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Is one of the ideas of internalization that we become our parents? No matter how much we may try to fight it when we're young, or how much we may deny it, are we a product, a direct reproduction, of our parents?

I definitely think so. Starting from the gender socialisation, for instance when preschool school boys can be allowed to room farther away from home to preschool girls, so is the concept when we are older. The father has the responsibility to travelling and visiting friends or relatives at farthest rates to that of women.

This also implies to the sexual division of labour, so to say. From the early childhood, it is noted young boys copy or imitate those roles done by by the male parent and so does the young daughter copy those from her mother.

I n summation i can say it is to alarger extent to say that the ideas of internalization one of the ideas that we become our parents..


I'm not making changes on the main page because I just dropped by casually. But I think the definition here misses an important point: Internalization is often about the acceptance of personal responsibility. We INTERNALIZE when we take responsibility for our own actions and the consequences of them. We EXTERNALIZE when it is all someone else's fault. This definition stresses the Freudian use of the word -- accurately, I think. But it does not include more modern uses of the term -- especially the one I mentioned. I'd like to see one of the "regulars" add to this. 00:26, 28 December 2006 (UTC)

I, too, dropped by casually, and had the same thoughts. The main way I've heard the word "internalize" used has more to do with empathy, and being willing and able to put yourself in another's shoes, particularly those who have to cope with the consequences of your actions.

There appears to be a repetitive use of "did not" in the following sentence found in paragraph six, "In contrast, the moral self did not did not appear to mediate the link between children’s history of empathy toward the parents and future adaptive and competent functioning." I am not sure what the intent was. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 19:20, 30 November 2012 (UTC)

Internalisation in economics[edit]

Internalisation in economics has yet another, very different meaning: internalisation of externalities. E.g. for a positive externality like knowledge spillover the capture of externalities by means of patents, and for negative externalities like pollution a "polluter pays" tax. In both cases, it is a mechanism to incent an economic actor to do or to refrain from things that cause positive or negative external effects.

I leave it to a genuine economist and/or a native English speaker to update the article. Rbakels (talk) 06:55, 31 May 2011 (UTC)

I support the addition of this meaning, it is usage that is widespread. RobbieIanMorrison (talk) 13:59, 16 September 2016 (UTC)


I am editing this page for my assingment jenn1967Jenn1967 (talk) 22:03, 3 October 2012 (UTC)

Changes I plan to implement are 1) I am going to describe& discuss a related empirical article: Kochanska, G. (2002). Committed Compliance, Moral Self, and Internalization: A Mediational Model.. Developmental Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 3, 339-351 2) I am going to insert a link to a related topic, and 3) I am going to expand, clarify and use a citation in the first paragraph. jenn1967 Jenn1967 (talk) 11:15, 4 October 2012 (UTC)

Internalization involves the integration of attitudes, values, standards and the opinions of others into one’s own identity or sense of self. In psychoanalytic theory, internalization is a process involving the formation of the super ego Many theorists believe that the internalized values of behavior implemented during early socialization are key factors in predicting a child’s future moral character. The self-determination theory a motivational continuum from the extrinsic to intrinsic motivation and autonomous self -regulation. Some research suggests a child’s moral self starts to develop around age three These early years of socialization may be the underpinnings of moral development in later childhood. Proponents of this theory suggest that children whose view of self is “good and moral” tend to have a developmental trajectory toward pro-social behavior and few signs of anti-social behavior In one child developmental study, researchers examined two key dimensions of early conscience – internalization of rules of conduct and empathic affects to others – as factors that may predict future pro social, adaptive and competent behavior. The researchers hypothesized that a young child will come to see his or her own moral self from a cumulative result of memories of his or her own experiences of compliance with parental rules and empathy of others. Consequently, the children who view themselves positively in this regard may serve as an inner moral compass for future pro-social. Thus, the child’s moral self mediates the link between the history of early conscience or internalization and future adaptive, competent and pro-social behavior.
Data was collected from a longitudinal study of children, from two parent families, at age 25, 38, 52, 67 and 80 months. Children’s internalization of each parent’s rules and empathy toward each parent’s simulated distress were observed at 25, 38 and 52 months. For example, to test the child’s internalization of their mothers’ and fathers’ rules the child was shown a low shelf of attractive toys and prohibited from playing with them. The child was then left alone for 8 minutes and through a two way mirror was observed as either 1) looking at the toys, 2) sorting, gently touching, self-correcting, and/or 3) deviating (playing with the toys). To show empathic concern to mothers’ and fathers’ distress the parents were given a script and pretended that the child had hit his or her finger while the child played with a pounding block toy. The parent then simulated distress or pain. The child’s expression was then coded as 1= not salient to 3= very salient. Their moral self was measured in a puppet interview at 67 months, for example, one puppet said, “When I break something, I tell someone right away” while the other puppet responded, “When I break something, I try to hide it so no one finds out.” The child was then asked, “What about you?” Parents and teachers rated their adaptive, competent, pro-social behavior and anti-social behavior at 80 months. The researchers found that first, both the history of his or her the child’s early internalization of parental rules and the history of his or her empathy predicted the children’s competent and adaptive functioning at 80 months, as rated by parents and teachers. Second, children with stronger histories of internalization of parental rules from 25 to 52 months perceived themselves as more moral at 67 months. However, the history empathy had no effect on their perceived moral self. Third, the children that showed stronger internalization from 25 to 52 months came to see themselves as more moral and “good.” These self- perceptions, in turn, predicted the way parents and teachers would rate their competent and adaptive functioning at 80 months. In contrast, the moral self did not did not appear to mediate the link between children’s history of empathy toward the parents and future adaptive and competent functioning. Why were the links between internalization rules and future behavior a stronger and more significant predictor of future behavior than empathy and future outcomes? The authors suggest their coding system did not differentiate well between sympathy and personal distress. Future research could further test mediators between internalization and future behavior. This study would suggest that there is a strong link past integration and internalization of moral self and future competence, adaptive and pro-social behavior.

[1] Corsini, R. (1999). The Dictionary of Psychology, USA: Taylor & Francis.

[2] Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behaviour. New York, N.Y: Plenum Press.

[3] Emde, R. N., Biringen, Z., Clyman, R. B. & Oppenheim, D. (1991). The Moral Self of Infancy: Affective Core and Procedural Knowledge. Developmental Review, 11, 251-270.

[4] Kochanska, G., Koenig, J., Barry, R., Kim, S. & Yoon, J. (2010). Children’s Conscience During Toddler and Preschool Years, Moral Self, and a Competent, Adaptive Developmental Trajectory. Developmental Psychology. Vol. 46, No. 5, 1320-1332. Jenn1967Jenn1967 (talk) 18:12, 4 November 2012 (UTC)

Dr. Vitale's comment on this article[edit]

Dr. Vitale has reviewed this Wikipedia page, and provided us with the following comments to improve its quality:

This is an entry I have little to say. It does not really fall into my area of expertise.

We hope Wikipedians on this talk page can take advantage of these comments and improve the quality of the article accordingly.

We believe Dr. Vitale has expertise on the topic of this article, since he has published relevant scholarly research:

  • Reference : Vitale, Paolo, 2006. "A Market Microstructure Analysis of Foreign Exchange Intervention," CEPR Discussion Papers 5468, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

ExpertIdeasBot (talk) 20:26, 24 September 2016 (UTC)