North American Leaders' Summit
|North American Leaders' Summit|
The North American Leaders' Summit (NALS), sometimes called the Three Amigos Summit in the popular press, is the trilateral annual summit between the Prime Minister of Canada, the President of Mexico, and the President of the United States. The summits were initially held as part of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP), a continent-level dialogue between the three countries established in 2005, and continued after SPP became inactive in 2009.
The most recent North American Leaders' Summit was hosted by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on June 29, 2016 at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Trudeau hosted US President Barack Obama and Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto. The three leaders discussed a shared commitment to LGBT rights (with Trudeau highlighting their importance after the recent attack on a gay nightclub in Orlando), renewable energy development, and free trade. The leaders also announced the creation of a North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership and associated action plan. The 2016 summit was the first and last time all three of the leaders met, as Trudeau had just been elected in November 2015 and Obama's term as president ended in January 2017 with the swearing in of Donald Trump. Trudeau described the meeting as "friendly, as you might expect among friends, but also a little poignant".
Until 2009, the summits were held as part of the wider Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America. There are no fixed dates for the summits and in some years a summit has not been held for varying reasons.
|2005||United States||March 23||Waco, Texas||George W. Bush|
|2006||Mexico||March 31||Cancún, Quintana Roo||Vicente Fox|
|2007||Canada||August 20–21||Montebello, Quebec||Stephen Harper|
|2008||United States||April 21–22||New Orleans, Louisiana||George W. Bush|
|2009||Mexico||August 8–11||Guadalajara, Jalisco||Felipe Calderon|
|2010||No meeting held[notes 1]|
|2011||No meeting held[notes 2]|
|2012||United States||April 2||Washington, D.C.||Barack Obama|
|2013||No meeting held|
|2014||Mexico||February 19||Toluca, State of Mexico||Enrique Peña Nieto|
|2015||No meeting held[notes 3]|
|2016||Canada||June 29||Ottawa, Ontario||Justin Trudeau|
|Prime Minister of Canada||President of the United States||President of Mexico|
|George W. Bush
|2013||Enrique Peña Nieto
- Bilateral relations
- Trilateral relations
- North American Free Trade Agreement
- Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, predecessor to NALS
- North American Union, a theoretical economic and political union of the three countries
- A planned 2010 summit in Wakefield, Quebec was postponed and later cancelled by Stephen Harper.
- The planned November 13, 2011 summit in Honolulu, Hawaii was cancelled by Barack Obama after the death of Mexican Foreign Minister Francisco Blake Mora and several other Mexican government officials in a helicopter crash
- The planned 2015 summit in Canada was postponed and later cancelled by Stephen Harper over tensions with the administration of Barack Obama over the Keystone XL oil pipeline
- Cheadle, Bruce (April 3, 2012). "Three Amigos summit not so chummy". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Potter, Mitch (April 2, 2012). "Analysis: Stephen Harper faces tricky terrain during ‘Three Amigos' summit". Toronto Star.
- Horsley, Scott (June 29, 2016). "Obama To Meet Mexican-Canadian Counterparts In Ottawa". Morning Edition. NPR. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "North American Leaders' Summit (NALS)". North American Commercial Platform. International Trade Administration, US Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "President Bush to Attend North American Leaders' Summit in Canada". News Archive. Office of the White House Press Secretary. June 15, 2007. Archived from the original on January 20, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Baril, Sophie-Anne; Cicchitelli, Ernesto (July 1, 2016). "Three Amigos Convene Again: The 2016 North American Leaders’ Summit". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Canada hosts North American Leaders’ Summit". News Releases. Office of the Prime Minister of Canada. June 29, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Reilly, Katie (June 29, 2016). "Read the Remarks From the ‘Three Amigos’ Summit Press Conference". Time. New York, NY.
- "Leaders’ Statement on a North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership". News Releases. Office of the Prime Minister of Canada. June 29, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Stephen Harper postpones North American Leaders' Summit to late 2015". CBC News. January 15, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
"There is no fixed time of year for the three leaders to meet. Dates for the summit have been prone to change. The three countries rotated hosting duties between 2005 and 2009, but in 2010, Canada postponed a meeting that had been scheduled to be held in Wakefield, Que., and then did not host it at all... There was no summit in 2013.
- Fekete, Jason (November 12, 2011). "Tragic deaths force cancellation of Three Amigos summit in Hawaii". Ottawa Citizen. Postmedia News. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Proudfoot, Shannon (June 28, 2016). "A cheat sheet for the Three Amigos summit". Maclean's. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
Harper cancelled the 2015 summit amid mounting tension with the U.S. over the Keystone XL pipeline, which Obama ultimately rejected