The Society Portal
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences, a larger society often exhibits stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups.
Societies construct patterns of behavior by deeming certain actions or speech as acceptable or unacceptable. These patterns of behavior within a given society are known as societal norms. Societies, and their norms, undergo gradual and perpetual changes.
Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would otherwise be difficult on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology.
More broadly, and especially within structuralist thought, a society may be illustrated as an economic, social, industrial or cultural infrastructure, made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people have with the material world and with other people, rather than "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment.
is generally defined as a political philosophy
which holds the state
to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful, or, alternatively, as opposing authority
or hierarchical organization
in the conduct of human relations. Proponents of anarchism, known as "anarchists", advocate stateless societies
based on non-hierarchical voluntary associations
. There are many types and traditions of anarchism, not all of which are mutually exclusive. Anarchist schools of thought
can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have been divided into the categories of social
and individualist anarchism
or similar dual classifications. Anarchism is often considered a radical left-wing
ideology, and much of anarchist economics
and anarchist legal philosophy
interpretations of communism
, or participatory economics
. However, anarchism has always included an individualist strain
, egoist strain
, and free market strain
. Some individualist anarchists are also socialists
, while some anarcho-communists are also individualists. Anarchism as a mass social movement
has regularly endured fluctuations in popularity. The central tendency of anarchism as a social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism
, with individualist anarchism
being primarily a literary phenomenon which nevertheless did have an impact on the bigger currents and individualists have also participated in large anarchist organizations. Most anarchists oppose all forms of aggression
, supporting self-defense
), while others have supported the use of some coercive
measures, including violent revolution
and propaganda of the deed
, on the path to an anarchist society.
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Anniversaries this month
(1858–1928) was a political activist and leader of the British suffragette
movement. Although she was widely criticised for her militant tactics, her work is recognised as a crucial element in achieving women's suffrage in Britain
. She became involved with the Women's Franchise League
, which advocated suffrage for women. When that organisation broke apart, she joined the left-leaning Independent Labour Party
through her friendship with socialist Keir Hardie
. After her husband died in 1898, Pankhurst founded the Women's Social and Political Union
, an all-women suffrage advocacy organisation dedicated to "deeds, not words". The group quickly became infamous when its members smashed windows and assaulted police officers. Pankhurst, her daughters, and other WSPU activists were sentenced to repeated prison sentences, where they staged hunger strikes to secure better conditions. Eventually arson
became a common tactic among WSPU members, and more moderate organisations spoke out against the Pankhurst family. With the advent of World War I
, Pankhurst called an immediate halt to militant suffrage activism, in order to support the British government against the "German Peril". They urged women to aid industrial production, and encouraged young men to fight.
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