The Hum is a phenomenon, or collection of phenomena, involving widespread reports of a persistent and invasive low-frequency humming, rumbling, or droning noise not audible to all people. Hums have been widely reported by national media in the UK and the United States. The Hum is sometimes prefixed with the name of a locality where the problem has been particularly publicized: e.g., the "Bristol Hum" or the "Taos Hum". It is unclear whether it is a single phenomenon; different causes have been attributed. In some cases, it may be a manifestation of tinnitus.
The essential element that defines the Hum is what is perceived as a persistent low-frequency sound, often described as being comparable to that of a distant diesel engine idling, or to some similar low-pitched sound for which obvious sources (e.g., household appliances, traffic noise, etc.) have been ruled out. There are a number of audio reproductions of the Hum available on the web, as well as at least one purported recording.
Other elements seem to be significantly associated with the Hum, being reported by an important proportion of hearers, but not by all of them. Some people hear the Hum only, or much more, inside buildings as compared with outdoors. Some perceive vibrations that can be felt through the body. Earplugs are reported as not decreasing it. For those who can hear the Hum, it can be a very disturbing phenomenon and it has been linked to at least three suicides in the UK  and one attempted suicide in the US.
A study into the Taos Hum indicated that at least two percent could hear it; each hearer at a different frequency between 32 Hz and 80 Hz, modulated from 0.5 to 2 Hz. Similar results have been found in an earlier British study. It seems to be possible for hearers to move away from it, with one hearer of the Taos Hum reporting its range was 48 km. There are approximately equal percentages of male and female hearers. Age does appear to be a factor, with middle aged people being more likely to hear it.:43
In 2006 Tom Moir, then of Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand, believes he has made several recordings of the Auckland Hum. His previous research using simulated sounds had indicated that the hum was around 56 hertz. The Taos Hum was between 32 and 80 hertz.
There is skepticism as to whether it exists as a physical sound. In 2009, the head of audiology at Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, David Baguley, said he believed people's problems with the hum were based on the physical world about one-third of the time, and stemmed from people focusing too keenly on innocuous background sounds the other two-thirds of the time. His current research focuses on using psychology and relaxation techniques to minimise distress, which can lead to a quieting or even removal of the noise.
Geoff Leventhall, a noise and vibration expert, has suggested cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in helping those affected. "It's a question of whether you tense up to the noise or are relaxed about it. The CBT was shown to work, by helping people to take a different attitude to it."
There has been little mainstream attention. Only a handful of articles have been published in scientific literature, including: Leventhall, 2004, 2003; Cowan, 2003; Mullins & Kelly, 1998, 1995; Broner, 1978; Vasudevan & Gordon, 1977. Others publications include: Fox, 1989; Wilson, 1979; Hanlon, 1973.
The Hum has been reported worldwide. It has also been acknowledged, notably on December 8, 2017, by a member of the Canadian Parliament, who stated that her constituents from the southern city of Windsor had been complaining about the Hum coming from the US. The Windsor hum was described as "droning, industrial" in a USA Today source.
Although an obvious candidate, given the common description of the hum as sounding like a diesel engine, the majority of reported hums have not been traced to a specific mechanical source.
In the case of Kokomo, Indiana, a city with heavy industry, the origin of the hum was thought to have been traced to two sources. The first was a 36-hertz tone from a cooling tower at the local DaimlerChrysler casting plant and the second was a 10-hertz tone from an air compressor intake at the Haynes International plant. After those devices were corrected, however, reports of the hum persisted.
Two hums have been linked to mechanical sources. The West Seattle Hum was traced to a vacuum pump used by CalPortland to offload cargo from ships. After CalPortland replaced the silencers on the machine, reports of the hum ceased. Likewise, the Wellington Hum is thought to have been due to the diesel generator on a visiting ship. A 35 Hz hum in Windsor, Ontario, is likely to have originated from a steelworks on the industrial zone of Zug Island near Detroit.
One hum in Myrtle Beach, SC was suspected of originating at a Santee Cooper substation almost 2 miles away from the home of a couple who first reported it. The substation is home to the largest transformer in the state. One local couple sued the power company for the disruption the hum was causing them. The hum was louder inside their house than out, in part, they believed, because their house vibrated in resonance to the 60 Hz hum. The volume of the hum was measured at up to 64.1 db in the couple's home. Santee Cooper, along with the company that constructed the substation, SPX, denied that they were in any way responsible for the hum. After 18 months, the hum stopped. This was the same time that Santee Cooper went online with an additional substation located 1 mile away, diverting some power from the first substation suspected of causing the hum.
A suggested diagnosis of tinnitus, a self-reported disturbance of the auditory system, is used by some physicians in response to complaints about the Hum. Tinnitus is generated internally by the auditory and nervous systems, with no external stimulus. However, the theory that the Hum is actually tinnitus fails to explain why some hearers report that the Hum can be heard only at certain geographical locations.
While the Hum is hypothesized by some to be a form of low frequency tinnitus such as the venous hum, some report it is not internal, being worse inside their homes than outside. However, others insist that it is equally bad indoors and outdoors. Some people notice the Hum only at home, while others hear it everywhere they go. Some sufferers report that it is made worse by soundproofing (e.g., double glazing), which serves only to decrease other environmental noise, thus making the Hum more apparent.
Tinnitus is known to be exacerbated by allergens, which are regional and seasonal. Due to blockages, inflammation, and pressure inside the head, taking allergy medicine may help to mitigate the Hum.
Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions
Human ears generate their own noises, called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE). Various studies have showed that 38–60% of adults with normal hearing have them, although the majority are unaware of these sounds. The people who do hear these sounds typically hear a faint buzzing or ringing, especially if they are otherwise in complete silence.
Researchers who looked at the Taos Hum considered otoacoustic emissions as a possibility.
One of the possible causes of the West Seattle Hum considered was that it was related to the midshipman fish, also known as a toadfish. A previous hum in Sausalito, California, also on the west coast of the United States, was determined to be the mating call of the male midshipman. However, in that case the hum was resonating through houseboat hulls and affecting the people living on those boats. In the West Seattle case, the University of Washington researcher determined that it would be impossible for any resonating hum, transmitted via tanker or boat hulls, to be transmitted very far inland; certainly not far enough to account for the reports.
The Scottish Association for Marine Science hypothesised that the nocturnal humming sound heard in Hythe, Hampshire in the UK could be produced by a similar "sonic" fish. The council believed this to be unlikely because such fish are not commonly found in inshore waters of the UK. As of February 2014 the source had not been located, although the sound has now been recorded.
The Windsor Hum was covered by The New York Times in 2018.
In popular culture
- In a 1998 episode of The X-Files titled "Drive", Agent Mulder speculates that extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves "may be behind the so-called Taos Hum".
- In 2018, Criminal Minds involved a case of the Hum in Taos.
- In 2010, the Fringe Episode Johari Window involved a city where a constant hum was audible.
- German radio drama Gabriel Burns involves a constant hum that can only be recorded by electronic devices and is caused by the last Leviathan.
In 2017, scientists published a study in Geophysical Research Letters under the title "First Observation of the Earth’s Permanent Free Oscillations on Ocean Bottom Seismometers."  The team led by Martha Deen, a geophysicist at the Paris Institute of Earth Physics, collected data in the Indian Ocean near Madagascar. The team cleaned the data of ocean currents, waves, glitches and other noise, obtaining the first-ever underwater recording of the hum. It peaked between 2.9 and 4.5 millihertz — narrowing in on results recorded in the 1990s, also similar to measurements taken from a land-based station in Algeria.
- Schumann resonance, global electromagnetic resonance at extremely low frequencies
- List of unexplained sounds
- Sonic weapon
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- Cowan, J. P. (October 2003). "The Kokomo Hum investigation" (PDF). Acentech Project No. 615411. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Accentech Incorporated. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-10.
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- Vasudevan, R. N.; Gordon, C. G. (1997). "Experimental study of annoyance due to low frequency environmental noise". Applied Acoustics. 10 (1): 57–69.
- "Low-frequency 'hum' may permeate the environment". New Scientist. 9 December 1989. p. 27.
- "Can some people hear the jet stream?". New Scientist. 8 November 1973. pp. 415–416.
- "Question Period December 8 2017". CPAC. 8 December 2017. Event occurs at 24:15.
- (USA Today)
- "Expert says hum is not a sound". Kokomo Tribune. 3 June 2004. pp. 1&12.
- "'The Hum' followup: CalPortland installs second silencer, hopes that's the fix". West Seattle Blog. 7 December 2012.
- "Wellington hum disappears". 3 News. 16 October 2012.
- "Singapore's frigate 'Stalwart' source of Wellington hum?". 3 News. 11 October 2012.
- "Report: Windsor Hum Likely From Zug Island "Blast Furnace Operations"". windsoriteDOTca. 23 May 2014.
- "Question of noise: Couple blame electrical substation for medical issues". Charleston Post & Courier. 25 May 2013.
- "Myrtle Beach area couple's suit says Santee Cooper substation caused medical issues". My Horry News. 15 April 2014.
- "Lawsuit over Santee Cooper substation in Carolina Forest moves to federal court". My Horry News. 22 April 2014.
- "What's that terrible noise?". The Independent. 22 June 1994.
- "Tinnitus". American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery.
- "Expert has the answer to Woodland village hums". The Advertiser Series. 23 August 2011.
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- Abrams, M. (October 1995). "An Inescapable Buzz". Discover Magazine. p. 20.
- "In Taos, Researchers Can Hum It, but They Can't Name That Sound". LA Times. 1 September 1993.
- "Seattle 'Hum' May Be Due To Midshipman Fish That Produce Sound For Mating". The Huffington Post. 7 September 2012.
- "Humming Toadfish Are the Buzz of Sausalito". NBC. 16 June 1986.
- "West Seattle's now-famous 'Hum': Apparently NOT a fish's fault". West Seattle Blog. 11 September 2012.
- "Mystery hum keeping people awake may be love-making fish". The Daily Telegraph. 23 October 2013.
- "Southampton Water mystery droning prompts more moaning". BBC News. 24 October 2013.
- "Minutes of a meeting of the New Forest Environmental Protection Liaison Committee" (PDF). New Forest District Council. 7 February 2014. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2014.
- Unsolved Mysteries: Ghosts (DVD). First Look Studios. 2005.
- "Spooky! The Top 10 Unexplained Phenomena". LiveScience. 10 January 2007.
- "There's A Kind of Hum". Punt PI. BBC Radio 4. 13 Aug 2016.
- "Episodes to download: There's A Kind of Hum". Punt PI. BBC Radio 4. 13 Aug 2016.
- Mele, Christopher (19 February 2018). "There's a Persistent Hum in This Canadian City, and No One Knows Why". New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- "In A Tiny English Town, A 'Hum' Pierces Each Night". NPR. 15 June 2011.
- "Drive". Ten Thirteen Productions. The X-Files. November 15, 1998. Event occurs at 40:00.
- "First Observation of the Earth's Permanent Free Oscillation s on Ocean Bottom Seismometers". Geophysical Research Letters. 14 November 2017.
- "Scientists are slowly unlocking the secrets of the Earth's mysterious hum". The Washington Post. 8 December 2017.
- Moorhouse, Andy; Waddington, David; Adams, Mags (February 2005). "Procedure for the assessment of low frequency noise complaints" (PDF). Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford.
- The World Hum Map and Database Project A project which aims to document for research purposes the locations and self-reported data on this phenomenon