Talk:Contemporary Native American issues in the United States

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Section on Public Health[edit]

Hello, please take a look at what I've got so far for public health and give feedback to what you guys think!

Public Health: Native Americans show high mortality rates due to illnesses such as diabetes, mental health, and alcoholism at far higher rates than the rest of the population.[1]


Alcoholism: Alcohol abuse is widespread in Native American communities. Native Americans use and abuse alcohol and other drugs at younger ages, and at higher rates, than that of all other ethnic groups. Consequently, their age-adjusted alcohol-related mortality rate is 5.3 times greater than 51 The Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s National Household Survey on Drug Abuse reported the following for 1997: 19.8 percent of Native Americans ages 12 and older reported using illegal drugs that year, compared with 11.9 percent for the total U.S. population. Native Americans had the highest prevalence rates of marijuana and cocaine use, in addition to the need for drug abuse treatment.

Consequences of Alcoholism Native Americans and Whites have the highest rates of Driving Under the Influence (DUI). A 2007 study conducted by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) reports that 13.3% of Native Americans report past-year DUI.[2]

Of 1660 people from seven Native American tribes, the lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence ranged from 21%-56% for men and 17%-30% for women among all tribes. Physical and sexual abuse significantly increased the chances of alcohol dependence for men. Sexual abuse and boarding school attendance increased the odds of alcohol dependence among women.[3] Native Americans, especially women, are at high risk for alcohol-related trauma, such as rape and assault.[4]

Unintentional injuries due to Alcoholism: Unintentional injuries account for the third leading cause of death for Native Americans and the leading cause of death for Native Americans under 44 years old. Unintentional injuries include motor vehicle crashes, pedestrian-related motor vehicle crashes, drowning, and fire-related injuries. From 1985 to 1996, 1,484 Native American children died in motor vehicle crashes, which is twice the rate for white children.[5]

National estimates of alcohol-related motor vehicle deaths show that Native Americans have a 250% higher death rate compared to the US population.[6]

Diabetes: Native Americans have some of the highest rates of diabetes in the world, specifically Type 2 diabetes. Although mostly diagnosed in adults, children are increasingly being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes as well. Type 2 diabetes may be manageable through healthy eating, exercising, oral medication, or insulin injections.[7]

A study published in Environmental Health Perspectives found that the prevalence of diabetes found in Native Americans of the Mohawk Nation was 20.2% due to traces of pesticides in food sources, where elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HBC were associated. Mirex did not have a connection.[8]


Obesity

Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. There is an increased risk for adults, where Native Americans are 2.3 times more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes.[9] Obesity is prevalent in Native American communities, as these communities are usually rural and do not have access to grocery markets. Instead, the nearest stores are gas-stations,[10] carry-outs, and fast-food restaurants[11] which carry more unhealthy, processed foods rather than produce.Stores selling produce and other healthy foods are typically 30 miles or more away from reservations. [12]


Mental health:

Native Americans are at high risk for mental disorders. The most prevalent concerns due to mental health include substance abuse, suicide, depression, anxiety, and violence. High rates of homelessness, incarceration, alcohol and drug abuse, and stress and trauma in Native American communities might attribute to the risk. According to The Surgeon General's report, the U.S. mental health system is not equipped to meet the needs of Native Americans. Moreso, the budget constraints of the Indian Health Service allows only basic psychiatric emergency care.[13]


Major cardiovascular disease:

Heart disease accounts for the number one cause of death among Native Americans, causing them to have twice the rate of cardiovascular disease than the US population. High rates of diabetes, high blood pressure, and risk factors (unhealthy eating and sedentary lifestyle) contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease.[14]


Cancer:

Studies have indicated that there is are fewer cases of cancer in Native Americans than other ethnic groups. However, cancer is prevalent in Native Alaskan women and Native American women as the leading and second leading cause of death, respectively. Death rates are 70% of that for whites, indicating that the ratio of death by cancer to new cancer cases is the highest for Native Americans compared to other ethnic groups.[15]

However, data collected from cancer cases are limited. Regardless, experts have suggested that Native Americans experience cancer differently than other ethnic groups. This can be due to genetic risk factors, late detection of cancer, poor compliance with recommended treatment, the presence of concomitant disease, and lack of timely access to diagnostic and/or treatment methods.

Jjgotshwifty (talk) 08:21, 4 April 2018 (UTC)

References

  1. ^ Young, T. Kue (1997). "Recent Health Trends in the Native American Population". Population Research and Policy Review. 16 (1–2): 147–167. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  2. ^ Chartier, Karen; Caetano, Raul (2009). "Ethnicity and Health Disparities in Alcohol Research". National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  3. ^ Koss, M.P.; Yuan, N.P.; Dightman, D. (2003). "Adverse childhood exposures and alcohol dependence among seven Native American tribes". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 25 (3): 238–244. PMID 14507531. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  4. ^ Wahab, S.; Olson, L. (2004). "Intimate partner violence and sexual assault in Native American communities". Trauma Violence and Abuse. 5 (4): 353–366. doi:10.1177/1524838004269489. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  5. ^ UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS (2004). "Broken promises: evaluating the Native American health care system". Washington, DC, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: 14. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  6. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC) (2009a). "Alcohol and suicide among racial/ethnic populations: 17 states, 2005-2006". MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 58 (23): 637–641. PMID 19543198. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  7. ^ UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS (2004). "Broken promises: evaluating the Native American health care system". Washington, DC, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  8. ^ Codru, Neculai; et, al. (2007). "Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans". Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (10): 1442–1447. doi:10.1289/ehp.10315. Retrieved 2018. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  9. ^ O’Connell, J; Yi, R; Wilson, C; Manson, SM; Acton, KF (2010). "Racial disparities in health status: a comparison of the morbidity among American Indian and U.S. adults with diabetes". Diabetes Care. 33 (7): 1462–1470. doi:https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-1652 Check |doi= value (help). Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  10. ^ McKinnon, RA; Reedy, J; Handy, SL; Rodgers, AB (2009). "Measurement of the food and physical activity environments: enhancing research relevant to poly on diet, physical activity, and weight". American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 36 (6): 181–190.
  11. ^ Larson, NI; Story, M; Nelson, MC (2009). "Neighborhood environments: disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S." American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 36 (1): 74–81. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.09.025 Check |doi= value (help). Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  12. ^ Gittlesohn, J; Dyckman, W; Tan, ML; et, al. (2006). "Development and implementation of a food store-based intervention to improve diet in the Republic of the Marshall Islands". Health Promotion Practice. 7 (4): 396–405. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  13. ^ Services, Office of the Surgeon General, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2003). "Culture, Race, and Ethnicity—A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General". Retrieved March 20, 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS (2004). "Broken promises: evaluating the Native American health care system". Washington, DC, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: 15. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  15. ^ UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS (2004). "Broken promises: evaluating the Native American health care system". Washington, DC, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Retrieved March 20, 2018.

Ideas[edit]

I think this article should have a part that focuses on suicide and obesity. These two issues have become very pressing and there is a lot of peer reviewed sources about both these topics. I think a starting point for both of the articles would be to compare the numbers found for each individual topic and compare it to the national average, indicating a big discrepancy. Romildcp (talk) 15:40, 7 October 2015 (UTC)



Hello, I think it would be a great idea to talk about the Affordable Care Act and Indian Health Service. There's a peer-reviewed article that talks about the two, and how the Indian Health Services is underfunded and lacking support for Native Americans. It also provides the historical development of Native American health care that we could expand upon. I can write how ACA is potentially a way to help improve Native American health, but the author [1] argues that ACA reforms are “potential supplements to an underfunded HIS” (41). I will reference this argument. • I can write about the outcomes of ACA and how it will benefit Native health, but I’m not sure if it should stay in this article or in the ACA article with a Native American section. I can reference racial and ethnic bias and discrimination, and socioeconomic status which serve as limiting factors to contributions to health disparities. There are also articles talking about the randomized ACA implementation in Oregon, which we could use to see how ACA affected the people who enrolled in the program and perhaps compare it to the effects ACA has on the Native population. Let me know what you guys think! Jjgotshwifty (talk) 02:36, 22 February 2018 (UTC)


Hi, I'm going to start a section on the environmental justice of indigenous peoples in the USA. I think I'm going to put it under 'societal discrimination and racism'. If there's a better article to put it in, or a better way to organize it, let me know or go for it yourself. Health effects pending. Birdclub (talk) 23:09, 25 February 2018 (UTC)

References

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Trauma[edit]

Given that there are no sections which speak about Historical Trauma, Intergenerational Trauma, or trauma in general, I am adding a section titled Trauma with the subsections of Historical trauma, Impacts of intergenerational trauma, and Solutions. I will summarize the following references

Braveheart-Jordan, M., & DeBruyn, L. (1995). So She May Walk in Balance: Integrating the Impact of Historical Trauma in the Treatment of Native American Indian Women. In J. Adleman & G. M. Enguidanos (Eds.), Racism in the Lives of Women: Testimony, Theory, and Guides to Antiracist Practice (pp. 345-366). Binghamton, New York: Harrington Park Press.

Cole, N. (2006). Trauma and the American Indian. In T. M. Witko (Ed.), Mental Health Care for Urban Indians: Clinical Insights from Native Practitioners (pp. 115-130). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Coyhis, D., & Simonelli, R. (2008). The Native American Healing Experience. Substance Use & Misuse, 43. 1927-1949. doi: 10.1080/10826080802292584

Grayshield, L., Rutherford, J. J., Salazar, S. B., Mihecoby, A. L., & Luna, L. L. (2015). Understanding and Healing Historical Trauma: The Perspectives of Native American Elders. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 37(4). 295-307. doi: 10.17744/mech.37.4.02

Myhra, L. L. (2011). “It runs in the family”: Intergenerational Transmission of Historical Trauma Among Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives in Culturally Specific Sobriety Maintenance Programs. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 18(2). 17-40. National Center for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research.

Myhra, L. L., & Wieling, E. (2014). Psychological Trauma Among American Indian Families: A Two-Generation Study. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 19. 289-313. doi: 10.1080/15325024.2013.771561

Paul, T. M., Lusk, S. L., Becton, A. B., & Glade, R. (2017). Exploring the Impact of Substance Abuse, Culture, and Trauma on American Indian Adolescents. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 48(1). 31-39.

Weaver, H., & Congress, E. (2010). The Ongoing Impact of Colonization: Man-made Trauma and Native Americans. In A. Kalayjian & D. Eugene (Eds.), Mass Trauma and Emotional Healing Around the World: Rituals and Practices for Resilience and Meaning-Making (pp. 211-226). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Willmon-Haque, & S., Bigfoot, D. S. (2009). Violence and the Effects of Trauma on American Indian and Alaska Native Populations. In R. Geffner, D. Griffin & J. Lewis III (Eds.), Children Exposed to Violence: Current Issues, Interventions, and Research (pp. 48-63). New York: Routledge.

Historical trauma[edit]

will give a definition and provide with two examples, Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 and Dawes Allotment Act of 1887. 

Impacts of intergenerational trauma[edit]

will show death rates of American Indian youth, sources of substance and alcohol abuse, boarding school, and the shame factor. 

Solutions[edit]

will describe differences in Western worldviews and American Indian worldviews, as well as culturally specific mental health practices.  

In addition, I will post a summary of these contributions to the Native Americans in the United States article by creating a subsection titled Trauma under the Contemporary issues section.

KyleMasonVance (talk) 23:27, 11 August 2017 (UTC)

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Proposed Revisions[edit]

Here is a summarized proposal of revisions I intended to make to this article. Below is a list of works I intend to use in my contributions and research. - I will rearrange the article's sections (moving "Trauma" after "Societal Discrimination and Racism" and moving "Terminology" after "Demographics") to improve the flow of content in the article. - I will substantially contribute to the lead section in order to provide the background of the article that Wikipedia's standards require. - I will substantially contribute to the "Trauma" section through examples, further explanation of historical and intergenerational trauma, sources, and sourced contextual information. This is to improve the reliability and the readability of the article's content. - I will might also create a new section in this article entitled "Spirituality." This section would provide information to a substantial issue in the Native American community that has previously been ignored. - Throughout the entire article, I will delete unnecessary details and quotes to keep the article concise, rearrange paragraphs and sentences within sections to improve the flow of ideas, and rephrase some existing material to better neutralize the article's tone.


Works Cited

Culture and PTSD : Trauma in Global and Historical Perspective. Eds. Byron Good and Devon E. Hinton. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016. Print.

Ethnocultural Perspectives on Disaster and Trauma Foundations, Issues, and Applications. Ed. Anthony J. Marsella, et al. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2008. Print.

Fonda, Marc. "Towards Cultural Well-being: Implications of Revitalising Traditional Aboriginal Religion." Canadian Issues / Thèmes Canadiens (2009): 73-8. Web.

Handbook of Race and Development in Mental Health. Eds. Edward C. Chang and Christina A. Downey. 1st ed. ed. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2012. Print.

Johnson, Troy, and Johnson. "Suicide and Native American Spirituality." Encyclopedia of Religious and Spiritual Development. Eds. Elizabeth M. Dowling and W. George Scarlett. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, 2006. Web.

Lajimodiere, Denise. "A Healing Journey." Wicazo Sa Review 27.2 (2012): 5-19. Web.

Limb, Gordon E., and David R. Hodge. "Utilizing Spiritual Ecograms with Native American Families and Children to Promote Cultural Competence in Family Therapy." Journal of marital and family therapy 37.1 (2011): 81-94. ProQuest Central, Research Library. Web.

Martins, Renata, et al. "Anxiety Disorders in Ethnic Minorities." Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, 2006. Web.

Martins, Renata, et al. "Native Americans." Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, 2006. Web.

Menzies, Peter. "Understanding Aboriginal Intergeneration Trauma from a Social Work Perspective." The Canadian Journal of Native Studies 27.2 (2007): 367-92. Ethnic NewsWatch, ProQuest Central. Web.

Nascimento, Leonardo. "Historical Trauma." Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Ed. Patrick L. Mason. Farmington, MI, USA: Gale, 2013. Web.

Press, Associated. "Arizona Tribe: Ruling could Help Native Students Across US." St.Louis Post-Dispatch (MO), 2018, NewsBank. Web.

Stockel, H. H. Historical Trauma among the Apaches at Mescalero. 50 Vol. Manhattan, Kan., et cetera,: Journal of the West], 2011. Print.

SBaylor (talk) 18:31, 20 November 2018 (UTC)