leader(s) Seats
2013 result Seats in 13th
Dewan Rakyat
Votes (%) Seats
BN Barisan Nasional
National Front
National conservatism Najib Razak 222 47.38%
133 / 222
130 / 222
PH[c] Pakatan Harapan
Alliance of Hope
Reformism / Progressivism Mahathir Mohamad 204 36.1%
67 / 222
72 / 222
GS Gagasan Sejahtera
Ideas of Prosperity
Islamic conservatism Abdul Hadi Awang 158 14.78%
21 / 222
13 / 222
WARISAN Parti Warisan Sabah
Sabah Heritage Party
Sabah Regionalism Mohd. Shafie Apdal 17 New Party
0 / 222
2 / 222
PSM Parti Sosialis Malaysia
Socialist Party of Malaysia
Democratic socialism Mohd. Nasir Hashim 4 0.19%
1 / 222
1 / 222
Independents 24
0 / 222
2 / 222

Last election pendulum[edit]

The previous General Election witnessed 133 governmental seats and 89 non-governmental seats filled the Dewan Rakyat. The government side had 44 safe seats and 34 fairly safe seats, while theopposition had 33 safe seats and 18 fairly safe seats.

Extended content
Mas Gading Nogeh Gumbek SPDP 40.6
Keningau Joseph Pairin Kitingan PBS 43.8
Pensiangan Joseph Kurup PBRS 44.3
Kota Marudu Maximus Johnity Ongkili PBS 45.9
Palanivel K. Govindasamy MIC 46.2
Tenom Raime Unggi UMNO 46.7
Baram Anyi Ngau SPDP 48.9
Ranau Ewon Ebin UPKO 49.2
Bentong Liow Tiong Lai MCA 49.4
Beaufort Azizah Mohd Dun UMNO 49.4
Labis Chua Tee Yong MCA 49.5
Sungai Besar Noriah Kasnon UMNO 49.6
Kuala Selangor Irmohizam Ibrahim UMNO 49.6
Pasir Gudang Normala Abdul Samad UMNO 49.6
Bagan Serai Noor Azmi Ghazali UMNO 49.7
Hulu Selangor Kamalanathan Panchanathan MIC 49.9
Ketereh Annuar Musa UMNO 50.1
Machang Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub UMNO 50.1
Tebrau Khoo Soo Seang MCA 50.1
Kota Belud Abdul Rahman Dahlan UMNO 50.1
Jerai Jamil Khir Baharom UMNO 50.2
Segamat Subramaniam Sathasivam MIC 50.3
Kuala Kangsar Wan Mohammad Khair-il Anuar
Wan Ahmad
UMNO 50.4
Arau Shahidan Kassim UMNO 50.6
Bera Ismail Sabri Yaakob UMNO 50.6
Titiwangsa Johari Abdul Ghani UMNO 50.6
Ledang Hamim Samuri UMNO 50.7
Tasek Gelugor Shabudin Yahaya UMNO 50.8
Setiawangsa Ahmad Fauzi Zahari UMNO 50.8
Tuaran Madius Tangau UPKO 50.8
Bandar Baharu
Abd. Aziz Sheikh Fadzir UMNO 51.0
Muar Razali Ibrahim UMNO 51.0
Pulai Nur Jazlan Mohamed UMNO 51.0
Balik Pulau Hilmi Yahaya UMNO 51.1
Pendang Othman Abdul UMNO 51.5
Merbok Ismail Daut UMNO 51.9
Bagan Datok Ahmad Zahid Hamidi UMNO 52.1
Sabak Bernam Mohd Fasiah Mohd Fakeh UMNO 52.1
Baling Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim UMNO 52.5
Sik Mansor Abd Rahman UMNO 52.6
Sepanggar Jumat Idris UMNO 52.6
Saratok William Ikom SPDP 52.6
Jerlun Othman Aziz UMNO 52.8
Tanjong Malim Ong Ka Chuan MCA 53.0
Tanah Merah Ikmal Hisham Abdul Aziz UMNO 53.1
Sekijang Anuar Abdul Manap UMNO 53.2
Jerantut Ahmad Nazlan Idris UMNO 53.7
Kepala Batas Reezal Merican Naina Merican UMNO 53.8
Padang Rengas Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz UMNO 53.8
Tawau Mary Yap Kain Ching PBS 53.8
Kangar Shaharuddin Ismail UMNO 53.9
Sri Aman Masir Kujat PRS 54.4
Tanjong Karang Noh Omar UMNO 54.5
Padang Terap Mahdzir Khalid UMNO 54.6
Lubok Antu William Nyallau Badak PRS 54.7
Tanjong Piai Wee Jeck Seng MCA 55.0
Lipis Abdul Rahman Mohamad UMNO 55.1
Tambun Ahmad Husni Hanadzlah UMNO 55.3
Larut Hamzah Zainudin UMNO 55.6
Johor Bahru Shahrir Abdul Samad UMNO 55.8
Fairly safe
Batu Sapi Linda Tsen Thau Lin PBS 56.0
Besut Idris Jusoh UMNO 56.1
Setiu Che Mohamad Zulkifly Jusoh UMNO 56.1
Tapah Saravanan Murugan MIC 56.1
Sri Gading Aziz Kaprawi UMNO 56.4
Jeli Mustapa Mohamed UMNO 56.5
Hulu Terengganu Jailani Johari UMNO 56.5
Kemaman Ahmad Shabery Cheek UMNO 56.9
Parit Mohd Zaim Abu Hassan UMNO 56.9
Jempol Mohd Isa Abdul Samad UMNO 56.9
Liang Teck Meng GERAKAN 57.0
Pasir Salak Tajuddin Abdul Rahman UMNO 57.4
Kuala Krau Ismail Mohamed Said UMNO 57.5
Bintulu Tiong King Sing SPDP 57.6
Lenggong Shamsul Anuar Nasarah UMNO 58.1
Selangau Joseph Entulu Belaun PRS 58.1
Silam Nasrun Mansur UMNO 58.2
Julau Joseph Salang Gandum PRS 58.3
Kubang Pasu Mohd Johari Baharum UMNO 58.4
Paya Besar Abdul Manan Ismail UMNO 58.4
Jelebu Zainuddin Ismail UMNO 58.4
Ayer Hitam Wee Ka Siong MCA 58.4
Kanowit Aaron Ago Dagang PRS 58.5
Putatan Marcus Mojigoh UPKO 58.7
Maran Ismail Muttalib UMNO 59.1
Alor Gajah Koh Nai Kwong MCA 59.2
Jasin Ahmad Hamzah UMNO 59.5
Kimanis Anifah Aman UMNO 59.5
Padang Besar Zahidi Zainul Abidin UMNO 59.6
Kudat Abdul Rahim Bakri UMNO 60.2
Tampin Shaziman Abu Mansor UMNO 60.4
Gerik Hasbullah Osman UMNO 60.6
Parit Sulong Noraini Ahmad UMNO 60.9
Gua Musang Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah UMNO 61.0
Kuala Pilah Hasan Malek UMNO 61.0
Libaran Juslie Ajirol UMNO 61.2
Tangga Batu Abu Bakar Mohamad Diah UMNO 61.4
Hulu Rajang Ugak Kumbong PRS 61.8
Rembau Khairy Jamaluddin UMNO 62.1
Mambong James Dawos Mamit PBB 62.8
Sembrong Hishammuddin Hussein UMNO 63.7
Sibuti Ahmad Lai Bujang UMNO 63.8
Papar Rosnah Abdul Rashid Shirlin UMNO 63.9
Kalabakan Abdul Ghapur Salleh UMNO 64.0
Pagoh Muhyiddin Yassin UMNO 64.8
Pontian Ahmad Maslan UMNO 65.0
Rompin Jamaluddin Jarjis UMNO 65.5
Labuan Rozman Isli UMNO 65.6
Kinabatangan Bung Moktar Radin UMNO 67.0
Langkawi Nawawi Ahmad UMNO 67.2
Sipitang Sapawi Ahmad UMNO 67.3
Putrajaya Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor UMNO 69.0
Masjid Tanah Mas Ermieyati Samsudin UMNO 69.7
Beluran Ronald Kiandee UMNO 69.7
Mersing Abdul Latiff Ahmad UMNO 70.2
Lawas Henry Sum Agong PBB 70.6
Limbang Hasbi Habibollah PBB 72.8
Serian Richard Riot Jaem SUPP 73.5
Tenggara Halimah Mohamed Sadique UMNO 73.7
Pekan Najib Razak UMNO 75.2
Batang Lupar Rohani Abdul Karim PBB 75.4
Mukah Leo Michael Toyad PBB 75.5
Betong Douglas Uggah Embas PBB 75.9
Kota Samarahan Rubiah Wang PBB 76.8
Kapit Alexander Nanta Linggi PBB 77.1
Petra Jaya Fadillah Yusof PBB 77.8
Semporna Mohd Shafie Apdal UMNO 81.1
Pengerang Azalina Othman Said UMNO 81.9
Kota Tinggi Noor Ehsanuddin
Mohd Harun Narrashid
UMNO 82.4
Santubong Wan Junaidi Tuanku Jaafar PBB 84.4
Batang Sadong Nancy Shukri PBB 85.5
Igan Wahab Dolah PBB 85.8
Tanjong Manis Norah Abdul Rahman PBB 87.4
Alor Setar Gooi Hsiao-Leung PKR 47.4
Sepang Mohamed Hanipa Maidin PAS 49.1
Bachok Ahmad Marzuk Shaary PAS 49.5
Kuala Nerus Mohd Khairuddin Aman Razali PAS 49.9
Telok Kemang Kamarul Bahrin Abbas PKR 49.9
Temerloh Nasrudin Hassan PAS 50.1
Batu Pahat Mohd Idris Jusi PKR 50.1
Bukit Gantang Idris Ahmad PAS 50.2
Sarikei Wong Ling Biu DAP 50.4
Pasir Puteh Nik Mazian Nik Mohamad PAS 50.8
Lembah Pantai Nurul Izzah Anwar PKR 51.0
Sandakan Wong Tien Fatt DAP 51.0
Miri Michael Teo Yu Keng PKR 51.0
Kuala Krai Mohd Hatta Ramli PAS 51.2
Gombak Mohamed Azmin Ali PKR 51.4
Dungun Wan Hassan Mohd Ramli PAS 51.9
Sungai Siput Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj PKR 51.9
Raub Ariff Sabri Abdul Aziz DAP 52.1
Sibu Oscar Ling Chai Yew DAP 52.1
Pokok Sena Mahfuz Omar PAS 52.2
Kuala Langat Abdullah Sani Abdul Hamid PKR 52.2
Seremban Loke Siew Fook DAP 52.2
Kuala Kedah Azman Ismail PKR 52.3
Marang Abdul Hadi Awang PAS 52.6
Bukit Katil Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin PKR 52.6
Padang Serai Surendran Nagarajan PKR 53.0
Bakri Er Teck Hwa DAP 53.4
Kluang Liew Chin Tong DAP 54.0
Kuantan Fuziah Salleh PKR 54.1
Wangsa Maju Tan Kee Kwong PKR 54.4
Sungai Petani Johari Abdul PKR 54.7
Kampar Ko Chung Sen DAP 54.7
Lumut Mohamad Imran Abdul Hamid PKR 54.8
Kapar Manivannan Gowindasamy PKR 55.1
Beruas Ngeh Koo Ham DAP 55.5
Shah Alam Khalid Samad PAS 55.7
Tumpat Kamarudin Jaffar PAS 55.8
Pasir Mas Nik Mohamad Abduh Nik Abdul Aziz PAS 55.8
Fairly safe
Kuala Terengganu Raja Kamarul Bahrin Shah PAS 56.0
Indera Mahkota Fauzi Abdul Rahman PKR 56.1
Telok Intan Seah Leong Peng DAP 56.3
Bandar Tun Razak Abdul Khalid Ibrahim PKR 56.4
Selayang William Leong Jee Keen PKR 56.7
Rantau Panjang Siti Zailah Mohd Yusoff PAS 56.9
Nibong Tebal Mansor Othman PKR 57.1
Hulu Langat Che Rosli Che Mat PAS 57.1
Gelang Patah Lim Kit Siang DAP 57.2
Batu Chua Tian Chang PKR 57.9
Kulai Teo Nie Ching DAP 57.9
Taiping Nga Kor Ming DAP 58.5
Gopeng Lee Boon Chye PKR 58.5
Permatang Pauh Wan Azizah Wan Ismail PKR 58.6
Ampang Zuraida Kamarudin PKR 58.8
Subang Sivarasa K. Rasiah PKR 58.8
Parit Buntar Mujahid Yusof Rawa PAS 58.9
Lanang Alice Lau Kiong Yieng DAP 59.3
Kota Bharu Takiyuddin Hassan PAS 61.5
Penampang Ignatius Dorell Leiking PKR 61.8
Kota Melaka Sim Tong Him DAP 62.3
Petaling Jaya
Hee Loy Sian PKR 63.0
Pengkalan Chepa Izani Husin PAS 63.2
Bayan Baru Sim Tze Tzin PKR 63.4
Stampin Julian Tan Kok Ping DAP 63.7
Klang Charles Anthony R. Santiago DAP 63.9
Kota Raja Siti Mariah Mahmud PAS 63.9
Segambut Lim Lip Eng DAP 64.6
Kubang Kerian Ahmad Baihaki Atiqullah PAS 64.7
Rasah Teo Kok Seong DAP 65.1
Kelana Jaya Wong Chen PKR 65.8
Pandan Rafizi Ramli PKR 65.9
Puchong Gobind Singh Deo DAP 66.7
Serdang Ong Kian Ming DAP 67.1
Jelutong Jeff Ooi Chuan Aun DAP 70.3
Ipoh Barat Kulasegaran Murugeson DAP 72.2
Kota Kinabalu Wong Sze Phin DAP 72.2
Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun DAP 72.8
Batu Kawan Kasthuriraani Patto DAP 73.1
Bandar Kuching Chong Chieng Jen DAP 73.8
Ipoh Timor Su Keong Siong DAP 75.5
Batu Gajah Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu DAP 76.7
Bukit Bendera Zairil Khir Johari DAP 77.2
Bagan Lim Guan Eng DAP 77.8
Bukit Gelugor Karpal Singh Ram Singh DAP 80.1
Bukit Mertajam Steven Sim Chee Kiong DAP 80.5
Cheras Tan Kok Wai DAP 81.2
Petaling Jaya
Tony Pua Kiam Wee DAP 81.3
Kepong Tan Seng Giaw DAP 81.8
Tanjong Ng Wei Aik DAP 82.8
Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim DAP 85.7

Opinion polls[edit]

Date Pollster Sample BN PH GS Others Lead
May 2018 Merdeka Center Archived 13 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine 1,579 37.3% 43.4% 19.3% - 6.1%
April 2018 Merdeka Center[permanent dead link] 1,206 [1] 40.3% 43.7% 16% - 3.4%
January 2017 IM 104,340 27% 41% 21% 14% (Und.) 14%
26-30 Aug 2016 IDE Archived 4 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine 31,341 [2] 29% 59% 12% - 30%
5 May 2013 General election 11,257,147 47.38% 50.87% 15.1% - 1.32%

Note also that in the 2013 general election, the current component parties of Pakatan Harapan and Gagasan Sejahtera were competing together under an informal coalition, Pakatan Rakyat. In 2015, disagreements between those component parties over the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) and their desire to implement hudud law prompted a split, with PAS leaving to form the Gagasan Sejahtera coalition. The remaining parties in Pakatan Rakyat, together with PAS splinter party Amanah and former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's PPBM, formed the Pakatan Harapan coalition. Hence, while Pakatan Rakyat won the popular vote in 2013, the component parties forming Pakatan Harapan did not.

  1. ^ - Survey presented findings of Peninsular Malaysia respondents only.
  2. ^ - Survey presented findings of Selangor respondents only

Politicians not standing[edit]

Members of Parliament not standing for re-election[edit]

MP Seat First elected Party Reason Ref
Shaharuddin Ismail Kangar 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [44]
Gooi Hsiao-Leung Alor Setar 2013 People's Justice Party Transferred to Bukit Tengah state seat [45]
Ismail Daut Merbok 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [46]
N. Surendran Padang Serai 2013 People's Justice Party Dropped by party [47]
Izani Husin Pengkalan Chepa 2013 Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party Transferred to Kijang state seat [48]
Ahmad Baihaki Atiqullah Kubang Kerian 2013 Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party Dropped by party [48]
Nik Mazian Nik Mohamad Pasir Putih 2013 Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party Dropped by party [48]
Che Mohamad Zulkifly Jusoh Setiu 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [49]
Jailani Johari Hulu Terengganu 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [49]
Zairil Khir Johari Bukit Bendera 2013 Democratic Action Party Transferred to Tanjong Bunga state seat [50]
Ng Wei Aik Tanjong 2013 Democratic Action Party Dropped by party [51]
Jeff Ooi Jelutong 2008 Democratic Action Party Dropped by party [51]
Mohd Zaim Abu Hassan Parit 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [52]
Ko Chung Sen Kampar 2013 Democratic Action Party Transferred to Kepayang state seat [53]
Mohamad Imran Abdul Hamid Lumut 2013 People's Justice Party Transferred to Bukit Chandan state seat [54]
Ong Ka Chuan Tanjong Malim 2008 Barisan Nasional Not selected [55]
G. Palanivel Cameron Highlands 2013 Independent Not seeking re-election [56]
Ariff Sabri Abdul Aziz Raub 2013 Democratic Action Party Health concerns [57]
Tengku Azlan Jerantut 1999 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [58]
Fauzi Abdul Rahman Indera Mahkota 2013 People's Justice Party Transferred to Sungai Lembing state seat [59]
Abdul Manan Ismail Paya Besar 2008 Barisan Nasional Death [60]
Rafizi Ramli Pandan 2013 People's Justice Party Court conviction [61]
Hee Loy Sian Petaling Jaya Selatan 2008 People's Justice Party Transferred to Kajang state seat [62]
G. Manivannan Kapar 2013 People's Justice Party Transferred to Hutan Melintang state seat [63]
Siti Mariah Mahmud Kota Raja 2008 National Trust Party Transferred to Seri Serdang state seat [62]
Tan Seng Giaw Kepong 1982 Democratic Action Party Dropped by party [64]
Tian Chua Batu 2008 People's Justice Party Failed in the nomination process [65]
Ahmad Fauzi Zahari Setiawangsa 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [66]
Abdul Khalid Ibrahim Bandar Tun Razak 2008 Independent Retired from politics [67]
Mohd Isa Abdul Samad Jempol 2013 Barisan Nasional Corruption investigations [68]
Teo Kok Seong Rasah 2013 Democratic Action Party Transferred to Bahau state seat [69]
Kamarul Baharin Abbas Telok Kemang 2008 People's Justice Party Dropped by party [70]
Koh Nai Kwong Alor Gajah 2013 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Machap Jaya state seat [71]
Abu Bakar Mohamad Diah Tangga Batu 2013 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Paya Rumput state seat [72]
Sim Tong Him Kota Melaka 2008 Independent Transferred to Kota Laksamana state seat [73]
Anuar Abdul Manap Sekijang 2013 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Kemelah state seat [74]
Er Teck Hwa Bakri 2008 Democratic Action Party Dropped by party [75]
Mohd Idris Jusi Batu Pahat 2013 People's Justice Party Dropped by party [76]
Noor Ehsanuddin Mohd Harun Kota Tinggi 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [77]
Khoo Soo Seang Tebrau 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [78]
Normala Abdul Samad Pasir Gudang 2013 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [77]
Jumat Idris Sepanggar 2013 Barisan Nasional Party membership suspended [79]
Wong Sze Phin Kota Kinabalu 2013 Democratic Action Party Transferred to Sri Tanjung state seat [80]
Sapawi Ahmad Sipitang 2008 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Sindumin state seat [81]
Joseph Pairin Kitingan Keningau 1986 Barisan Nasional Not seeking re-election [82]
Raime Unggi Tenom 2004 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [83]
Joseph Kurup Pensiangan 2008 Barisan Nasional Not seeking re-election [84]
Juslie Ajirol Libaran 1999 Barisan Nasional Transferred to Gum-Gum state seat [81]
Julian Tan Kok Ping Stampin 2013 Democratic Action Party Retired from politics [85]
James Dawos Mamit Mambong 1999 Barisan Nasional Health concerns [86]
William Nyallau Badak Lubok Antu 2008 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [87]
Douglas Uggah Embas Betong 1986 Barisan Nasional Unable to contest due to PBB's single-seat policy [88]
William Ikom Mawan Saratok 2013 Barisan Nasional Unable to contest due to PBB's single-seat policy [89]
Norah Abdul Rahman Tanjong Manis 2008 Barisan Nasional Health concerns [90]
Wahab Dolah Igan 2004 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [91]
Leo Michael Toyad Mukah 1982 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [91]
Joseph Entulu Belaun Selangau 2004 Barisan Nasional Dropped by party [92]
Ahmad Lai Bujang Sibuti 2008 Barisan Nasional Health concerns [93]


Newspapers, organisations and individuals endorsed parties or individual candidates for the election.


There had been many controversies even before the general election began, mostly regarding gerrymandering and the electoral boundary re-delineation in favour of the Barisan Nasional coalition. The body regulating elections in Malaysia, the Election Commission of Malaysia (which is under the control of the Prime Minister's Department), was criticised by election watchdogs, including Bersih, the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia and various other organisations for electoral malpractices, arbitrary decisions and a lack of transparency.[94][95][96]


Opposition parties, non-governmental organisations and even politicians from the ruling party accused the government of gerrymandering, manipulating the composition of electoral seats in favour of Barisan Nasional.[97] The opposition claims that the manipulation primarily involves merging opposition-dominated areas into large, single seats and dividing BN-favouring areas among several, smaller seats so as to favour rural voters who are more inclined to support the ruling party.[98] An analyst with electoral reform group Tindak Malaysia estimates that this latest redelineation process would allow Barisan Nasional to regain control with just 33% of the vote.[99]

The Electoral Integrity Project (EIP), an independent academic project based at Harvard University and the University of Sydney that studies election integrity and assigns PEI scores (Global Perceptions of Electoral Integrity) to countries across the world, had in its most recent research paper published in November 2017, ranked Malaysia's election integrity at 142nd out of 158 countries, just above Zimbabwe (143rd), Vietnam (147th) and Afghanistan (150th).[100]

Polling day on midweek[edit]

Many Malaysians protested the Election Commission's decision to set the Polling Day on midweek (Wednesday, 9 May) rather than to set it on a weekend (i.e. Saturday) as it had been in the previous General Elections. Some of them, including Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad,[101] PAS deputy president Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man[102] and Bersih chairperson Maria Chin,[103] viewed such a decision to be unfair, undemocratic, and an attempt to discourage people overseas or interstate from returning to their hometowns to vote.[104] In response, Najib Razak declared Wednesday a national holiday.

Overseas ballot issues[edit]

Since the 2013 elections, overseas voting has been open to the majority of Malaysian registered voters living abroad.[105] However, registered overseas Malaysian voters were reported to have received their ballots late, some even on election day, despite the election commission requiring their ballots to be returned before the close of polling stations to be counted as valid.[106] As a result, many of these overseas voters organised on social media to bring theirs and other ballots back through casual couriers.[107][108] The Election Commission of Malaysia currently denies trying to stop overseas Malaysians to vote.

Nomination Day controversies[edit]

Controversies erupted after six candidates for the opposition coalition, Pakatan Harapan, were disqualified from running under suspicious circumstances on Nomination Day (Saturday 28 April 2018).[109] The most prominent disqualification was that of PKR vice-president Chua Tian Chang, who the local returning officer prevented from defending his Batu parliamentary seat due to an earlier court conviction, despite a High Court judgement which made clear he was eligible to continue as an MP. A subsequent High Court appeal was thrown out, under the claim that they did not have jurisdiction over election-related matters.[110] Chua and his party are consequently endorsing independent candidate, 22-year-old P. Prabakaran, for the seat.[111]

Meanwhile, in Rantau, Negeri Sembilan, the state's Chief Minister Mohamad Hasan was re-elected unopposed after opposition candidate Dr. Streram Sinnasamy was prevented from entering the nomination centre, ostensibly as he did not have an entry pass, despite his claim that he was never issued one and despite the fact that there are no laws requiring candidates to have entry passes.[112] Four other opposition candidates were barred for being undischarged bankrupts, despite claims that earlier checks with the authorities had confirmed their ability to participate.[109]

Lawyers and other political analysts criticised these returning officers for a "gross abuse of power" that went beyond their primary role (to assist with filing nomination papers) and deprived several candidates of the chance to exercise their democratic right. They claim that incidents like this contribute to the perception that Malaysian elections are inherently unfair and weaken the rule of law.[113] Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad confirmed that he would appeal these decisions to the courts, alleging an "abuse of power" by "officers who are willing to do illegal things on orders".[114]

Alleged vote-buying[edit]

The ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional, faced criticism for alleged vote-buying. The Nikkei Asian Review noted that measures like cash bonuses being handed out to civil servants and pensioners, key components of its support base, occurred just before the dissolution of the lower house of Parliament,[115] with other measures announced during the campaign trail including "special aid" of RM500 (US$127) and reserved social housing units for employees of government-linked company DRB-HICOM[116] as well as minimum wage increases.[117]

Within constituencies, Barisan Nasional MPs came under significant criticism from electoral watchdog Bersih, with seven out of ten individuals named in their "Election Offenses Hall of Shame" being from Barisan Nasional component parties. Musa Aman, Noh Omar, Hamzah Zainudin and Shahanim Mohd Yusuf (BN-UMNO) as well as P. Kamalanathan and Jaspal Singh (BN-MIC) were publicly reprimanded for handing out free food, petrol, furniture, groceries and motorcycles in their respective constituencies, in what was widely seen as an attempt to sway the vote in favour of them.[118]

Controversy also erupted over Barisan Nasional's battle for the Sekinchan constituency, considered a marginal seat held by opposition party DAP, where an election event organised by Datuk Seri Jamal Yunos (the UMNO chief for Sungai Besar) in support of local candidate Lee Yee Yuan (BN-MCA) included an all-you-can-eat buffet, chances to win a motorcycle and a RM25,000 (US$6,345) cash prize, as well as a promise of a RM2,000 (US$508) payment for every voter if they are elected.[119] All payments, along with a claimed RM150,000 in donations and a Mercedes-Benz C200 to be offered at the next event, were claimed to have been donated by "successful businessmen" in the small fishing village (population: 20,000) who wanted to show their "gratitude" to BN.[120] While Yunos denies any wrongdoing, claiming that he is not a candidate but is "only conveying contributions from certain individuals," the Sekinchan DAP branch lodged a police report against him for alleged vote-buying.[121]

Yunos also faced controversy for being caught on video handing out RM50 (US$13) notes from a bag at a function in the Sungai Leman Bendang Utara village, which is also part of Sekinchan. He claimed that those being paid were "party workers" responsible for "putting up flags, buntings and other materials," a claim that media were unable to independently verify. Media outlet Malaysiakini noted that most of those being paid were not dressed in Barisan Nasional colours, and that significant numbers of senior citizens and children were present at the event.[122]

The main opposition alliance, Pakatan Harapan, was also not immune to allegations of vote-buying. Pakatan Harapan's manifesto, particularly, lists as a key promise the abolition of Malaysia's 6% GST and increasing minimum wages, which journalists and financial analysts claim amounts to pork-barrel populism that could negatively affect Malaysian government finances.[115][123] Bersih also included Afif Bahardin (PH-PKR) on their Election Offenses Hall of Shame for utilising Penang state government programmes to give handouts such as hampers to voters in his constituency of Seberang Jaya.[124]

Additionally, Ahmad Yakob, the Menteri Besar of Kelantan, was singled out for criticism after "repeatedly using Kelantan state government resources" to benefit the campaign of his party, PAS (competing as the main component of the Gagasan Sejahtera coalition), including by handing out cash to religious leaders in a state government hall covered in PAS flags.[118]

Release of results[edit]

On polling night, the announcement of results took longer than usual, as it was alleged that the Election Commission officers were delaying their signing of Form 14 for announcing the results. This was later revealed in an interview between Mahathir and The Mekong Review, where he revealed that there were attempts to get winning PH candidates to cross over to BN and PAS, fearing that PH "were not going to respect the position of Islam as much as the previous government had". He added that they had already won as early as 8.30 pm but did not receive the official announcement until 2 AM.[125]

Election observers[edit]

The Election Commission (EC) invited 14 countries to participate in the polls as foreign observers, comprising representatives of election management bodies from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Commonwealth of Nations, Asian and European countries as well as a study and support centre for the Malaysian Commonwealth Studies Centre based in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Seven countries agreed to send representatives to observe the elections, namely Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Thailand and Timor-Leste.[126] The invitation was also extended to India, Pakistan and Uzbekistan of which nine countries observers arrived on 7 May.[127] The EC also appointed 1,236 election observers from 14 local non-governmental organisations.[128]


The nationwide counting of votes began at 17:00 on 9 May.[129] The decision to close the polling stations at 17:00 was met with protests by disgruntled would-be voters who contended that, given the longer-than-usual queues, the Election Commission (EC) could have extended the polling hours, as had been done in the previous elections.[130][131]

The first unofficial result came from the constituency of Baram in Sarawak, which was won by Barisan Nasional (BN).[132] Despite BN's early lead, by 20:30, Pakatan Harapan (PH) and BN were almost neck and neck.[133] The states of Sarawak and Sabah, long regarded as BN's "fixed deposits", witnessed a significant swing in favour of PH and the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) respectively.[134][135][136] In a further blow to BN's chances, several leaders of BN's component parties, such as Subramaniam Sathasivam (MIC), Liow Tiong Lai (MCA) and Mah Siew Keong (Gerakan), were defeated in their respective constituencies by PH candidates.[129][137] Mahathir Mohamad, PH's Prime Ministerial candidate, secured the constituency of Langkawi by 21:45.[129] As the night wore on, it was reported that PH also retained the states of Penang and Selangor with larger majorities.[138][139]

Stunned by the rapidly deteriorating turn of events, federal authorities attempted to stymie the release of unofficial election results. At 21:13, the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) ordered Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to block Malaysiakini and its sister websites, which were providing live updates of the poll counting, on the grounds that the updates "may affect national stability, public order and harmony, and economic stability".[140] Meanwhile, unmarked cars, allegedly carrying fake ballot boxes, were spotted entering some of the counting stations. Enraged onlookers tried to stop the cars, leading to sporadic rioting.[141] The most serious rioting occurred in the town of Ayer Hitam in Johor; the rioters in the town were eventually dispersed by the Royal Malaysia Police's Federal Reserve Unit (FRU).[142]

At about 23:20, Mahathir claimed during a press conference at the Sheraton Hotel in Petaling Jaya that PH had already exceeded the simple majority of 112 seats needed to form the federal government.[143][144] He added that PH had successfully wrested the states of Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor and Kedah from BN. However, Mahathir alleged that some EC officers were refusing to sign Form 14 in their respective constituencies, which is required for the results to be announced. He further warned that although "Malaysians are not violent people, they should not take this lying down".[144]

Following the press conference, the EC started releasing the official election results just after midnight.[145] However, the official results were continuously delayed and announced only gradually, as the counting of votes was said to be still ongoing in several places.[146] At about 02:30, right after unofficial results had confirmed PH's simple majority, Mahathir, flanked by several PH leaders, gave another press conference, announcing that the Istana Negara (National Palace) had summoned the leader of the People's Justice Party (PKR) - the party whose logo was used by PH in the polls - and that he would be sworn in as the nation's seventh Prime Minister later that day.[129][144]

Tellingly, BN's victory celebrations at Kuala Lumpur's Putra World Trade Centre, which had been customary in the event of a BN electoral victory, did not materialise.[147] Instead, BN's top echelons held a closed door meeting at the private residence of the outgoing Prime Minister and BN chief, Najib Razak.[147][148] This sparked fears that the defeated incumbent government would resort to martial law to cling to federal power.[149] When informed of the coalition's impending defeat, a distraught Najib asked "do people really hate me that much?", while another BN politician told the press after the meeting that "whatever it is, we need to respect the will of the people".[147][150] In any event, martial law was never touched upon in the meeting.[148]

The EC announced the full official election results shortly before 05:00, where it was revealed that the states of Sabah and Perak were left with hung legislative assemblies.[146][151] Meanwhile, the Gagasan Sejahtera (GS) coalition, led by the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), was not only able to retain Kelantan, it also captured the state of Terengganu from BN. Najib finally conceded defeat during a press conference at 11:00.[152]

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Pakatan HarapanPeople's Justice Party2,046,39416.9447+17
Democratic Action Party2,098,06817.3642+4
Malaysian United Indigenous Party718,6485.9513New
National Trust Party655,5285.4311New
Sabah Heritage Party (Pakatan Harapan ally)280,5202.328+8
Barisan NasionalUnited Malays National Organisation2,525,71320.9054–34
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu220,4791.8213–1
Parti Rakyat Sarawak59,2180.493–3
Malaysian Indian Congress167,0611.382–2
Progressive Democratic Party59,8530.502–2
Malaysian Chinese Association653,3465.411–6
Sarawak United Peoples' Party122,5401.0110
United Sabah Party58,3510.481–3
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah11,7830.1010
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia128,9731.070–1
Liberal Democratic Party8,9960.0700
People's Progressive Party7,4220.0600
Gagasan SejahteraPan-Malaysian Islamic Party2,032,08016.8218–3
Malaysia National Alliance Party9,0250.070New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front810.0000
Love Malaysia Party (Gagasan Sejahtera ally)5020.0000
United Sabah AllianceSabah People's Hope Party37,7080.310New
Homeland Solidarity Party21,3610.181New
Sabah Progressive Party6,0900.0500
Sabah People's Unity Party2,0160.020New
Love Sabah Party8,6030.070New
Socialist Party of Malaysia3,7820.030New
Parti Rakyat Malaysia2,3720.020New
Malaysian United Party2,1020.020New
State Reform Party1,2990.0100
Sabah Native Co-operation Party1,1730.010New
Parti Rakyat Gabungan Jaksa Pendamai1,0050.010New
Penang Front Party8920.010New
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak Baru5380.000New
Parti Bumi Kenyalang3920.000New
People's Alternative Party3020.000New
Valid votes12,082,43198.24
Invalid/blank votes217,0831.76
Total votes12,299,514100.00
Registered voters/turnout14,940,62482.32
Source: Election Commission of Malaysia

By state[edit]

State /
federal territory
Barisan Nasional Pakatan Harapan + Warisan Gagasan Sejahtera Other / Independent
Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ± Votes % Seats % ±
Johor 581,662 38.6 8 31 -1813 819,518 54.4 18 69 2013 105,375 6.99 0 0 0 818 0.05 0 0 0
Kedah 282,273 30.0 2 13 -178 362,256 38.5 10 67 96 295,413 31.4 3 20 82 360 0.04 0 0 0
Kelantan 320,384 39.1 5 36 0 101,136 12.3 0 0 0 393,450 48.0 9 64 0 5373 0.65 0 0 0
Malacca 157,339 38.1 2 33 -82 218,415 52.9 4 67 122 35,733 8.65 0 0 0 1415 0.34 0 0 0
Negeri Sembilan 179,518 36.1 3 38 -52 267,951 53.9 5 63 62 49,478 9.95 0 0 0 302 0.06 0 0 0
Pahang 285,912 43.2 9 64 -41 204,965 30.9 5 36 62 170,605 25.8 0 0 -21 976 0.15 0 0 0
Penang 177,631 22.5 2 15 -81 543,298 68.8 11 85 81 65,005 8.24 0 0 0 3191 0.40 0 0 0
Perak 395,355 33.2 11 46 Decrease1 597,901 50.3 13 54 55 193,551 16.3 0 0 -12 2460 0.21 0 0 0
Perlis 46,885 38.8 2 67 Decrease1 46,194 38.2 1 33 Increase1 27,701 22.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sabah 335,587 39.8 10 40 -1612 416,455 51.2 14 56 511 13,295 1.58 0 0 0 75,611 0.09 1 3.34 11
Selangor 427,443 20.8 2 9 -73 1,312,053 63.8 20 91 57 312,898 15.2 0 0 -124 3527 0.17 0 0 0
Terengganu 252,461 40.7 2 25 -72 59,834 9.64 0 0 -11 308,252 49.7 6 75 53 0 0 0 0 0
Sarawak Sarawak 462,090 52.5 19 61 -76 381,863 43.4 10 32 54 10,591 1.20 0 0 0 3234 0.37 2 0 52
Kuala Lumpur WP Kuala Lumpur 153,945 22.1 0 0 -72 486,974 69.9 10 100 62 54,569 7.83 0 0 0 1019 0.15 0 0 0
Labuan WP Labuan 10,164 47.6 1 100 0 8,714 40.8 0 0 0 1,555 7.28 0 0 0 925 4.33 0 0 0
Putrajaya WP Putrajaya 12,148 49.5 1 100 0 8,776 35.7 0 0 0 3,634 14.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 4,080,797 35.6 79 32.9 -754 5,615,822 45.56 122 54.9 655 2,051,188 16.99 18 8.11 -124 99,211 0.82 3 1.35 53


  Pakatan Harapan (55.86%)
  Barisan Nasional (35.59%)
  Gagasan Sejahtera (8.10%)
  Other / Independent (0.44%)

Seats that changed allegiance[edit]

No. Seat Previous Party (2013) Current Party (2018)
P002 Perlis Kangar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P004 Kedah Langkawi Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P005 Kedah Jerlun Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P006 Kedah Kubang Pasu Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P008 Kedah Pokok Sena Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P011 Kedah Pendang Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P012 Kedah Jerai Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P013 Kedah Sik Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P014 Kedah Merbok Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P018 Kedah Kulim-Bandar Baharu Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P034 Terengganu Setiu Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P040 Terengganu Kemaman Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS)
P053 Penang Balik Pulau Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P057 Perak Parit Buntar Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P059 Perak Bukit Gantang Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Barisan Nasional (UMNO)
P062 Perak Sungai Siput Socialist Party of Malaysia Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P063 Perak Tambun Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P077 Perak Tanjong Malim Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P088 Pahang Temerloh Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P089 Pahang Bentong Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P093 Selangor Sungai Besar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P094 Selangor Hulu Selangor Barisan Nasional (MIC) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P096 Selangor Kuala Selangor Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P101 Selangor Hulu Langat Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P108 Selangor Shah Alam Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P111 Selangor Kota Raja Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P113 Selangor Sepang Gagasan Sejahtera (PAS) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P115 Kuala Lumpur Batu Pakatan Harapan (PKR) Independent
P118 Kuala Lumpur Setiawangsa Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P119 Kuala Lumpur Titiwangsa Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P129 Negeri Sembilan Kuala Pilah Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P133 Negeri Sembilan Tampin Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P135 Malacca Alor Gajah Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P136 Malacca Tangga Batu Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P140 Johor Segamat Barisan Nasional (MIC) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P141 Johor Sekijang Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P142 Johor Labis Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P143 Johor Pagoh Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P144 Johor Ledang Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P146 Johor Muar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P149 Johor Sri Gading Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P151 Johor Simpang Renggam Barisan Nasional (GERAKAN) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P158 Johor Tebrau Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P159 Johor Pasir Gudang Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P160 Johor Johor Bahru Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P161 Johor Pulai Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (AMANAH)
P165 Johor Tanjung Piai Barisan Nasional (MCA) Pakatan Harapan (BERSATU)
P169 Sabah Kota Belud Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P171 Sabah Sepanggar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P173 Sabah Putatan Barisan Nasional (UPKO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P174 Sabah Penampang Pakatan Harapan (PKR) WARISAN
P175 Sabah Papar Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P179 Sabah Ranau Barisan Nasional (UPKO) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P180 Sabah Keningau Barisan Nasional (PBS) United Sabah Alliance (STAR)
P181 Sabah Tenom Barisan Nasional (UMNO) Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P185 Sabah Batu Sapi Barisan Nasional (PBS) WARISAN
P188 Sabah Silam Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P189 Sabah Semporna Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P190 Sabah Tawau Barisan Nasional (PBS) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P191 Sabah Kalabakan Barisan Nasional (UMNO) WARISAN
P192 Sarawak Mas Gading Barisan Nasional (PDP) Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P198 Sarawak Puncak Borneo Barisan Nasional (PBB) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P203 Sarawak Lubok Antu Barisan Nasional (PRS) Independent
P205 Sarawak Saratok Barisan Nasional (PDP) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P209 Sarawak Julau Barisan Nasional (PRS) Independent
P214 Sarawak Selangau Barisan Nasional (PRS) Pakatan Harapan (PKR)

Members of the 13th Parliament who lost reelection in the 2018 election[edit]

No. Constituency Departing MP First elected Party
P004 Langkawi Nawawi Ahmad 2013 BN (UMNO)
P005 Jerlun Othman Aziz 2013
P006 Kubang Pasu Mohd Johari Baharum 2004
P011 Pendang Othman Abdul 1986
P012 Jerai Jamil Khir Baharom 2013
P013 Sik Mansor Abd Rahman 2013
P018 Kulim-Bandar Baharu Abd. Aziz Sheikh Fadzir 2013
P040 Kemaman Ahmad Shabery Cheek 2004
P053 Balik Pulau Hilmi Yahya 2004
P093 Sungai Besar Budiman Mohd Zohdi 2016
P096 Kuala Selangor Irmohizam Ibrahim 2013
P118 Setiawangsa Ahmad Fauzi Zahari 2013
P119 Titiwangsa Johari Abdul Ghani 2013
P129 Kuala Pilah Hasan Malek 2004
P133 Tampin Shaziman Abu Mansor 1999
P144 Ledang Hamim Samuri 2004
P146 Muar Razali Ibrahim 2004
P149 Sri Gading Aziz Kaprawi 2013
P160 Johor Bahru Shahrir Abdul Samad 1978
P161 Pulai Nur Jazlan Mohamed 2004
P169 Kota Belud Abdul Rahman Dahlan 2008[nb 1]
P175 Papar Rosnah Abdul Rashid Shirlin 2004
P188 Silam Nasrun Mansur 2013
P191 Kalabakan Abdul Ghapur Salleh 2004
P077 Tanjong Malim Ong Ka Chuan 2008 BN (MCA)
P089 Bentong Liow Tiong Lai 1999
P142 Labis Chua Tee Yong 2008
P165 Tanjung Piai Wee Jeck Seng 2008
P173 Putatan Markin Marcus Mojigoh 2004 BN (UPKO)
P179 Ranau Ewon Ebin 2013
P094 Hulu Selangor Kamalanathan Panchanathan 2009 BN (MIC)
P140 Segamat Subramaniam Sathasivam 2004
P076 Teluk Intan Mah Siew Keong 1999 BN (GERAKAN)
P151 Simpang Renggam Liang Teck Ming 2008
P190 Tawau Mary Yap Kain Ching 2013 BN (PBS)
P192 Mas Gading Anthony Nogeh Gumbek 2013 BN (PDP)
P209 Julau Joseph Salang Gandum 1999 BN (PRS)
P152 Kluang Liew Chin Tong 2008[nb 2] PH (DAP)
P036 Kuala Terengganu Raja Kamarul Bahrin Shah Raja Ahmad 2013 PH (AMANAH)
P059 Bukit Gantang Idris Ahmad 2013 GS (PAS)
P088 Temerloh Nasrudin Hassan 2013[nb 3]
P101 Hulu Langat Che Rosli Che Mat 2008
P062 Sungai Siput Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj 2008 PSM


Pakatan's victory triggered nationwide celebrations, marking the end of a 61-year rule by Barisan Nasional (and preceding Alliance Party).[153] Mahathir Mohamad was sworn in as the Prime Minister on the night of 10 May at the Istana Negara by Yang di Pertuan Agong Muhammad V, triggering more nationwide celebrations.[154]

Defections and state government formations[edit]

The general election resulted in a hung parliament in the 60-seat Sabah State Legislative Assembly, after Barisan Nasional and the Warisan-Pakatan pact both won 29 seats in the election. This made the Homeland Solidarity Party (STAR) as the 'kingmakers', as the party won two state seats, giving them the power to give either bloc the mandate to form the state government. Considering that STAR is an opposition party, it was wildly expected for them to support a Warisan-led government. However, the party's leadership chose to support a Barisan government instead, sparking mass protests across the state by opposition supporters.[155] As such, Barisan Nasional, with the support of STAR, formed the next Sabah state government, with Musa Aman chosen as Chief Minister.[156] However, the formation of government did not last long after one of Barisan's component parties, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (now United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation; UPKO), which won five state seats, withdrew from the coalition and announced support for a Warisan-led government in Sabah.[157] Warisan president, Shafie Apdal, was later sworn in as the new Sabah Chief Minister the day after.[158] On the same day, another Sabah-based Barisan Nasional component party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), also announced their withdrawal from the coalition, citing their poor performance in the election, losing in every constituency they contested in.[159]

The day afterwards, another two Sabah-based Barisan Nasional component party, the United Sabah People's Party (PBRS) and the United Sabah Party (PBS), also announced that they had left Barisan. PBRS stated that they would seek an alliance with Pakatan Harapan and would apply for membership in the ruling party coalition,[160] while PBS stated that they are seeking to form a new Sabah-based coalition, compromising of all Sabah Opposition parties.[161] In 2020, after vowing for new coalitions, made for all Sabah-based parties, the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS) finally created to take over Shafie's WARISAN+ government, having secure simple majority under Hajiji Noor, former Sabah UMNO member.

Meanwhile, the general election also resulted in a hung parliament in the 59-seat Perak State Legislative Assembly, in which Pakatan won 29 seats, two short of a majority, while Barisan and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) each won 27 and 3 seats. This would mean neither of the three parties would have enough seats to form the Perak state government.[151] PAS proposed the formation of a unity government compromising of all sides in the State Legislative Assembly, but was rejected by Pakatan.[162] However, Pakatan succeeded in forming the state government after two Barisan assemblymen announced their support for Pakatan to form the state government,[163] thus ending the hung parliament status-quo. Their action resulted in the two assemblymen having their UMNO membership dropped,[164] meaning they would have to stand as an Independent in the Perak State Legislative Assembly. Perak Pakatan chairman, Ahmad Faizal Azumu, was later sworn in as the new Menteri Besar of Perak on 12 May.[165]

On the same day, three Johor BN assemblymen announced that they had left the coalition to join PPBM. Their defection gives Pakatan a total of 39 seats, giving them a two-thirds majority in the 56-seat State Legislative Assembly.[166] Subsequently, two Independent MPs, Lubok Antu MP, Jugah Muyang, and Julau MP, Larry Sng Wei Shien, announced that they had joined PKR.[167] Jugah Muyang won in a three-cornered fight against both Barisan and PKR, while the latter was endorsed by Pakatan against Barisan Nasional.[168] A third Independent MP, Prabakaran Parameswaran, who won in the constituency of Batu, announced that he had joined PKR in the day afterwards, thus increasing Pakatan's total tally in the Dewan Rakyat to 125.[169] He was endorsed by Pakatan Harapan during the general election after the coalition's original candidate, Tian Chua, was disqualified from contesting due to a RM2,000 fine.[170] On the following day, an Independent Perak assemblyman, Zainol Fadzi Paharudin, who was one of the two Barisan assemblymen who had their UMNO membership dropped for supporting a Pakatan government, announced that he had joined PPBM,[171] His defection from Barisan to Pakatan increases the coalition's tally in the Perak State Legislative Assembly to 30 seats, enough to form a simple majority.

On 19 May the disputed president of the People's Progressive Party (myPPP), M. Kayveas, declared that the party had left Barisan Nasional.[172] However, Kayveas' statement was denied by the party's deputy secretary-general, Simon Sabapathy, who insisted that the party was still part of the coalition and that Kayveas' announcement was invalid as he was no longer the president of the party,[173] after he was supposedly sacked by the party on April.[174] This resulted in a party leadership crisis, as the party's leadership was split between the party's former president, M. Kayveas, who's pursuing to make the party leave Barisan, and the party's current president, Maglin Dennis D'Cruz, who wants the party to remain in Barisan. Eventually, Kayveas won the struggle, and announced that myPPP had left Barisan.[172] The party would eventually be de-registered by the Registrar of Societies in January 2019, amid the leadership dispute.[175]

Nearly a month after the General Election, on 12 June, another four BN component parties, the United Bumiputera Heritage Party (PBB), the Sarawak People's Party (PRS), the Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP) and the Progressive Democratic Party (PDP) announced their withdrawal from Barisan Nasional and the formation of a new Sarawak-based coalition, the Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS).[10] The four parties altogether had 19 seats in the Dewan Rakyat and 72 seats in the 82-seat Sarawak State Legislative Assembly, thus decreasing Barisan's seat tally even further. Two weeks later, on 24 June, the Malaysian People's Movement Party (Gerakan) became the latest party to leave Barisan Nasional.[176]

The election resulted in a mass defection of UMNO MPs from the party, mostly becoming independents, some eventually changing their alliance and joining PH. On 24 June, the MP of Bagan Serai, Noor Azmi Ghazali, announced his withdrawal from the coalition to become an Independent Member of Parliament, and expressed interest to join the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (PPBM), a component party of Pakatan Harapan.[177] Three days later, UMNO's Bukit Gantang MP, Syed Abu Hussin Hafiz Syed Abdul Fasal, announced his departure from the party to also become an Independent Member of Parliament.[178] Further on 1 July, UMNO's Masjid Tanah MP, Mas Ermieyati Samsudin left the party to become an Independent Parliamentarian after disappointment with the party's election result.[179] Two more defections occurred in the month of September. UMNO's Jeli MP, Mustapa Mohamed, left the party on 18 September,[180] proceeded by UMNO's Kimanis MP, Anifah Aman,[181] the day after. On 11 October, UMNO's Labuan MP, Rozman Isli, left the party and joined Warisan, citing for the benefit of Labuan.[182] Another series of defections occurred in December. On 12 December, five Sabah UMNO MPs and nine of the state assemblypersons left the party to become independents, pledging support for Pakatan.[183] On 14 December, six UMNO MPs, Hamzah Zainudin (Larut), Ikmal Hisham Abdul Aziz (Tanah Merah), Abdul Latiff Ahmad (Mersing), Rosol Wahid (Hulu Terengganu), Mohd Fasiah Mohd Fakeh (Sabak Bernam) and Shabudin Yahaya (Tasik Gelugor) altogether left the party due to disappointment with UMNO's current leadership.[184] The series of defections and parties withdrawing from Barisan Nasional leaves the coalition with only three component parties, UMNO, MCA and MIC (the original three parties that formed the Alliance Party), a decrease of ten parties from the 13 they had prior to the election, and 40 seats, a substantial decrease from the 79 seats they won in the election, with the formations of Sarawak-based GPS in 2018 and Sabah-based GRS in 2020, separately governing both states.

Party leadership changes[edit]

After facing a defeat in the election, losing nearly a third of its seats in the Dewan Rakyat, former Prime Minister Najib Razak announced his resignation as president of UMNO and chairman of Barisan Nasional on 12 May.[185] Party deputy president Ahmad Zahid Hamidi took over the role as acting president of UMNO and chairman of Barisan Nasional, while vice-president Hishammuddin Hussein took over the duties of acting deputy president and deputy chairman of Barisan.[186] Najib's resignation resulted in a party leadership election, in which seven candidates eyed to become the party's new president. The result was that Zahid won the party leadership elections. He and former Negeri Sembilan Menteri Besar Mohamad Hasan are now president and vice president of UMNO respectively.[187]

2020 political crisis[edit]

PH government, however, served just 22 months before the take over of administration by PN, led by Muhyiddin Yassin, who was sworned in as the 8th Prime Minister on 1 March 2020. This came after PH lost its majority in the Dewan Rakyat following the withdrawal of Muhyiddin's party PPBM from PH, as well as defection of MPs led by Azmin Ali from PKR.[188][189] Change in government of states of Johor, Malacca and Perak, followed suit. Kedah, on the other hand, is still governed by PH in spite of PPBM's withdrawal from PH until 17 May 2020 when PN took over of state government.[190][191][192][193]

Popular culture[edit]

  • Rise: Ini Kalilah was a 2018 Malaysian political drama film based on the actual events on 9 May 2018 in the aftermath of the 14th General Election.[194][195]
  • The election is also the subject of the 2019 documentary film M for Malaysia.


  1. ^ Contested in Sepanggar
  2. ^ Contested in Ayer Hitam
  3. ^ Contested at Indera Mahkota

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ People's Justice Party and Democratic Action Party
  2. ^ Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front
  3. ^ Pakatan Harapan contested under the PKR logo as their logo was not approved by the Registrar of Societies


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External links[edit]

Official websites[edit]

Other websites[edit]