United Nations Security Council Resolution 425
|UN Security Council|
|Date||19 March 1978|
|Security Council composition|
United Nations Security Council Resolution 425, adopted on March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in the context of Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon and the Lebanese Civil War, called on Israel to withdraw immediately its forces from Lebanon and established the United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL). It was adopted by 12 votes to none; Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union abstained, and China did not participate.
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U.N. Security Council Resolution 425 was issued five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon on March 14, 1978, in what was referred to as Operation Litani.
The stated objective of the Operation Litani was to clear out the PLO bases located inside Lebanon, south of the Litani River, in order to better secure northern Israel and to support the Christian Lebanese militias on the course of the Civil War - most notably the Free Lebanon Army.
Following Lebanese government claims, the United Nations, driven by the United States, began seeking a peacekeeping force for the area that Israel had occupied in order to bring about a withdrawal of the Israeli forces, and to reintroduce the authority of the Lebanese government in southern Lebanon.
These efforts culminated in Resolution 425, during the 2074th meeting of the United Nations Security Council on March 19, 1978. That led to the formation of UNIFIL, the objective of which was to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area.
The resolution text
The Security Council,
Taking note of the letters from the Permanent Representative of Lebanon and from the Permanent Representative of Israel, Having heard the statement of the Permanent Representatives of Lebanon and Israel, Gravely concerned at the deterioration of the situation in the Middle East and its consequences to the maintenance of international peace, Convinced that the present situation impedes the achievement of a just peace in the Middle East,
- Calls for strict respect for the territorial integrity, sovereignty and political independence of Lebanon within its internationally recognized boundaries;
- Calls upon Israel immediately to cease its military action against Lebanese territorial integrity and withdraw forthwith its forces from all Lebanese territory;
- Decides, in the light of the request of the Government of Lebanon, to establish immediately under its authority a United Nations interim force for Southern Lebanon for the purpose of confirming the withdrawal of Israeli forces, restoring international peace and security and assisting the Government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area, the Force to be composed of personnel drawn from Member States;
- Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council within twenty-four hours on the implementation of the present resolution.
The first UNIFIL troops arrived in Lebanon on March 23, 1978, just four days after the resolution was passed. Israel withdrew its forces by June 1978.
Later, Israel resumed occupation in a larger-scale invasion in June 1982, in which Israeli troops allied with the Lebanese Christian forces and occupied the capital city of Beirut in 1982 Lebanon War.
In May 2000, more than 22 years after resolution 425 was passed, Israel withdrew its troops from southern Lebanon. Prior to the withdrawal, opposition voices inside Israel pressured the government to withdraw from Lebanon, as they saw no valid reason to stay there and sustain Lebanese attacks.
The UN Secretary-General concluded that, as of June 16, 2000, Israel had indeed withdrawn its forces from Lebanon, in accordance with resolution 425 (1978). The border recognized by the UN is known as the "Blue Line".
Some Lebanese parties (most notably Iranian proxy Hezbollah), however, claim that Israel is still keeping Lebanese land under its occupation, mainly in Shebaa Farms. Israel says, and the UN agrees, that Shebaa Farms is Syrian and not Lebanese, and therefore it is not included under resolution 425.
Lebanese Republic had not extended control over south Lebanon, though it was called on to do so by UN Resolution 1391 as of 2002, and urged by UN Resolution 1496 of 2003. Israel has lodged multiple complaints regarding Lebanon's conduct.
- Blue Line
- History of Lebanon
- List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 401 to 500 (1976–1982)
- South Lebanon Army
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 426
- 18 Jun 2000] SC/6878: Security Council Endorses Secretary-General's Conclusion on Israeli Withdrawal from Lebanon as of 16 June
- Security Council Resolutions - 2002
- Resolution 1496 (2003)
- "A/56/898-S/2002/345 of 3 April 2002". Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2004.