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This is an experimental page where I work on long term editing issues. At any given time, the information may be incomplete, incorrect, or scrambled. It almosty always contains fragments from several articles.

[1] [2]

Etymology (Red Panda)[edit]

Another name used in English is Firefox. It is said that this is the literal translation of the Chinese name for Red Panda,[3][4][5] though this is disputed.[6] In Chinese the Panda is 熊猫 (xióng māo, or "bear cat").[7] The Red Panda is 小熊猫 (xiǎo xióng māo, "small bear cat),[8] or 红熊猫 (hóng ​xióng​ māo, "red bear cat"​),[9] and "firefox" (火狐, or huǒ hú) refers to the Firefox browser,[9][10][11] or "Red Fox"[12].

Many local names are attributed to this species including Fire Cat,[13], Bear-cat, Bright Panda, Common Panda, Red Cat-Bear, Sankam, Thokya, Wokdonka, Woker and Ye.[14]

The old Chinese designation of Red Panda as “fire fox“
The term firefox, as used to describe the Red Panda, has been propagated by its use in the web browser Mozilla Firefox. Although the browser logo depicts a fox with a fiery tail rather than a Red Panda, in early 2005 the Mozilla Store was selling toy stuffed Red Pandas to promote the browser name change from Firebird with the release of Firefox 1.0.
In May 2005, the Red Panda gained a surge of popularity in Japan when a panda named Futa (風太) living in the Chiba Animal Park was found to be able to stand on his hind legs like a human for up to 30 seconds at a time. Not to be outdone, another zoo, the Yokohama Zoo Zoorasia in Yokohama soon found another "gifted" red panda within their confines, Dale (デ???ル) who was capable of walking a considerable distance bipedal. While both of the standing pandas have gained the species many fans in Japan, both the Asahiyama Zoo in Asahikawa, Hokkaido and the World Wide Fund for Nature have expressed concern that the increased commercialism of this species may be putting too much burden on the animals. Futa was featured in a commercial for the Japan Tobacco cigarette company.
the red panda (sometimes known to the Chinese as the "firefox")

Notes & references:

  • Full name of Cuvier publication: "Histoire naturelle des mammiferes, avec des figures originales, coloriees, dessinees d'apres des animaux vivans"
Ref. from WikiSpecies: In E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and F. G. Cuvier, Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères, pt. 4, 5(50): "Panda" 3 pp., 1 pl..
Note that ths claims to be a four volume set, but Wikimedia has the alleged cover of volume 6 here: Volume 6 cover
To embed the image in HTML: <a href="" title="[Carnivores] Panda. Digital ID: 106776. New York Public Library"><img src="" alt="[Carnivores] Panda. Digital ID: 106776. New York Public Library" title="[Carnivores] Panda. Digital ID: 106776. New York Public Library"></a>
"NYPL Digital Gallery provides free and open access to over 700,000 images digitized from primary sources and printed rarities in the vast collections of The New York Public Library, including drawings, illuminated manuscripts, historical maps, vintage posters, rare prints and photographs, illustrated books, printed ephemera, and more."
WebSite Terms and conditions
  • Miles S. Roberts and John L. Gittleman 1984. Ailurus fulgens, Mammalian Species, American Society of Mammologist, No. 222, pp. 1-8, 4 figs.

From Giant Panda Article

There is no conclusive source for the origin of the Anglicized name "panda." The closest candidate that has been accepted as the source originates in the Nepali word ponya, possibly referring to the adapted wrist bone. The Western world originally applied this name to the Red Panda. Until 1901, when it was erroneously stated that it was related to the Red Panda, the Giant Panda was known as "mottled bear" (Ailuropus melanoleucus) or "particolored bear."[15]

In most encyclopedic sources, the name "panda" or "common panda" originally referred to the lesser-known Red Panda,[16] thus necessitated the inclusion of "giant" and "lesser/red" prefixes in front of the names. Even now, Encyclopaedia Britannica still uses "giant panda" or "panda bear" for the bear [17] and simply "panda" for the Ailuridae,[18] despite the popular usage of the word "panda" today.

From Red Panda: The Fire Cat article: [19]

The first known written record of the red panda occurs in a 13th-century Chou dynasty scroll. But it wasn’t until some six centuries later that red pandas became known to Europeans. And Major General Thomas Hardwicke’s 1821 presentation of "Description of a New Genus... from the Himalaya Chain of Hills between Nepaul (sic) and the Snowy Mountains" to the esteemed Linnaean Society of London is regarded as the moment the red panda became a bona fide species in Western science. Hardwicke called the animal "Wha" because "It is frequently discovered by its loud cry or call, resembling the word ‘Wha,’ often repeating the same..." He also mentioned several other local names, including "poonya," which was eventually anglicized to "panda."

It may be poetic justice that Hardwicke received only partial credit for his "find." Hardwicke was delayed in returning to England from India with his specimens and, under the rules of taxonomic nomenclatural priority, was scooped by the ubiquitous French naturalist Frederic Cuvier, who gave the Wha its official scientific name: Ailurus fulgens, the "fire-colored cat." Perhaps we should be grateful the aristocratic Cuvier crossed the finish line first. He provided an elegant Latin name, christened Hardwicke’s Wha "the Bright Panda," and described it as "a beautiful species, one of the handsomest of known quadrupeds." However, British scientists saw it otherwise. They were incensed that Cuvier would "prevent England’s reaping the zoological harvest of her own domains," as irate British naturalist Brian Hodgson sputtered in 1847.

For almost five decades, Ailurus fulgens was the panda. Then, in 1869, a large black and white bearlike animal with teeth and diet remarkably similar to those of the Wha was discovered in China by Pere Armand David, a French missionary. This animal was dubbed "giant panda." Instantly, Ailurus fulgens became the "lesser" panda, a pejorative name that has been all but dropped in favor of the more apt and dignified red panda. In retrospect, the application of the same name to both species was prematurely based on superficial anatomical similarities and only fueled the controversy about how closely related these two species really are. Today scientists are still struggling to untangle the taxonomic knot that these unfortunate baptisms helped create.

What's in a Name? naming the Giant Panda.

[1] More Giant Panda.

Panda pornography[edit]

Panda pornography (or Panda porn) refers generally to pornographic movies created to promote sexual arousal in captive Giant Pandas. Under zoo conditions, the animals have in general proven unenthusiastic about mating, placing their species in danger of extinction.

The method was popularized following reports of an experiment performed by zoologists in Thailand, in which they showed several captive Giant Pandas at Chiang Mai Zoo a number of pornographic videos featuring other Giant Pandas.[20][21] Though the researchers behind the project state that they believe in a successful mating due to usage of pornographic movies for animals, such success so far has not been achieved outside of China,[22] where 31 cubs were born over a ten month period following commencement of the experiment.

Other methods, including the use of Viagra, to stimulate pandas have thus far been unsuccessful.[23]

Theory (Conservation Breeding)[edit]

In breeding domestic animals and pets, the purpose of the breeding program is generally to fix certain traits in into the breed. In conservation breeding, the goal is exactly the opposite -- preserve as much diversity in the species as possible for as long as possible. Since humans continue to take up more space, thus decreasing the natural habitat available to the animals, it is likely that animal habitat will continue to decrease until the human population peaks and starts to decrease. Current accepted goals, though not ideal, are to preserve 90% of the diversity in a population for 200 years. Although the number of individuals required for managing this varies with the species (mostly due to differences in the time between generations), it is generally accepted that 500 individuals would suffice.

Controversies (Conservation Breeding)[edit]

Another problem with captive breeding is the amount of habitat loss that occurs during the time of breeding. This makes release of species unviable because there is no habitat left to support larger populations. Since release is the ultimate goal of captive breeding, habitat loss defeats the purpose. Funds being used for captive breeding could be used for preserving wild populations and their habitat. The Sumatran Rhino will not survive purely in captivity and loss of habitat is a major factor to their extinction. If their habitat disappears, captive populations as well as wild ones will disappear along with it[26].

Challenges (Captive Breeding)[edit]

Impacts of captive breeding include behavioral problems in released animals and lack of conservation of habitats being destroyed while a species is being bred. Behavioral problems include not being able to hunt or forage for food leading to starvation. Released animals do not avoid predators and are not able to find ample shelter for themselves so they die as a result. When a species is born in captivity and released into the wild they are not able to survive because they lack these skills. Golden Lion Tamarin mothers often die in the wild before their having offspring because they do not have climbing and foraging skills they need to survive. This results in populations continuing to decline despite reintroduction because the species does not have the skills to produce viable offspring[27].

Captive breeding is a good solution for saving species regardless of the viability of its future. If you ignore one species because it isn’t viable to save it, this will have a cascading effect and cause humans to not save other species as well. It is also important to save species for educational purposes. If a zoo contains a species that is no longer in the wild, this will serve as a reminder of extinction of other species, and hopefully prevent other extinctions from happening because of human conservation efforts. This is beneficial for future generations to enjoy future populations of endangered animals.

Etymology (Arabian Oryx)[edit]

  • Ultimate Ungulate[28]

Walker's Mammals of the World. p1175-1178.

Some authors consider Arabian Oryx and the only other beisalajejaOryx gazella species subspecies [29] but for example, Mammal Species of the World and Integrated Taxonomic Information System classify it as their right. [30] [31]

Yoyogi Park[edit]

What is now Yoyogi Park was the site of the first successful powered aircraft flight in Japan, on December 19, 1910, by Captain Yoshitoshi Tokugawa, following which it became an army parade ground. During the postwar occupation, it was the site of the Washington Heights residence for U.S. officers. It later was selected as the site for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, and the distinctive Olympic buildings designed by Kenzo Tange are still nearby. In 1967, it was made into a city park. [2]


Tokaido Shinkansen[edit]

Citations in this article are non-existent.

From Tokaido Shinkansen article:

Construction of the line began on 20 April 1959 under JNR president Shinji Sogō and chief engineer Hideo Shima. It was completed in 1964, with the first train travelling from Tokyo to Shin-Ōsaka on 1 October of that year. The opening was timed to coincide with the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, which had already brought international attention to the country. Originally the line was referred to in English as the New Tōkaidō Line. It is named after the Tōkaidō route of Japan used for centuries.

From Tokyo Olympics article:

Tokyo won the rights to the Games on May 26, 1959, at the 55th IOC Session in Munich, West Germany, over bids from Detroit, Brussels and Vienna. retrieved 2010-01-04


<googlemap lat="35.667565" lon="139.700078" type="map" zoom="14" scale="yes" controls="large"> 35.667565, 139.700078, Olympic Arena

Designed by Kenzo Tange. </googlemap> <googlemap lat="35.667565" lon="139.700078" type="satellite" zoom="17" scale="yes" controls="large"> </googlemap>


Yoyogi national Gymnasium (国立代々木競技場)

競技場 kyogijyo (field; stadium; grounds)
体育館 taiikukan (gymnasium)
体操場 taisojyo (gymnasium; drill ground)
稽古場 keikoba (practice hall)


  1. ^ Wang, X., Choudhry, A., Yonzon, P., Wozencraft, C. & Than Zaw (2008). "Ailurus fulgens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  2. ^ Wei, F.; Feng, Z.; Wang, Z.; Hu, J. (1999). "Current distribution, status and conservation of wild red pandas Ailurus fulgens in China". Biological Conservation (89): 285–291.  Abstract retrieved on 2009-09-26
  3. ^ "Red Panda Network: Fun facts". Red Panda Network. 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  4. ^ "Red Pandas". Wellington Zoo. 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  5. ^ [Animals & Exhibits "Animals & Exhibits: Red Panda"] Check |url= value (help). Lincoln Children's Zoo. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  6. ^ "Red Panda". Indopedia. 2004. Retrieved 18 December 2009. 
  7. ^ "The Online Chinese-English English-Chinese Dictionary". 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  8. ^ Denisowksi, Paul. "Chinese-English Dictionary". Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  9. ^ a b "MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary". MDBG. 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  10. ^ "Chinese-English Talking Dictionary". YellowBridge. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  11. ^ "English / Chinese / English Online Dictionary". CIN. 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  12. ^ "Babel Fish". Yahoo. 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference roberts_1992 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ "Animal Info - Red Panda". Retrieved 2009-04-08. 
  15. ^ Alex Hawes and Matthew Huy (2001). "Whats in a Name? Giant Panda". Smithsonian National Zoo. 
  16. ^ "Animal Info – Red Panda". 
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Roberts, M. (1992). "Red Panda: The Fire Cat". Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  20. ^ "'Panda porn' to encourage mating", Narunart Prapanya, CNN, January 25, 2006. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  21. ^ "Panda 'Porn' to Boost Mating Efforts at Thai Zoo", Brian Handwerk, National Geographic, November 13, 2006. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  22. ^ "Panda porn pays off",, retrieved August 17, 2007.
  23. ^ Pandas unexcited by Viagra, BBC News, 9 September 2002. Retrieved August 17, 2007
  24. ^ Macartney, Jane (26 March 2008). "China uses panda porn and sexercise to increase population of national icon". Times Newspaper. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  25. ^ ""Panda Porn" trumped by AI". National Geographics. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  26. ^ Collinge, Sharon. "Captive Breeding" Conservation Biology Class. University of Colorado, Boulder. 19 Oct. 2009. Lecture.
  27. ^ Griffin, Andrea S., Daniel T. Blumstein, and Christopher S. Evans. "Training Captive Bred or Translocated animals to avoid predators." Conservation Biology 14.5 (2000): 1317-326.
  28. ^ Huffman, Brent (2004). "Oryx leucoryx: Arabian Oryx". Ultimate Ungulate. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  29. ^ ((Web reference | Author = National Wildlife Research Center, | Title = Arabian Oryx Conservation in Saudi Arabia, Taxonomy & description | Address = | Date = August 2007 | Editor = NWRC | Read = 14.11. 2009))
  30. ^ ((Web reference | Author = Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder | Title = Mammal Species of the World - Oryx leucoryx | Address = | Date = 2005 | Publisher = Bucknell Univesity | Read = 14.11. 2009))
  31. ^ Network Reference | Author = Integrated Taxonomic Information System | Title = ITIS Standard Report Page Oryx leucoryx | Address = | Date = 2000 | Publisher = ITIS | Read = 14.11. 2009))